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V 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 




UIJIVBKSITY of CALlKOKriiit 

AT 
ij)S ANGELES 

jJl^HARY 



INTERNATIONAL LAl^OUR CONFERENCE 

THIRD SESSION 

OENEVA — OCTOQEJlt 102 1 



TECHNICAL SIMEF 



OF 



AGUICULTURAL QUESTIONS 



HOLHS OF WORK 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

PROTECTION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN 

TECHNICAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 

LIVING-IN CONDITIONS 

RIGHTS OF ASSOCIATION AND COMBINATION 

SOCIAL INSURANCE 




A GENEVA 

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE 
1921 



INTRUNATIONAL LABOLll COM I:III:N(:E 

THIRD SESSION 



TECIIMCAL SlllSVn 



OF 



AGIilCL'LTUIIAL OllESII(I^S 



nor US or woiih 

I WrMrLOYMENT 

piiorrcriox or women and ciiiLDiirx 

rrCllMC. \L A (.HlCALTrRA L EDI l.A I'lOS 

LIVING-IN CONDITIONS 

KliUllS or ASSOlJATlON AND COMniNATlOX 

SOCIAL LSSrUANCE 




GENKVA 
INTERNATIONAL LABOLR OFFICE 

1921 

142164 



i3CS 



^-ro 



~^ 



CONTENTS 



In rnouuci 



PART I 

ADAPTATION OF THK WASHINGTON DECISIONS 
TO AGRICULTURAL LABOUR 

Chapter I 

REGULu^TION OF THE IIOUHS OF WORK 

Introduction • J: 

Austria li 

Chili ' 

Czecho-Slovakia ' 

Denmark ^ 

Ecuador ^~. 

Esthonia }'; 

Finland j" 

(lernianv '"^ 

Great Britain JJ 

Italy -" 

Japan -; 

Norway ^:: 

Poland ~l 

Spain -f 

Sweden •^" 



Chapter II 



MEASURES I OH THE PREVENTION OF OR PROVIDING 
AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT 

Introduction 

A. Employment Service 

Introduction ^" 

Austria \\ 

Belgium V: 

Canada ^ , 

Chili t- 

China "J- 

France J^ 

Germany f.\ 

Great liritain •,*- 

Holland ''-^ 



Hungary 53 

India 54 

Italy 56 

Japan ■ 57 

Norway 58 

Poland • 58 

Sweden 59 

Switzerland 60 

United States . . . ■ 61 

B. Unemployment Insurance 

Tntrodiiclion ■ 63 

Australia ■ 63 

Austria 64 

Belgium 64 

Chiii ..... 65 

nenniark 65 

(lenuany 66 

(ireat Britain 66 

Holland 68 

Italy • 69 

Norway .... 70 

United" States 71 

Conclusion.s 72 

C. Schemes for Sfabilhinfj Employment 

1) Land Settlement : 

Introduction 74 

Australia • • • ■ . . 74 

Canada • . . . 99 

Chili 112 

China 113 

Denmark 113 

Finland • ■ 115 

France ■ 116 

Germany 119 

Great Britain 122 

New Zealand 126 

Norway • 134 

South Africa 139 

Spain 150 

Sweden 152 

United States 156 

2) Co-operative Holding of Land 161 

3) Intensified and Diversified Agriculture 174 

4) Supplementary Employments 175 



Chapter III 

PROTECTION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN 

A. Protection of Women l^efore and after Childbirth 183 

B. Night Work of Women in Agriculture 187 

C. Admission of Children to Emploijment in Agriculture 188 

(1) Canada and the United States ." 188 

(2) European Countries : 228 

(3) Other non-European Countries 264 

D. Night Work of Children in Agriculture 275 



PART II 

SPECIAL MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF AGRICULTURAL 

\\^ORKERS 

Cll.VPTlCH I 
TECHNICAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 

Introduction 279 

Australia 280 

Belgium 283 

Canada and United States 303 

Chili 364 

China 365 

Czecho-Slovakia 365 

Denmark 370 

France 375 

Germany 389 

Great Britain 408 

Holland 417 

Japan 431 

Norway 436 

Poland 439 

South Africa 451 

Spain 452 

Sweden 456 

Switzerland 458 

Chapter II 

LIVING-IN CONDITIONS OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 

Introduction 461 

Belgium • 461 

Chili 466 

Denmark 469 

France 470 

Germany 480 

Great Britain 484 

Italy 498 

Japan 503 

.Sweden 504 

Chapter III 

RIGHTS OF ASSOCIATION AND COMBINATION 

Introduction 511 

Germany and Poland '.'. .... 511 

Hungary 515 

Japan 519 

Sweden 520 



-VI- ^ 

Chapter IV 
protection against accident, sickness, invalidity and old age 

A) Position of Agricultural Labourers 524 

B) Survey of Social Insurance in European Countries : 

Austria 545 

Belgium 551 

Czeo.ho-Slovakia 552 

Denmark 558 

Finland 560 

France 561 

Germany 565 

Great Britain 572 

Holland 575 

Italy 579 

Luxemburg 584 

Norway 588 

Poland 590 

Portugal 593 

Roumania 596 

Spain 600 

Sweden 602 

Switzerland 606 

C) Survey of Social Insurance in Non-European Countries : 

Brazil 608 

Canada 610 

Chili 612 

Japan 612 

United States 615 



INTRODUCTION 



The present survey on agricultural questions marks a ne>v 
departure in the method of preparing reference material for 
the International Labour Conference. The procedure follow- 
ed heretofore has been to send out an exhaustive question- 
naire to all Governments requesting them to prepare and 
send all available information concerning the questions on 
the agenda. The drawbacks connected with this plan were 
keenly felt, especially at the Conference at Genoa, so that for 
the present conference the questionnaire method has been 
used only to ascertain the opinions of Governments on cer- 
tain more or less definite propositions submitted to them. 

The material presented in this survey is largely the result 
of investigations and researches made in the Agricultural 
Section, assisted by the Social Insurance, and the Emigration 
and Employment Sections. The aim has been to set forth 
facts for the assistance of the members of the Conference 
rather than to present conclusions. Primary source materials, 
i. e. legislation. Government reports, collective agreements, 
etc., have been used as far as available. 

Unfortunately the paucity of such material from many coun- 
tries has made it impossible to do justice to all. This ac- 
counts in a large measure for the fact that certain countries 
seem to have been given undue attention while some other 
countries would appear to have been overlooked. For simi- 
lar reasons uniformity of presentation has not been practi- 
cable. The statement of facts submitted in the replies of gov- 
ernments to the questionnaire on agricultural questions, as 
well as special documents prepared by certain countries (Swe- 
den, Japan and Norway) have been found most valuable and 
have been used whenever possible. 

Nothing like an exhaustive treatment of such an immense 
and basic field of industrial activity as agriculture has been 
possible within the time and with the limited resources at 
our disposal. Everj'^ effort, however, has been made not to 
overlook any material which it was thought might throw 
new light on the agricultural questions of the agenda. These 
questions fall into two main groups, those dealing with the 
adaptation of the Washington decisions to agriculture and 



— VIH — 

including the regulation of hours of work, measures for the 
prevention of or providing against unemployment, and the 
protection of women and children; and those dealing with 
special measures for the protection of agricultural workers, 
including technical agricultural education, living-in condi- 
tions, guarantee of the rights of association and combination, 
and protection against accident, sickness, invalidity and old 
age. 

Unlike the questions considered by the Genoa Conference 
or even by the Washington Conference, problems concern- 
ing agricultural workers are of universal interest to all the 
members of the International Labour Organisation. Not only 
is this true but they atfect a larger number of workers in 
almost every country than those engaged in manufactui'ing 
or mining, or lumbering, or commerce, and in a few coun- 
tries more than in all these industries combined. As shown 
by the following table 51.4 per cent of all occupied men 
and boys and 48.7 per cent of all occupied women and 
girls, or 50.6 per cent of all occupied persons, in the leading 
countries of the world (1) are engaged in agriculture. 

The magnitude and importance of agriculture cannot be 
overestimated, not only for the wellbeing of mankind but 
also for the welfare of the niultitudes engaged within the 
industry itself. 



(1) This docs not include the large agricultural population of Russia, China, 
Serbia, lUnigarj', Argentine and Brazil. 





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PART I 



ADAPTATION OF THE WASHINGTOIN DECISIONS 
TO AGRICULTURAL LABOUR 



CHAPTER I. 

REGULATION OF THE HOURS OF WORK 



Introduction 

A short account is given below of the hours of work in agri- 
culture and the manner in which they are determined in a 
number of countries differing widely both in climate and 
general economic conditions. Legislation, collective agree- 
ments and custom all play an important part, and in most of 
the countries dealt with the existing position is the product 
of two or more of these factors. Thus, in Germany, a stand- 
ard prescribed by authority of the State is realised and enforc- 
ed by means of collective agreements. Custom necessarily 
plays a more important part in regulating conditions in agri- 
culture than in other branches of industrj^ and in many coun- 
tries, is still the only influence tending to limit hours of work. 
Even where labour is partly organised, custom remains an 
important factor in countries where there is a large class of 
small farmers working on their own land, and einploying at 
most one or two labourers each. In such countries, whether 
labour is organised or not, the customary hours of work of 
the farmer tend to determine those of the employee, espec- 
ially if, as is often the case, the agricultural labourer lives 
in his employer's house, and shares to a considerable extent 
in the family life. The Eight-Hour Act of Czecho-Slovakia 
recognised the exceptional position of workers living in their 
master's house by excepting them from the Eight-Hours day 
and making special provision for their protection (1). 

An analysis of the existing types of control employed in 



(1) Czccho-Slovakia docs not appear in the present report as the subject has 
be«n exhaustively dealt with in a pamphlet issued by the International Labour 
OlQce entitled « The Eight-Hours Day Act and its Application to Agriculture in 
Czecho-Slovakia ». 



— 4 — 

the regulation of the hours of work in Agriculture gives us 
five main classifications : 

a) Direct regulation by Ihe State, as seen in : Ecuador 

Esthonia, Spain. In Czecho-Slovakia at the time 
when the Eight-Hours Act was passed (December 
1918), the organisation of agricultural workers had 
made little headway. During 1919 and 1920, how- 
ever, it developed with great rapidity, and present 
conditions are now largely regulated by collective 
agreements (1). 

b) Regulation by collective agreement enforced by law 

or in accordance with a standard laid down by the 
State : Austria, Czecho-Slovakia, Germany and 
Poland. 

c) Regulation by collective agreement only : Denmark, 

Italy, Scotland (2), Sweden. 

d) Regulation by Wages Boards consisting of equal 

numbers of representatives of employers and em- 
ployed together with offioial members : Eng- 
land (3). 
e) Regulation by custom; in Chili and Japan 

It will be noted that in few cases a rigid limit is set to the 
number of hours of work allowed. In most countries the limit 
which has been imposed relates to the basic day and the 
amount of overtime which may be worked is not definitely 
prescribed. An attempt, however, has been made in certain 
cases to fix an absolute inaximum. The total amount of over- 
time which might be worked in a year, was limited in Czecho- 
slovakia under the Act of 1918 to 240 hours and in Spain, by 
the Decree of 15 January, 1920, to 120 hours (4). In Ecuador 
no work may be required in excess of the eight hours unless 
the worker consents. There is also a total dailj'^ limit, in Italy, 
although only for a single branch of agriculture, where the 
day's work, including overtime, may not exceed a maximum 
of 10 hours for persons engaged in weeding the rice fields. 

Where no definitive maximum is fixed, whether for the day 
or year, the effectiveness of attempts made to reduce hours 
must depend on the impltied recognition that the basic or nor- 
mal day represents the number of hours that can reasonably 
be demanded and on the imposition of higher or overtime 
rates of wages for all hours in excess of this number. This 



(1) See « The Eight-Hours Day Act and its Application to Agriculture in Czecho- 
slovakia », pages 2b et 74. 

(2) Wages Boards were established in Scotland as in England but in the major- 
ity of cases niiniinum Avages were fixed for « customary hours » and such changes 
as have been made are the result of the joint recommendation of the conference of 
farmers and farm-servants at Perth, in I'ebruary 1919 (See report, page 18). 

(:?) The Act which set up the Wages Boards has now been repealed by the Corn 
Production Acts (Hepeal) Act, which provides for the appointment of conciliation 
committees in their place. 

(4) Tills Decree However was modified by a later Decree which provides for a 
number of exceptions. 



principle is applied in all those countries mentioned in this 
report where overtime is allowed, and was also applied by 
the Wages Boards in England, which, though not primarily 
intended to fix hours, to some extent achieved the same end 
in practise as the regulation of hours in those countries which 
do not go so far as to fix an absolute maximum. Wages 
Boards in Scotland as has been seen, do not in the major 
ity of cases attempt to define overtime. 

While overtime is in most cases not limited, the basic or 
normal duration of work whether for a day or longer period 
is fixed in various ways, among which the following may be 
mentioned : 

(1) Separate determination of the length of a working 
da}"^ for each of a number of periods varying from a month 
to three, four or six months. This inethod appears to be 
the most conmion. Among the countries which have adopted 
it are Denmark, Italy, (for farm servants engaged by the year) 
Esthonia and Finland. 

(2) Determination of the annual total, and also of the 
length of day during each of a number of seasonal periods. 

This method, which is followed in Germany, makes it 
necessary to fix the number of working days and holidays in 
a year. 

(3) Establishment of a day of uniform length throughout 
the year. 

This has been done in Ecuador. It is of course much 
easier to fix a uniform day in countries near the Equa tor than 
in those where hours of daylight are very much shorter in 
winter than in summer. A day of uniform length is also usual 
in the collective agreements fixing hours of employment of day 
workers in Italy. 

A further method of protecting agricultural workers 
against excessive hours of work is seen in the provision of 
the Eight-Hours Act of Czecho-Slovakia relating to workers 
living in the employer's house and permanent farm servants. 
Instead of maximum working hours the Act fixes for these 
workers a minimum period of rest (at least 12 hours in 24). 
A similar provision for this class of workers exists in Spain. 

Provision is also made to secure the agricultural worker 
the benefit of the usual rest days, either by prohibiting work 
on these days except with his own consent, or by fixing a 
higher rate of overtime, in some cases double the ordinary 
wages. Exceptions are allowed both for working days and 
for rest days, in the case of such necessary work as feeding 
and tending live stock. This usually has to be done outside 
ordinary working hours and is not counted as overtime. In 
one case (Esthonia) it is provided that other workers 
shall take a share in this work in rotation in order that 
the persons ordinarily engaged in it may also enjoy free days. 



— 6 — 
Austria (1) 

The hours of work in Lower Austria are regulated by an 
act of the 17th June 1921 (1) which provides as follows : 

The hours of work shall be regulated according to local 
custom and in accordance with the particular duties of the 
employee. 

The actual working time during the year shall average 
10 hours, provided that workers (men and women), who are 
entrusted with the care of animals or permanently with 
household duties shall perform these duties over and above 
the average working hours without any claim to overtime 
payment. 

The arrangement of working hours in the various seasons 
shall be mutually agreed upon or shall be regulated by stand- 
ard contracts between the existing employers' and em- 
ployees' associations. 

The time necessary for the journey from the farm or from 
the workers' dwelling place to work shall not be included in 
the actual working hours or be calculated as overtime Only 
in cases where the journey to work takes more than one hour 
the time in excess shall be calculated according to agreement 
either wholly or partly as actual working time. 

The labourer shall not refuse to perform after normal 
working hours work which is customary in the locality in 
particular seasons of the year or work of such a kind that 
the production might be liable to failure if it were not carried 
out, as, for instance, the bringing-in of the harvest ; he shall 
be entitled to suitable overtime pay in such cases. 

Breaks for rest shall be fixed according to local custom, 
but shall not have the effect of shortening the actual working 
time. 

Overtime. — Overtime shall be worked if required. In 
emergencies overtime may be required even on Sundays and 
holidays or during the night. 

Overtime pay for such extra work may be agreed upon by 
the contracting parties except for household work and for 
the care of animals and milking. 

Sundays and holidays. — Sundays and prescribed holidays 
shall be considered as rest days. On such days only house- 
work and the care of animals and milking may be required 
without special remuneration. Opportunity to attend Divine 
Service once on Sundays and holidays shalU however, not be 
refused. 

Urgent work which cannot be postponed such as harvest 
operations may be carried out on Sundaj^s and holidays at a 
scale of remuneration to be agreed upon accordingly. 

(1) Legislative Series, l'J21, International Labour Office Aus. 2. 



— 7 — 

Ornamental and market gardeners are included within the 
scope of the act respecting the Eight hour day dated the 
17th December 1919. The Decree of the Minister of Social 
Affairs of 2nd August 1920 (1) specifies the cases in which 
exemption to the Eight-Hour Day Act may be allowed in 
ornamental and market gardening. 

(1) Hours of work may be arranged for on a fortnightly 
basis so as not to exceed 120 hours in a fortnight. If hours 
of work exceed 108 in this period, hours in excess of 108 shall 
be paid as overtime. 

(2) Rates of pay for overtime may be fixed by agreements. 



Chili (2) 

The working hours in agriculture are at present deter- 
mined solely by custom, the usual working day, except in 
harvest, being ten hours. During the harvest the day usually 
lasts from sunrise to sunset, i.e. approximately from 5.0. a.m. 
to 7.0. p.m. making fourteen hours per d^y, from which must 
be deducted 1 1/2 hours for lunch and half an hour for 
breakfast, leaving twelve working hours. 

A Bill regulating hours and including agricultural labour 
has been introduced into Congress. The Bill provides that 
the hours of work in agriculture shall not exceed ten hours 
in Spring and Summer, and nine in Winter. Longer hours 
may be fixed by regulation for certain classes of agricultural 
workers, i.e. persons having the care of stock, plantations, etc. 



Czecho-Slovakia 

A study of « the Eight-Hour Law in Agriculture in Czecho- 
slovakia » has been recently completed by the International 
Labour Office, and the report is available under separate 
cover. 



(1) The State Department for Social Welfare, after communicating witli tlie 

trade unions of wage-earning or salaried employees concerned on the one hand 
and with tlie employers on the other hand, and consulting an advisory council 
composed of equal numbers of representatives of employers and workers, may 
allow exceptions to the provisions of this Act for particular groups of undertakings, 
specifying, where necessary, the conditions which must be observed if the hours 
of work are extended. 

In allowing exceptions due consideration shall be given to the particular nature 
of the industry concerned, especially in the case of retail trade and rural indus- 
tries. 

The members of the advisory council shall be nominated by the Secretary of 
State for Social Welfare in agreement with tlie Secretary of State for Commerce, 
Trade, Industry and Works. 

Representatives of the State Department for Commerce, Trade Industry and 
Works, of any other Slate Department concerned and of the central industrial 
inspectorate, shall be invited to attend he sittings of he advisoi-y council. 
(3) Riiply of tlie Government of Chili to Questionnaire II 1921. 

(2) Legislative Series, 1921, International Labour Office, Austr. 2. 



Denmark <1) 

Denmark has no legislative provision for the regulation of 
the hours of work in agriculture. Any limitation is deter- 
mined solely by oollective agreements or custom. 

The following regulation has been agreed upon by the Asso- 
ciation of Employers in Agriculture and Forestry in Denmark, 
and the Danish Farm "Workers' Union under agreements of 
the 13th February 1920 and 2nd June 1921. These agree- 
ments provide for a basic day from March 1st to November 
15th of 9 1/2 hours, between 6.0. in the morning and 5.30 in the 
afternoon; from November 15th to November 30th, 8 1/2 
hours; from December 1st to February 15th, 8 hours, between 
7.0 in the morning and 5.0 in the afternoon; and from 
February IGth to the 28th, 9 hours, between 6.30 in the morn- 
ing and 5.30 in the afternoon. 

Special provision is made for the harvest season, when the 
day may be lengthened to ten hours, and in the districts 
where sugar beets are grown the hours of work between 
November 15th and 30th may be increased by half an hour 
daily provided that a corresponding reduction is made in the 
hours of work from March 1st to March 15th. 

Men working with horses are entitled to cease work in 
time to be able to stable and attend to them within twenty 
minutes of the hour at which the field workers' day ends. 

Breaks in the working day are fixed at half on hour for 
breakfast and for one-and-a-half hours for dinner. Overtime 
is allowed but computed at higher rates except in the case 
of persons working with stock, who are allowed one free day 
with pay a month. 

The hours of work under the above agreement are consider- 
ably shorter than on the smaller farms operated only 
with the aid of family help. These smaller farms, represent- 
ing as they do 54 per cent, exert a powerful influence upon 
working hours as the larger farms are compelled to meet 
their competition (2). 



(1) Reply of Banish Government to Questionnaire H, 1921. 

(2) Factors inlluencing custom regarding hours in Denmarli as given in the Re- 
plies to Questionnaire II, 1921 : In contradistinction to industrial work, work in 
agriculture varies considerably with the seasons and is principally open-air work. 

Furthermore, it does not involve the same tiresome monotonous work as indust- 
rial work conlincd to the same place, and requiring also in many cases the con- 
stant and strained watchfulness of the woi'ker in utilizing machinery. 

As a natural consequence the hours of work which in agriculture have been 
accepted as being in accordance with the worker's physical and mental health are 
in a great measure longer than any others. 

It is the great number of small farmers who work their land by means of 
personal and family help, and thus lead the way in insisting on hours of work 
which to a great extent exceed the limits which are thought proper for other woi-k. 

As is the case in the otherScandinavian countries, the climate of Denmark ne- 
cessitates intense work during spring and summer, in order to secure good crops 
and th.'ir harvesting. 

A somewhat scarce amount of heat during the period of growth, changeable 
weathri- as a rule later on in the summer, which rencjers the drying of the crops 
difficult, and the prospect of comparatively early frost, in the Scandinavian coun- 
tries creates conditions which are far more unfavourable and difficult than in 
zones the climate of which offer desirable conditions. 



— 9 — 
Ecuador 

The following Eight Hour Law (1) was passed on the 4th 
September 1916 and approved on the 11th September 1916. 

The law provides that : 

(1) No labourer, mechanic, employee in any commer- 

cial establishment, office, industrial enterprise, 
and, in general, no employee whether engaged in 
agriculture or otherwise employed, shall be com- 
o pelled to labour more than eight hours daily, six 
days per week, nor shall he be required to per- 
form any labour on Sundays and legal holidays. 

(2) No contract or stipulation entered into for the pur- 

pose of evading the provisions of § 1 shall be of 
any force or effect. 

(3) If upon request any labourer, mechanic, clerk, etc . 

shall perform labour in excess of the hours as 
provided for in § 1, he shall be paid for such excess 
worked during the day, wages increased by 25 per 
cent of the regular wages; increased by 50 per 
cent for hours worked between 6 o'clock p. m. 
and 12 o'clock midnight, and 100 per cent after 
the last named hour. These increases shall be bas- 
ed upon one-eighth of the daily wages, and shall 
be paid for each hour worked in excess of the eight 
hours provided by this Act. 

(4) The provisions of § 3 shall apply to persons working 

by shifts only to the extent to which their labour 
is prolonged beyond the eight hour shift, in which 
case they shall be paid the increased wages for 
each hour of overtime as herein i^rovided. 



With special regard to Danisli conditions, there is occasion in tliis connection 
for pointing oiit tlie division of tlie agricultural area in Denmai-k. This amount 
to about 3 million hectares, distributed over 191,500 farms. Of these 103,000 are 
small holdings covering 350,000 hectares, the average are a of which is 3.4 hectares 
with a maximum area of 10 hectares. It is an exception for these holdings to 
employ hired labour, so they may be set aside altogether. 

The number of farms with an area of 10-60 hectares is 84,200 with altogether 
about 2 millions hectares. Thus two-thirds of the agricultural area of Denmark 
comes under this group. A great part of the work on these farms is done by the 
owner and members of his family. But to rrtlier a great extent also hired labour 
is employed; the medium sized farms in this group as a rule employ an unmar- 
ried male labourer and an unmarried female lahourer engaged permanently for a 
period of twelve months, both getting board and lodging at tlie place of work, 
whilst other assistance as a rule is used onlv for threshing during the harvest, and 
fort he work in beetroot fields. At about 20,000 farms in this group of 30-60 hec- 
tares the employment of hired labour is on the whole greater, of course. 

The above two groups of farms thus include 187,200 farms so that only 4,300 
are left of more than 60 hectares each, and with a total of 526,000 hectares or 
17 0/0 of the total agricultural land. 

It must be remembered that the farmers in question, on the whole, are people 
used to work, who from their youth are trained to consider a working day in farm- 
ing of old established length as quite reconciliable with « a sane mind in a sane 
body », and who know from personal experience that a great deal of the work 
anually recurring in farming is a kind of healthy bodily exercise in tlie open air. 
Furthermore, they are aware of the fact that economical use of horses recommends 
the maintenance of the accustomed working hours. 

(l)Annuaire Internationale de Legislation Agricolc, VI annee 1916. Rome. 



— IO- 
CS) No employer shall discharge an employee, nor shall 
an emploj^ee quit the service of an employer, with- 
out having given 30 days' notice of his intention 
so to do. Any employer who discharges an em- 
ployee, or any employee leaving the service of an 
employer, without having given the notice herein 
required shall be liable to the other in a suit for 
damages. 
(6) Judges of the police court and parish justices of the 
peace shall be competent to hear and determine 
such suits. The courts shall render their decisions 
summarily and without delay and without® appeal 
except as to matter of fact. 



ESTHONIA (1) 

Recent legislation in Esthonia provides for the regulation 
of labour as follows : 

(3) The time during each twenty-four hours within which 
the worker is bound to work on the land or in the employer's 
undertaking shall be deemed to be the agricultural worker's 
working time or hours of work. 

The working day shall begin with the arrival of the worker 
at the meeting place fixed by the employer for the workers 
in his undertaking, and shall last throughout the time during 
which he is present at the work place, until the end of the 
hours of work. 

(4) The normal working day of an agricultural worker shall 
last six hours in January and December, seven hours in 
February, March and November, ten hours in April, eleven 
hours in May, June, July, August and September (2). 

(5) The beginning and ehding of the working day, and the 
breaks, shall be fixed by the employer on the basis of a mutual 
agreement. This agreement shall be concluded within the 
limits of the number of hours fixed in Section 4. 

(6) In addition to Sundays, all festivals and rest-days fixed 
by the Legislative Delegation on 27th April, 1920, and publish- 
ed in the State Gazette, Nos. 67 and 68, shall be rest-days 
for agricultural workers. 

(7) An agricultural worker shall not be bound to carry out 
work on the land on a rest-day, but wage-earning employee 
engaged in the home part of the undertaking shall perform 
such work as is indispensable to the undertaking, e.g. feeding 
the stock and this work shall not be reckoned as overtime in 



(1) Act relating to the Hours of Work and Wages of Agricultural Workers for 
the Economic Year, 1921-22, Dated 13th May 1921. 
• (2) The month of October is not mentioned in the source. 



— 11 — 

calculating the limits of the normal working day and shall not 
give rise to any claim for extra wages. 

In this connection, wage-earning employees of the kind 
referred to shall be free from work during half of the rest-day. 

These free days shall be fixed on the basis of a mutual 
agreement between the employer and the employees. 

Note. ■ — Land workers shall be bound to act as substitutes 
in rotation for the stockmen and stable-men when the latter 
have their rest-days, on a basis of an agreement between 
the employer and the employees. Work of this nature shall 
not be deemed to be overtime. 

(8) In addition to the rest-days incntioned in Section 6, 
agricultural workers shall have two market-days every year, 
and those who have holdings of their own shall have one 
free day every month for the upkeep thereof, on the basis of 
an agreement with the employer. The employer shall grant 
the worker the use of a horse for work in his undertaking at 
home. 

(9) On the eve of the great festivals (Easter, Whitsun, 
Christmas, New Year, and 1st May) working hours shall end 
at 11 noon. 

(10) Work performed by an agricultural worker in excess of 
the normal hours shall be deemed to be overtime, and shall 
be remunerated at 50 per cent, above the normal rate. 

Note. — Wages for overtime shall be calculated on the basis 
of a division of the total wages of the agricultural worker in 
money and kind by the number of normal hours' work during 
the year, with an increase of 50 per cent, on payment. 

In the case of an agricultural worker whose employment 
lasts for less than one year, his money wages shall be divided 
by the number of normal hours' work corresponding to his 
period of employment. 

(11) When concluding the contract of employment, the 
employer may require on the basis of an agreement that the 
employees shall work such overtime as may be necessary in 
order to prevent loss of the harvest or to carry out the cart- 
age necessary for the maintenance of the undertaking. 

Overtime shall be prohibited for minors. 

(12) In the case of cartage and transportation work lasting 
beyond the normal hours, the time in excess of the normal 
working hours shall be j^aid for; 'compulsory cartage and 
transport work shall not be paid for beyond the standard 
fixed as compensation for workers on foot. 



— 12 — 

Finland 

Hours of employment in agriculture lave been subject to 
regulation in Finland since 1917. Hours were fixed in accord- 
ance with the « standard labour agreement » of the Cen- 
tral Association of Agricultural Producers as follows. 

November, December, Januarj^ 7 

February 8 

March, October, from 1 — 15 April and 

from 16 — 30 September 9 

May, June, July and August, from 16 — 
30 April and from 1 ^ — 15 September. ... 10 
The total hours of work were therefore as follows, calcu- 
lated on the basis of three hundred working days a year and 
twenty five working days a month : 

7 hours for 75 days 525 

8 » » 25 » 200 

9 )) )) 75 )) 675 

10 ). » 125 )) 1,250 

Total 2,650 

This gives a daily average of 8 hours 50 minutes. The legal 
regulation of hours of employment was discussed by the Fin- 
nish Chamber in 1917. The Parliamentary Committee for 
Social Affairs submitted a report in which it proposed an aver- 
age maximum working day of 9 hours for workers in agri- 
culture, horticulture, forestry and allied undertakings. In 
order that the requirements of the different seasons might be 
taken into account, employers should be authorised to make 
their employees work 10 hours a day in summer (from May to 
August) on condition that they did not exceed 8 hours a day 
in winter (from November to February). 

The Permanent Committee for Social Affairs of the Parlia- 
ment of 1919 still supported the principle of an average work- 
ing day of 9 hours. In regard to the distribution of hours of 
work, it confined itself to proposing to allow a ten hour work- 
ing day or a 60 hour week for five months of the year at 
most. The weekly rest period taken on Sunday or another 
day should be at least 30 consecutive hours. If circumstances 
made it impossible to observe these regulations, hours worked 
on the day of rest should be balanced by an equal number of 
hours of rest distributed over not more than two days. 

The regulations did not applj"^ to the following classes : 
persons employed in domestic work, in the care of reindeer, 
in the care of domestic animals and in conducting such ani- 
mals to places at a distance from the agricultural under- 
takings, and persons employed on some other kinds of work. 

The Government also appointed a « special commission for 
agricultural work » to draft a bill concerning hours of em- 



— 13 — 

ployment in agriculture. This commission in the first in- 
stance fixed an average working day of 9 hours. It considers 
that hours of work should be arranged as follows at the differ- 
ent seasons : 

December and January 7 1/2 

November and February 8 

May, June, July, August and September. 10 

March, April and October 9 

The Government would have the power to allow exceptions 
to this distribution of hours in certain northern districts, sub- 
ject to the provision that the annual average should not be 
exceeded. 

For persons employed in the care of cattle, the average daily 
hours of work should be 9, including Sundays, at all seasons 
of the year. Such persons should, however, be entitled to one 
day's rest a fortnight or to longer holidays once or twice a 
year, as they prefer. In principle, hours of emploj^nent 
should include time spent in the care and feeding of horses 
and cattle, with the exception of time spent on the care of 
horses at the beginning and at the end of the day and regular 
care during rest intervals. The cleaning of tools, harne ss or 
machinery and the stoking of fires should not be included in 
ordinary hours of work. Time spent by a worker in going 
from the place of meeting the employer to the place where the 
work is actually done should be included in working hours. 

The law should apply to all agricultural undertakings with 
the exception of those which do not employ more than three 
paid workers during the year. 

Further, the proposed regulations should not apply : 

(1) To persons occupied principally on domestic work. 

(2) To foremen, managers, etc. 

(3) To persons belonging to the family of the em- 

ployer. 

(4) To persons employed in the care of reindeer. , 

In case of necessity, overtime should be authorised up to a 
maximum of 10 hours a week and 200 hours a year. 



Germany 

The hours of work in agriculture are regulated in Germany 
in two ways : 

a) by the Provisional Order of the German Govern- 
ment of the 24th January 1919 concerning agricul- 
tural labour; 



h) by collective agreements. 



_ 14 — 

The Provisional Order was based upon the 1918 Agricul- 
tural Labour Agreement of the National Council of Peasants 
and Agricultural Labourers (Reichsbaiiern-aund Arheiterrat), 
which consisted of representatives of the principal unions of 
employers and workers. This agreement was given the force 
of law on the 24th January 1919. 

The Provisional Order in principle applies to all classes of 
workers and provides that the daily working hours sh;ill be. 
an average of eight for four months, ten for four months and 
eleven for four months, making a yearly total of 2,900 hours. 

The distribution of these hours over the various months or 
weeks is settled by agreement between the parties concerned 
and is arranged with special consideration to the conditions 
prevailing in each district. 

If 100 working days are allowed for each period of four 
months, the following are the average hours : 

For four months 800 hours 

)) » » 1,000 )) 

)) )) )) '. . 1,100 )) 



Total for the whole year 2,900 hours 

All overtime must be paid for separately and includes all 
work done on a given day in excess of the average number 
of hours allowed for the four months' period. The pay for an 
hour's overtime is calculated on the basis of one-tenth of the 
local wage as defined by the Federal Insurance Code, plus 
50 per cent, except on Sundays and public holidays, when 
the hourly rate is one-tenth of the local wage, plus 100 per 
cent. 

The time required for going from the farm to the place of 
work and returning is included in the working hours. The 
time required for feeding draught animals does not, however, 
count as part of the working hours in the case of workers 
who are responsible for this work according to their contract. 
In the case of all other workers time spent in attendmg to 
animals has to be paid for as overtime. All workers must be 
allowed at least two hours' rest per day during the six sum- 
mer months. 

The Provisional Order further provides that women who 
do their own housework must be allowed to lei!ve their em- 
ployment in time to reach home one hour before the princiual 
meal. They are also exempt fiom being cr.lled upon to work 
on the days preceding Christmas, Easter and Whit Sunday. 

The enforcement of the Provisional Order is largely in the 
hands of the Emploj^ers' and Workers' Orgaisations as no 
special machinery has been provided for its administration. 

A large number of collective agreements applying either to 
certain districts of Germany or to all the states in the Feder- 
ation have already been concluded between the employers' 
and workers' organisations. These collective agreements are 
generally valid for one year and may modify the Provision- 



— 15 — 

al Order if the modifications thus made provide more favour- 
able conditions for the workers. Modifications in this 
connection are not infrequent as may be seen from the 
following resumes from typical agreements. 

A collective agreement made on the 3rd March 1920 be- 
tween the Agricultural Unions in the district- of Bauzen, 
Lobau, Zitta:i und Ramenz (Die Landwirtsrhaftlichen Bezirk- 
verhdnde der Amtshauptmannschaften Bauzen, Lobau- Zit- 
tau, Kamenz), and the German Union of Agricultural Wor- 
kers (Deutscher Landarbeiterverband) and the Union of Fo- 
restry, Vitic'iltural and Agricultural Workers (Verband der 
Forst-, Land-, und Weinbergsarbeiter Deu^xchlands) provides 
(Article 2) that the duration of the working day shall be 

8 hours during 4 months, 

9 )) )) 3 )) 
10 )) » 5 )) 

Overtime shall be paid at 50 per cent above normal lates. 
Workers are obliged to work overtime if required. 

A collective agreement made on the 11th March 1920 be- 
tween the General Union of Employers for GotHngen and its 
environs (Allgemeiner Arbeitgeberverband fiir Gottingen und 
Umgegend) and the German Union of Agricul+.iral Workers 
(Deutscher Landarbeiterverband) provides (Article 1 that the 
duration of the working day shall be : 

8 hours from 16th November until the 15th March, 

9 )) )) 16th March » » 15th July, 

10 » )) 16th July )) )) 15th October, 

9 )) )) 16th October » » 15th November. 

The tenth hour of work is invariably treated as overtime, 
and shall be paid at 50 per cent above normal rates. Special 
work on Sundays and public holidays shall be paid at 100 
per cent above normal rates. 

A collective agreement made for the period from the 1st 
April 1920 to the 31st March 1921 between the Union of Agri- 
cultural Emploj^ers of Brandenburg {Mdrkischen Verband 
Idndlicher Arbeitgeber) and Ihe German Union of Agricul- 
tural Workers, Brandenburg Section (Deutscher Landar- 
beiter-Verband, Gau Brandenburg) provir'es (Article 4) tht^t 
the duration of the regular hours of work throughout the 
year shall not exceed 2,700. Overtime to the extent of 200 
hours per annum, however, shall be allowed provided that 
such overtime is paid for at 50 per cent above normal rates. 
In no case, however, shall the hours of work exceed 11 in any 
one day. 

A collective agreement ma^^le on the 6tb January 1920 be- 
tween the Union of Viticulture Proprietors of Laubenheim 
(Vereinigte W einguisbesitzer von Laubenheim), pnd he Cen- 
tral Union of Forestry, Agricultural and Viticultural Workers 



— 16 — 

of Germany (Zentralverband der Forst-Land-ii.Weinbergs- 
arbeiter Deutschlands) provides (Article 2) that the duration 
of the basic working day shall be eight hours. Overtime shall 
be paid for at 25 per cent above normal rates, except during 
the night and on Sundays and piiblic holidays when the rate 
shall be 50 per cent above normal. 



Great Britain 

England. — The report of the Land Enquiry Committee pu- 
blished as a result of investigations made in 1912-13 gives 
information as to the usual daily hours for ordnary agricul- 
tural labourers in summer and in winter. Their report as fol- 
lows gives the practice in 2,120 parishes -and the figures are 
exclusive of meal-times. 



Usual Daily Hours of Ordinary Agricultural Labourers. 

Summer 



Hoiir.s 


Under 

8 


8 


195 




181 


1/2 


10 

535 


10 1/2 


98 


CM O 

84 


while 
light 


Totals 


Number of Parishes 


— 


338 


682 


7 


2.120 


(Percentage of total, 
























number of Parishes) 


— 


— 


9.2 


8.5 


16.0 


25.2 


32.2 


4 6 


4 


0.3 


100 



Winter 



Hours 


L luler 

8 


8 


8 1/2 


9 


182 


10 



102 


177 


11 

■ 


w o 


wile 
light 


Total.'; 


Number of Parishes 


95 


237 


805 


323 


— 


199 


2.120 


(Percentage of total, 
























number of Parishes! 


4.5 


11.2 


38.0 


15 2 


8 6 


4 8 


8.3 


— 


— 


9.4 


100 



Durham, Northumberland and Wales are not included in 
this summary because ordinary labourers could not be separ- 
ated from stockmen i. e : labourers in charge of animals. 

An analysis of this table shows that in 1913 in two-thirds 
of the parishes investigated the usual hours of work in sum- 



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08' 9 - 08-9 '/> 
08-S- 08-S M 

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0-9- 08-9 H' 

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— 17 — 

mer were 10 hours or more, exclusive of meal times. These 
were the hours worked in ordinary weeks, and the table does 
not include extra hours during harvest A footnote (1) reads • 
« In the Report of the Board of Trade Enquiry into Earnings 
and Hours of Labour, 1910 (Cd. 5,460) detailed information is 
not given as to hours. The Report states, however • The 
working hours of ordinary labourers vary somewhat at differ- 
ent seasons of the year. In summer, work usuallj^ commences 
about 6 or 6,30 a. m. and continues, with intervals for 
meals, till 5,30 or 6 p. m., the length of the working day, inclu- 
sive of meal times being generally eleven or twelve hours. The 
time allowed for meals is commonly about half an hour for 
breakfast, and one hour for dinner, except in Scotland where, 
in most districts, no breakfast interval is allowed but two 
hours are taken for dinner. In a few cases the w^orking tiine 
on Saturdays is slightly reduced, but at most farms w^ork is 
carried on as on other days. In winter, the working time is 
generally limited b^' the hours of daylight ». 

Reference is made to the fact that no provision was made 
for a half-holiday during the week (2). 

With practice varying as t'le above table sho^ys from eight 
to over twelve hours a day, no legal regulation of hours of 
work in agriculture was undertaken until the j^assing of the 
Corn Production Act in 1917. By this Act. Agricultural Wages 
Boards were established with power to fix minimum w^ages for 
a basic day's w^ork and in this way to define the number of 
hours which constitute a day. While leaving the labourer 
free to w^ork such overtime as might prove nece'5.>ary or desir- 
able, these Boards accomplished a great deal in standardising 
the amount of time which could be required from an agricul- 
tural labourer in return for his regular wage. Before issuing 
orders the Board conducted an investigation in 1918 into 
Wages and Conditions of Employment in Agriculture and 
their Report to Board of Agriculture includes a schedule (3) of 
customary' hours (Table I). 

The Wages Boards themselves have no authority to regu- 
late hours of work, but their influence is felt through the fact 
that their orders define overtime as shown in the table II : 

Scotland. — Part II of the Report to the Board of Agricul- 
ture for Scotland bj^ Sir James Wilson, K.C.S.I. on Farm 
Workers in Scotland in 1919-20, discusses w^orking hours, and 
includes the following statement : 

v( For the greater part of Scotland thp pre-war w^orkina 
hours may be reckoned as having been for 35 weeks in 
summer 60 hours a week, and for 17 weeks in winter an 
average of 48 hours a w^eek, making an average for the 



(1) « The Land », page 15. 

(2) D)id., page CG. 

(3) Wags and Conditions of Eniployment in Agriculture, vol. I, pp gO-O."}. 



— 18 — 

r 

52 weeks of 56 hours — to which, for th. ploughman 
must be added 7 hours for stable work, making his work- 
ing week 67 hours in summer and 55 in winter, an aver 
age of 63 hours for the year. » (page 30) 

« In long spells of wet weather, snow or frost the farm- 
workers are often comparatively idle, and sometimes doing 
little more than marking time. » (page 31) 

« 'The general custom about holidays was that New Year's 
Day and one or two hiring-fair days « were general holi- 
days and at slack seasons a man could always get a few 
days leave without deduction of pay. Until the passing of 
the Insurance Act, it was not usual to deduct pay for short 
periods of sickness. » (page 31) 

Since the war there has been some reduction of working 
hours, the present custom being the out come of recommanda- 
tions presented in February 1919, at a conference held at Perth 
between representatives of the National Farmers' Union of 
Scotland and the Scottish Farm Servants' Union. These 
recoinmendations read : 

« That it be recommended to the farmers and workmen that 
the working hours from Whitsunday 1919 be based on 
an average of 9 hours from stable to stable, and not 
include stable-work or meal-hours ; 

That this be adjusted so as to secure an average working 
week of 54 hours ; 

That there be 21 days holidays, or 42 half-days in each year, 
as may be arranged by local conferences ; 

That the working week of 54 hours should be subject to the 
deduction of the holidays specified ; 

That, in addition, there be allowed (1) the usual New Year's 

Day holiday, (2) in the case of yearly engagements one 
hiring fair day, and in the case of half-yearly engage- 
ments two hiring-fair days. 

That in arranging for holidays and half holidays employers 
should have the right to require workmen to work over- 
time during the periods of seed-time and harvest-time on 
payment of overtime-rates : and 

That it be remitted to the County Executive Committees of 
the two bodies to adjust the working hours locally on this 
basis. 

The effect of these recommendations would be that a 
ploughman engaged for a year would bind himself to work 
the following number of hours, besides stable work : 

Weeks Hours Hours 

52 54 2,808 

Less 21 days 9 189 

Leaves 2,619 



— 19 — 

Add pne day 9 9 

2,628 
Deduct 2 days' general holiday. . 9 18 



2,610 



He would thus bind himself to work during the whole year 
2,610 hours ; and, as an average for the year of 50 hours per 
week would give a total for the year of 2,609 hours, the Con- 
ference practically recommended for the j^ear an average wor- 
king week of 50 hours, besides stable-work.) 

These recommendations were never actually adopted, but 
they have since formed the basis for many local agreements 
in different counties. 

The Summary Regarding Working Hours in Sir James 
Wilson's report, page 46, reads : 

« From the above account of the present working hours in 
the different counties it will be seen that in a great part of 
the country the joint recommendation made by the Perth 
National Conference has been practically followed on 
many farms, especially in regard to the adoption of the 
nine hour day in summer and the Saturday half-holiday, 
except in busy seasons. There are, however, numerous 
exceptions, and on many farms the ploughman is still 
expected to work ten hours a day in summer, when the 
w^eather is suitable — especially in the Highlands, where 
wet weather often prevents out-door work, and it essen- 
tial to take full advantage of fine days when they come. 
Almost ever3'where, when the weather permits, work is 
still done for ten hours a day (including Saturdays) during 
harvest, and in many cases, also during seed-time, hay- 
time and potato-lifting-time. On the other hand, the work- 
ing hours in winter are almost everywhere from dawn 
to dusk, and average about 8 hours a day (except Satur- 
day) for the three or four winter months. There are 
many variations in the details of these arrangements, ac- 
cording to the circumstances of each county and of the in- 
dividual farms ; but on the whole, on most farms the 

" ploughman's working-week now averages for the year 
about 50 hours, besides about 7 hours' stable-work — a re- 
duction on the average of about 5 hours a week as com- 
pared with the pre-war working hours, though on some 
farms the reduction will be greater, and on others (for 
instance in Fife) it will be less. This rough calculation 
allows on the one hand for the holidays formerly granted, 
and on the other for the Saturday half-holiday (exception 
in busy seasons) which is now becoming fairly general. 
Some men, however, especially . on outlying farms far 
from a town or a village, prefer to work the whole day on 



— 20 — ' 

Saturdays and to take their holidays in whole days at con- 
venient times during the year, and provisions have been 
made for this arrangement both in the Perth joint recom- 
mendation and in a number of the country agreements. 
It must be remembered that, although the ploughman is 
bound to work for the number of hours agreed upon, he 
is often (especially in the Highlands) prevented by the 
weather from working in the field, and when the bad 
weather lasts long his indoor work may some times be 
very light, while his pay goes on all the same. 

Considerable progress has also been made in defining by 
agreement certain matters regarding which custom was 
vague, such as stable work, the method of reckoning 
working hours, overtime, and payment during sickness ; 
but the agreements arrived at on these points vary from 
county to county. In soine counties forms of engagement, 
to be signed by the worker and his employer, have been 
printed, embodying the terms recommended. All this 
must have a valuable effect in inaking the conditions of 
the contract more definite and in obviating disputes. 

The Working Hours of Cattlemen 

The cattleman's duty being to tend and feed the cattle his 
working hours depend upon their varying needs. During 
the summer months, when they are out at grass, his work 
is comparatively light, but at such times he is generally 
expected to help in other work of the farm, and especially 
in harvest getting the ordinary harvest fee of £ 1 or £ 2, 
where that is paid to the other hands. At other times of 
the year, when the cattle are under cover, his work in 
preparing their food and distributing it to them takes him 
about 9 or 10 hours a day including Saturdays. He has to 
be on duty on Sundays also, but by preparing the food on 
Saturday evenings, he can reduce his Sunday work to 
from 5 to 7 hours. On some farms arrangements are made 
to relieve him on Sundays by having his Sunday work 
done by some other worker, man or woman. He can 
generally get a week or two of holidays in summer on full 
pay, if he wishes. 

The Working Hours of Shepherds. 

It is impossible to fix working hours for a shepherd. In ordi- 
nary good weather, when there is plenty of grass and his 
flock is healthy, he may have little to do except to walk 
over the hill with his dogs and see that all is well with 
the sheep ; and this he generally does on Sundays as on 
other days. But in busy seasons, such as lambing, dip- 



— 21 — 

ping, and clipping time, or when disease is rife or insects 
troublesome, he may have to work hard for 12 hours in 
the day or more ; and in a drifting snowstorm he may 
have to risk his life to save his sheep. The shepherd's life 
is generally an isolated one, which gives him « time to 
think )), and he often has difficulty in arranging for the 
proper education of his children, who may have to walk 
four or five miles to school every day, but they have 
some compensation in their healthy upbringing among 
the hills. A sherphcrd « is born, not made ». Many a shep- 
herd's son follows in his father's footsteps, and it is 
notice able that shepherds are less ready than are other 
classes of farmworkers to change their employment. 

The Working Hours of Orramen (1) and Women. 

The working hours of orramen and permanent women 
workers are generally the same as those of the plough- 
man, except that they have no stable work. When 
women and children are temporarily employed in potato- 
lifting, it is sometimes arranged that they shall work an 
hour or two less than the ploughman. Dairymaids and 
bjTewomen have long hours, especially where milk has 
to be supplied fresh in the morning to neighbouring 
towns. In such cases the dairymaids have sometimes to be 
up by four o'clock and do not finish work till late in the 
evening, though they generally have a few hours rest 
during the day. Their work on Saturdays is the same as 
on other days, but it is sometimes arranged to let them 
have every second Sunday off. » (2). 

Since the organisation of Agricultural Wages Boards in Scot- 
land, some attempts have been made to define overtime work 
although for the most part minimum wage rates are for « cus 
tomary hours )). The weekly hours of labour (3) in respect of 
which the minimum rates are payable are defined for certain 
counties as : 

Moray Firth : — Ploughmen, Cattlemen, Shepherds, Fores- 
ters, Market-Gardeners, Nurserymen and other classes 
— 60 hours (including stable work). 

Forfar and Perth : Ploughmen, Cattlemen, Shepherds and 
other classes — average for the year of 54 hours (exclu- 
ding stable work). 

Fife and Kinross : — Ploughmen, Cattlemen, Shepherds 
and other classes — average for the year of 52 hours 
(excluding stable work). 

(1) Name for odd jobs. 

(2) The Report of tlie Committee on Women in Agriculture in Scotland 1020, 
gives full information on this subject. 

(3) « Standard Time Rates of Wages and Hours of Labour in the United Kingdom 
at 31st December 1920, p. 200. 



— 22 — 

Dumfries and Galloway : — Ploughmen, Cattlemen, Shep- 
herds and other classes ■ — 

Feb 1 — June 15 9 hours per day ; 

Oct. 16 — Jan 31 8 hours per day. 

June 16 — Oct 15 10 hours i^er day ; 



Italy 

The hours of work in Italian agriculture are regulated : 

(1) By the Act of the 16th June, 1907, and by the Royal 

Decree of 29th March 1908. 

(2) By collective agreements. 

The Act of the 16th June, 1907, onl}'^ regulates the hours of 
work in the rice fields, and even then is confined to the weed- 
ing (mo nd at lira) of rice. It stipulates that this operation shall 
not commence before sunrise, and that the duration of the 
working day shall not exceed 9 hours for workers not pass- 
ing the night in the place in which the work is canried out, 
and 10 hours for those who pass the night in the place where 
the work is carried out. It further stipulates that the duration 
of the working day shall in no case exceed 10 hours; beyond 
this limit of 10 hours, workers may not be employed in any 
supplementary work. The working day must always be inter- 
rupted by rest periods fixed by provincial regulations. Women 
nursing their children must be allowed the time necessary for 
such nursing, and such time must be reckoned as part of the 
effective hours of work. On the other hand, neither the rest 
periods nor the time required by the workers for going to and 
returning from their work are reckoned as part of the hours of 
work. Work must be interrupted for 24 consecutive hours 
every week. The supervision of the application of these provi- 
sions is entrusted to the police, the inspectors of agriculture 
and industry and the medical officers of health. These offi- 
cers have free access to the rice fields and to the dwellings, 
sleeping rooms, and infirmaries of the workers. 

Practice at the present time goes further than the law in 
favour of the workers, partlj'^ as a result of customs which 
have become established in recent j^ears in the provinces in 
which rice is cultivated, partly as a result of collective agree- 
ments recently concluded between the employers' associations 
and the trade unions, based on the application of the 8 hours 
daj"^ to the weeding and gathering of rice. 

For all other categories of agricultural workers the hours 
of work are regulated by collective agreements concluded be- 
tween the employers' associations and the agricultural trade 
unions. These contracts generally draw a sharp distinction 
between daily workers and farm servants, and generally con- 
tain the following provisions : 

For day workers (paid by the day) : 



— 23 — 

(1) A rest of 24 consecutive hours every week is recognised 

except in cases in which production might be prejudi- 
ced thereby owing to bad weather or technical require- 
ments; 

(2) The hours of work may not exceed 8 in the day and 48 in 

the week. In case of extreme urgency, or where it is 
necessary to safeguard or protect the crop, exceptions 
are admitted, but subject to the two following condi- 
tions : 

a) That there is no other agricultural labour available 

in the locality or the neighbouring Communes; 

b) That work executed on Sunday, or in excess of 

8 hours on working days, shall be paid for at a rate 
higher than that fixed for normal hours of work. 
The maximum amount of overtime is not deter- 
mined in the collective agreements, except in one 
case in which the number of hours has been fixed 
at 2 1/2 per day. 

For farm servants (paid by the year). 

(1) The right to a weekly rest is recognised, and in cases in 

which for technical reasons certain categories of Nvork- 
ers, such as those engaged in milking, cannot enjo^' 
the same, a special indemnity is to be paid to workers 
deprived of the day's rest. During this day, the workers 
engaged in tending cattle must tend and feed the ani- 
mals entrusted to them, and must cut and carry grass. 
All other work carried out on Sundays and holidays 
gives the right to a special suppleinentary payment. 

(2) The maximum working hours are fixed as follows : 

6 hours a day during 2 or 3 months, according to dis- 
trict; 7 hours a day during 2 or 3 months, according to 
district ; 8 hours a day during 1, 2, or 3 months, accord- 
ing to district ; 9 hours a day during 2 months, accord- 
ing to district ; 10 hours a day during 3 inonths in th^ 
Province of Parma only. 

A rest period is fixed varying with the seasons. 

Workers in charge of cattle must tend them outside the 
normal working hours wiien necessary 

During the periods of preparation of the land, dressing of 
vines, and sowing, overtime is admitted, which must not 
exceed two hours a day, in cases of extreme urgency, and for 
the purpose of preventing loss of crop. In such cases special 
payment is stipulated for this work. 

Time lost owing to bad weather may be made up, but only 
on the following day, and so that the amount of overtime shall 
not exceed two hours. 

Women have a right to one day's leave per week, in addition 
to Sunday. 

On the 9th of February, 1920, a Bill was introduced in the 
Chamber of Deputies in Italy fixing the actual hours of work 



— 24 — 

at 8 in the day and 48 in the week for all agricultural wage 
earners. 

Provision was made in the Bill for overtime to the extent 
of 2 hours in the day or 12 hours in the week by agreement 
bet^^een employers and workers in case of special need, such 
overtime to be paid for at the rate of at least time and a 
quarter. This Bill, however, has not been passed by the 
Chamber of Deputies. 

Japan 

There is no statutory limitation of the hour« of work of 
agricultural workers in Japan, nor are they fixed by collective 
agreement. The question of the desirability of imposing a 
definite limitation upon the duration of the agricultural wor- 
kers' day seems as yet hardly to have been raised. Even in 
other industries the eight hours day where it exists, is a quite 
recent innovation and the maximum allowed by the law 
is generally 12 hours. Further, the agricultural worker is 
only in the minority of cases a wage earner. Land property 
is minutely subdivided in Japan, less than one per cent 
of the owners possessing more than 10 hectares (25 acres) 
and only about eight per cent between 3 and 10 hectares 
(7 1/2 to 25 acres). According to the survey made by the 
Imperial Agricultural Society in 1915, the total amount of 
labour required on the average per farm is 717 days labour 
of which 559.8 are supplied by the family of the farmer and 
157.2 are supplied by hired labour. The small farmers are 
able as a general rule, to get all the necessary r/ork done 
with the sole help of their own family. 

Where labour is hired, it is necessary to distinguish between 
workers engaged for the year (from early spring to late 
autumn), seasonal workers hired bj'^ the v/eek or month for 
special work at busy periods, and day labourers. The 
last class of worker does not consist, for the most part, of 
wage earners in the ordinary sense, but of peasants who have 
holdings of their own, usually not much exceeding an acre, 
who hire themselves to other farmers in the time thej'^ can 
spare from their own land. All three classes work for long 
hours, usually from daybreak to late in the evening. At 
certain seasons, such as during the transplanting of rice 
harvesting, etc., the working-day often exceeds twelve hours, 
and during the silkworm feeding season Avork continues till 
midnight (1). In general, however, the length of the working 
day is stated (2) to be : — 

In the spring 8 to 10 hours 

In summer 9 to 10 » 

In autumn 8 to 9 » 

In winter 7 to 8 » 

(1) The silkworm requires to be fed at frequent intervals, even during the night. 

(2) Onthine of Agriculture and Agricultural Labour in Japan, Bureau of Agri- 
culture, Sokyo, 1921. 



_ 25 — 

Rigid conditions of emi^loyment are not, hov/ever, insisted 
on either by employer or worker, especially where the latter 
lives in the employer's house. The agriculturr.l wage earner 
proper who is engaged for the 3^ear very often lives in his 
master's house as a member of the family. His working 
day is often exceedingly long, but is not rigidly defined. 
If he is unable to work owing to sickness, no deduction from 
wages is made. He has a holiday on village festivals, and 
can go home for two or three days, at « rest-day » (1) and 
other similar occasions. Most of the seasonal workers also 
live with the family of the employer. 

Length of the working year. The number of days on 
which farmers work in the course of a year averages about 
two hundred (2). 



Norway 

The working hours in agriculture are in the summer half- 
year generally ten hours and in the winter half-year about 
eight hours per day. The work begins at 6 or 7 in the morn- 
ing and ends at 6 or 8 in the evening, with two or three hours 
of rest and four or five meals per day. 

The Norwegian agricultural workers may, broadly speak- 
ing, be divided into the following four groups : 

1. Farm-servants, 

2. Day labourers, 

3. Piece workers, 

4. Cottars (« husmand »). 

1. Servants is the name applied to hands who are engaged 
for a longer period of time, formerly mostly for a half or a 
whole year, now often by the month, but alwjys with the 
right to receive notice a certain time in advance in case of 
discharge. As a rule the position of farm-servant is also char- 
acterised by the fact that the servants have board and lodg- 
ing on the farm and are bound to perform all work that may 
arise within limits determined by custom or by agree- 
ment. The male servant (farm-man) as a rule has to do 
with all the outdoor work, including also the care of horses, 
even when this work occurs outside of the proper working- 
time, as it generally must in the mornings and evenings. 

The female servants may be divided into two groups : the 
house-servants and the milkmaids or outdoor female ser- 
vants. The house-servant has to do all work occuring in the 
house, sometimes also lighter outdoor task:, in the harvest and 



(1) Yabu-iri or « rent-days » come at the Ifitli of tlie first and seventh months. 
(2) Onthine of Agriculture and Agricultural Labour in Japan, p. 9. 



— 2G — 

sowing season or at other busy times. The outdoor servant 
(milkmaid) attends to the livestock on the farm, w^ith the 
exception of the horses. In most cases, however, the farms 
are so small that only one girl is employed as house-servant 
and milkmaid combined. On the other hand, if the number of 
live-stock is comparativelj'- large, the indoor-servant helps 
the outdoor servant with some of the work in the byres, espec- 
ially with the milking. Or else there is a cattle-man (the so- 
called « sveitser », sometimes unmarried and cfetting board 
and lodging on the farm, sometimes married in which case 
he generally feeds himself but has a free dwelling for himself 
and family. The wife then helps her husband if necessary, 
in the care of the live-stock. 

Owing to the difficulties in obtaining unmarried male ser- 
vants, but perhaps especially in order to secure more settled 
conditions of labour, the farmers have of late begun to en- 
gage married men on terms which may be regarded as almost 
the same as for resident servants. These men are in mosl 
cases hired on the terms that they supply their own food, but 
are given a free family dwelling-house and sometimes a piece 
of ground for potatoes ajid vegetables, as well as free fuel 
from the wood attached to the farm. 

The resident servants constitute the great majority of the 
actual hired labour on the farms. They form together with 
the cottars (« husmand ») the permanent working staff of the 
farm. The other hands are taken on mostly to supplement this 
permanent nucleus under special circumstances or in excep- 
tionally busy times (for instance, in the sowing and harvest- 
ing seasons). 

The number of resident servants — both male and female — 
amounts to about 75,000. 

2. Day-labourers. The day-labourers proper are hired 
for a short time — with payment by the hour or by the day — 
to supplement the permanent workers on the farm. Some- 
times they have board and lodging on the farm, sometimes 
only board, and sometimes neither the one nor the other. 
They consist partly of itinerant casual workers, partly of the 
smallholders of the district who can spare some time for work 
outside their own farms. 

3. Piece-workers. These are in reality the same kind of 
workers as the day-labourers, but, owing to the nature of the 
work they perform, their payment is calculated according to 
the amount of work done, instead of by a unit of time. Of 
farmwork proper it is mainly ditch-making and sometimes 
the breaking up of new land that is given out as piece-work. 
The work in the forests on the other hand is for the most part 
performed as piece-work. To a great extent this work is 
done by the smallholders living in the district, who thereby 



— 27 — 

find a profitable employment for the winter period, both for 
themselves and for their horse, if they have one. 

4. Cottars (« hiismaiid »). This is the name given to agri- 
cultural workmen who are attached to the farm by having 
the right of use of a holding belonging to the farm with the 
obligation of performing a more or less great amount of 
work on the farm (1). 



Poland 

In Poland there is no special law re.qulating hours of 
employment in agriculture. The Decree of 18 December 
1919, concerning hours of employment in industry and in 
commerce does not apply to agriculture. However, the 
working day is regulated by collective agreements in con- 



Month 



January 

from 1-14 Feb. 

» 15-28 » 

» 1-15 Mar. 

.> 16 31 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . . . 

October 
from 1-15: . . . . 

.. 16-31 

» 1-15 Nov. 

» 16-30 » 
December 8. . . 



Ilour.s \\ 


orked 




l>crore noon' 


|| 


8 a. n 


. 12 




7.30-12 


noon 




7.30 - 


12 




7 — 


12 




7 — 


12 




6 - 


12 


1,2 


- 


12 


1/2 


6 - 


12 


1/2 


6 — 


12 


12 


6 — 


12 


1,2 


6 — 


12 


1/2 


7 a. m. 


12 




/ » 


12 




7.30 - 


12 




7.30 — 


12 




8. » - 


12 





:Mi(l-day 
interval 



12 

12 

12 

12- 

12- 

12 

12 

12 

12- 

12- 

12 



p. m. 

1.30 
-1.30 
-1.30 
-1.30 
-1.30 

1.30 
-1.30 

1.30 
-1.30 
-1.30 

1.30 



12-1.30 
12-1.30 
12-1.30 
12-1.30 
12 1.30 



Hours 


worked 




aftei 


noon 


3-° 


1.30- 


-4 p.m. 




1.30- 


-4 . » 


— 


1.30- 


-5 .. 





1.30- 


-5 .) 


— 


1.30- 


-6 » 


— 


1.30- 


6.30 





1.30- 


-7.30 


1/2 


1.30- 


-8 p.m 


1/2 


1.30 


8 » 


1/2 


1.30 


-7.30 .. 


1/2 


1.30- 


-6.30 » 


— 


1.30- 


-6 


_ 


1.30- 


5 


— 


1.30- 


-5 » 


— 


1.30- 


-4 


— 


1.30- 


-4 


— 



Total no. of 

hours 

worked 



- 6 1/2 

8 j ' ^ 

8 1/2 I ^ 

9 1/2 ^ •' 

10 1/2 
11 

11 1/2 
11 1 2 
11 
10 1,2 



9 1/2 
8 1/2 



; 7 1/2 

6 1 2 



formity with the Act of 1 August, 1919 « concerning the 
means of regulating disputes between employers and agri- 
cultural workers ». According to this Act, collective agree- 
ments in conformity with the provision of the Act are com- 
pulsory for employers and workers. Consequently, such 
collective agreements take the place of special laws to regu- 
late the various questions concerning agricultural labour. 
For the current year, i.e. up to 31 March, 1922 the regu- 



(1) This extract from « Agriculture in Norway », a report received from the 
Norwegian Government, is quoted verbatim. 



— 28 — 

lation of hours of employment varies as follows, according 
to the locality. (It should be pointed out that for two years 
no change has been made in the regulation of hours of 
employment.) 

(1) In the districts which formerly formed part of the 
Russian Empire (the provinces of Warsaw, Lodz, Lublin, 
Kielce and Bielostok) the average working day is nine hours 
and twenty minutes : 

The regulations concerning hours of employment cannot 
be changed excepting by agreement between employers and 
workers, but the average working day for the year cannot 
be increased. Work is considered to begin f^-om the time 
when the workers leave the farm3^ard, and to end when they 
leave the fields. 

The stable-men must feed and grooin the horses, etc. 
without extra wage, but such work must not begin more than 
two hours before the times specified in the above table. 
They must leave ofT work half an hour before mid-day in 
order to feed the horses. Workers are not paid extra for 
certain tasks which they perform in turn outside ordinary 
working hours. If absolutely necessary owinff to weather 
conditions and certain cases of force majeure, workers must 
work overtime in addition to the hours of work specified 
above ; in this case such overtime is paid for as time and 
a half. On Sundaj^s and holidays ihey are paid double 
time. Shepherds, night-watchmen, etc., are not paid extra for 
overtime which arises out of their ordinary work. 

(2) In the districts which formerly belonged to Germany 
(provinces of Posnania and Pomerania) the regulation of 
hours of work is the same. The only difference is that the 
average working daj'' for the year is limited to nine hours 
twenty-five minutes. 

(3) In the districts which formerly belonged to Austria (the 
three provinces of « Little » Poland) there is at present no 
regulation of hours of employment owing to the fact that 
there is no workers' organisation in existence strong enough 
to enforce collective agreements similar to the agreements 
mentioned above. 



Spain 

The duration of the working day is regulated in Spain by 
the « Royal Decree of 15 January, 1920, establishing general 
provisions for the application of the eight-hour day ». 

Article 1 of this Decree establishes the eight-hour day 
« for employments and occupations of whatsoever nature 
carried out under the direction or supervision of another 
person ». The same article provides that hours of work 
may be calculated on the basis of the 48 hour week in all 



— 29 — 

cases where the nature of the work so requh-es or by special 
agreement between employers and workers. 

The Decree further stipulates that in urgent cases workers 
may agree with employers to work overtime, on condition 
that the total number of hours shall not exceed 50 in the 
month and 120 in the year. 240 hours in the year are per- 
missible only in cases of « indisputable force majeure affec- 
ting a whole industry or trade ». 

Overtime must be paid at a rate at least 20 per cent, higher 
than ordinary wages. In special cases this augmentation must 
be at least 40 per cent, and for women in every case, at least 
50 per cent. 

More detailed provisions are contained in the « Royal 
Decree establishing exceptions to the applications of the 
maximum eight-hour day ». 

Sections 3 and 4 of article 1 allow exceptions to the applica- 
tion of the eight-hour day for the work of rural guards and 
for that of all persons entrusted with the surveillance of a 
certain territory and residing therein. The same applies to 
work of temporary surveillance, as, for example, the surveil- 
lance of crops. 

Article VIII provides textually that exceptions are author- 
ised for « shepherds, cowherds and all persons permanently 
employed in the care of flocks and herds. Shepherds who 
conduct to the fields flocks and herds lodged in villages, and 
who have already worked more than eight hours during the 
day, shall not be bound to carry out other work after deliv- 
ering on their return the flocks or herds of which they have 
the care ». 

Article IV, section I, contains special conditions of work 
for domestic workers « forming [)art of the household of 
their employers and engaged by the year, subject to the con- 
dition that the number of such domestics shall not exceed 
the number contemplated by use and custom for each under- 
taking, according to the extent of the estate and the conditions 
of work. )) These domestics are entitled to an uninterrupted 
nightly rest of eight hours or to a total rest of nine hours in 
case they are obliged to rise during the night for the pur- 
pose of performing indispensable duties. In addition, one 
day's rest (independent of Sundays) must in all cases be 
granted to these workers after periods of intense labour and 
one day's leave must be allowed for every six day's of ex- 
ceptional work. 

According to section 2, the provisions relating to hours of 
work are not to apply to temporary workers engaged for a 
task of short duration, for the harvest or for combatting cal- 
amities threatening agriculture. 

The transport of agricultural products during harvest and 
the work of sowing and harvest are likewise excluded from 
the regulation of the hours of work « whenever, on the re- 
quest of agricultural day workers, the local committee agrees 



— 30 — 

to raise the normal working day for such workers to a 
maximum of 10 hours ». In order that the working daj^ 
may be increased by way of exception to 12 hours, it is indis- 
pensable that workers and employers should agree as to the 
difficulty of reducing their hours by the employment of a 
greater number of workers. Hours of work in excess of the 
normal duration must always and everywhere be considered 
as overtime and be paid accordingly. 

Whenever, as the result of exceptional conditions, it is ne- 
cessary to work on holida^^s, such work must be regulated 
in such manner as to permit all workers to fulfil their re- 
ligious duties. 

In horticulture, the eight-hour day must in general be ap- 
plied without exceptions. Overtime is only permitted with- 
out restrictions during a period of three months in the season 
of greated activity in horticulture. 

Finally, Article VII provides that rural farriers may work 
two hours overtime during the periods of sowing and har- 
vest, if the same exception is in force in the district in regard 
to the agricultural tasks in question. 



Sweden (1) 

The change in the hours of labour with regard to the sum- 
mer working time of male agricultural labourers from the 
year 1911 onwards are summarized in the following table : 



Average hours Gross 

of work in the \ ■,, , .. 

, Meal-tiuies etc. 
summer j 

(hoursperday) ' Net 



12.712.7 



2.2 

10.5 



2.3 
10.4 



12.6 
2.2 

10.410.4110.3 



12.6 
2.2 



12.5 
2.2 



12.3 

2.2 

10.1 



12.3 
2.2 



12.3 

9 9 



10.110.1 



12.1 
2.2 
9.9 



As appears from the above, the average working time in 
summer during this period has been shortened by over halt 
an hour per diem, or by 3.6 hours per week. During 1919 
alone the hours of labour appear to have been shortened by 
an average of 0.2 hours a day. 

But the lenght and distribution of working time in agricul- 
ture are greatly dissimilar in different kinds of work. The 
report gives information about hours of work for three sepa- 
rate groups of agricultural labourers, namely : 



(1) The Swedish Agricultural Labourer, published hy order of The Swedish Govern- 
ment's. Delegation for International Collaboration in Social Politics. 



31 



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— 32 — 

(1) Ordinary agricultural labourers, by which is meant such 
labourers as perform work in the fields and the jobs conected 
therewith in barns, on threshing-floors etc. 

(2) Horsemen, whose main business is to work the teams' 
but who also, as a rule, have to feed and groom the horses and 
clean out the stables ; and finally. 

(3) Cattlemen, who are occupied with the care of the 
livestock. 

For the ordinarj' labourers the gross working time in sum- 
mer was 12.1 hours, the length of the meal-times 2.2 hours, and 
the net working time 9.9 hours per day on the average for the 
whole kingdom. The divergences from the All-Sweden aver- 
age which are shown by the county averages show that the 
hours of work vary in different parts of the country, as is 
-made clear by the annexed table. If we start from the All- 
Sweden average for the gross working time, 12.1 hours, we 
find that the counties whose average hours of work fall short 
of the average for the whole kingdom, and where consequently 
they are relatively shorty fall into two geographical districts, 
namely the three South Swedish counties, which show the 
shortest working-day in the kingdom (about 11 'A hours), and 
the Malar provinces, where the working-day comes to half an 
hour longer (attaining a maximum of 12 hours). This dis- 
trict passes gradually both towards the north and towards the 
south into the two remaining districts, central and southern 
Sweden on the one side and Norrland on the other, compris- 
ing regions where the county averages exceed the All-Sweden 
average, and where consequently the working-day is relatively 
long (is much as about 13 hours). Although, as has jus: been 
J ointed out, the gross working time is different in South Swe- 
den and the Malar region, the net working time is the same 
(10 hours), which is due to the fact that the resting time in the 
former region is usually 1.5 hours (only one interval, for din- 
ner), while it is 2 hours in the latter (divided between an inter- 
val for dinner and two short other intervals). In the two 
regions with a long working-day more and longer intervals are 
alloted, so that the effective working time is 10 V, — 11 hours. 
This last-named arrangement of the working time represents 
an older system of work, which, however, seems to be more 
and more giving way to the system now generally adopted 
in South Sweden and the Vale of Malar, by which both the 
number and the length of the intervals are cut down. 

During the winter the gross working-day was 9.1 hours, 
and the net working-day was 7.8 hours on the average for the 
whole kingdom, figures which fall short of the corresponding 
average figures in the summer 3.1 and 2.1 hours respectively. 
As regards the workings time in winter also there are dis- 
similarities between different parts of the country ; but on the 
whole the working day during the colder season of the year 
is shortest in the places where it is longest in summer and 
longest where it is shortest in summer. 



— 33 — 

A more concrete picture — and one which pays more atten- 
tion to actual working-time conditions — of the length of the 
working-day in different regions is obtained from the follow- 
ing table, in which the hundreds of the kingdom (and simi- 
lar divisions) are arranged according to the average net wor- 
king time that prevails there (hours per day) : 





Uii lei 
y.ii 


'J.O- 
9.4 


tt.o- 
.9 


10.1- 
111.4 


lU 5- 
10.9 


11.0- 
11.4 


11 ;i and 


Sum HUT 


IS'umljfr 

Pirceiilai^e. . . . 


5 

1.7 


26 
9.0 


135 
46.7 


101 
35.0 


10 
3.5 


8 
2.8 


4 
1.3 





a., er 
7.0 


' .4 


7.y 


8.4 


S.T- 

8.9 


9 4 


9. and 
ii|i\v.ir IS 


,,.. ( ^ll^lbel• 

U inter 

( 1 ercealiiijc .... 


8 57 
2.8 19.7 


122 
42.2 


67 
23.2 


27 
9.3 


7 
2.4 


1 

0.4 



The horsemen seem usually to end their work at the ".ame 
time as the other labourers. On the other hand the time for 
beginning work is often different for the two groups of 
labourers, especially in the Vale of Malar and Skane, where 
tiie horsemen begin from half an hour to two hours b' fore 
the agricultural labourers proper for the purpose of carrying 
out the stable work. 

The cattlemen's average gross working time for the king- 
dom as a whole has been estimated at 13.8 hours during the 
summer and 13.5 hours during the winter. Thus the c^ittle- 
men's working-day is usually very long ; but for certain 
hours of the day their work is limited to superintendini! and 
looking after the animals, when there are opportuniti.s for 
rest. Owing to the conditions indicated, however, there are 
certain difficulties in stating the intervals exactly. On the 
average, however, they have been estimated at 3 hours both 
in summer and in winter ; and the net working time ^vould 
thus amount to 10,8 and 10.3 hours respectively. The tending 
of animals necessarily involves that those who look after 
them must do work on Sundaj^s, but usually they have *.;very 
third Sunday off. 

It must be pointed out that during the summer months the 
work of the ordinar}^ agricultural labourers and the horse- 
men stops on Saturdays on many farms from half an hour 
to two hours earlier than during the five other working days, 
and that sometimes there is a special payment for overtime. 

As regards the individual working time per annun^ this 
enquiry shows that, for the 656 (40%) of the male workers 



— 34 — 

who have been employed for at least 11 months of the book- 
keeping year in question, the average number of effective 
working-hours — after the deduction of days off (according 
1o the collective agreements corresponding to about 89 hours 
per annum), days of sickness etc. — amounted to 2,824 if only 
ordinary working time be counted, and to 2,978, or 154 more, 
if an addition be made for feeding, grooming, and other 
extra work. The facts, however, assume a somewhat diffe- 
rent shape for different groups of workers, as is illustrated 
bv the following summary :" 



Average 
number of 


o 

5 
a 


d 

o 

o 
o 


-- o 
O rt 




ll 
°% 




IS 

C D 


= 1 
o •> 

t/2 


Labourers of 
dilTerent ages 


30 

u 

o 

5 


CO 


11 


Ordinary wor- 
king Iiours ... 

Tolal working 
hours (ordi- 
nary) and 


3,250 
3,299 


2,699 
2,983 


2,624 
2,669 


2,706 
2,748 


2.658 
2,776 


2,824 
2,978 


2,810 
2,971 


2,866 
2,998 


2,709 
2,838 


2,813 
2,9S3 


2,944 
3,013 





In this summary the most striking feature is the long work- 
ing time of the cattlemen, which, owing to the frequently 
advanced age of such men, has left its mark also on the num- 
ber of hours for the age-group covering sixty years and 
upwards. Nevertheless it should be noticed that there is a 
great difference for horsemen, amounting on an average to 
314 hours, between the ordinary and actual number of the 
hours of work, which is mainly caused by their extra work 
with feeding and grooming the horses, which amounts on 
an average to ^ / ^ hour per day. 

The mean working time per month is shown by the follow- 



Ca.i 


wi) 


.)an. 


Feb. 


Mareh 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oel. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


273 


256 


279 


272 


283 


264 


285 


280 


273 


280 


269 


270 


'b) 


277 


260 


284 


276 


287 


268 


289 


285 


278 


284 


273 


274 


Ho. 2 


sa) 


191 


195 


227 


223 


246 


218 


261 


246 


246 


242 


208- 


183 


MO 


217 


219 


253 


248 


272 


243 


288 


274 


270 


267 


232 


209 


Ord. 


,VA) 


191 


194 


225 


220 


245 


214 


257 


244 


244 


239 


203 


183 


'!)) 


195 


198 


229 


225 


249 


218 


261 


247 


246 


242 


206 


186 


Sp.* 


WO 


196 


198 


231 


223 


243 


219 


261 


245 


245 


243 


209 


188 


M.) 


199 


200 


232 


227 


247 


222 


264 


248 


247 


246 


212 


191 


Olh. 


^Wi) 


187 


192 


222 


220 


246 


214 


258 


246 


242 


237 


202 


177 


'b) 


195 


200 


231 


229 


255 


220 


262 


254 


249 


244 


208 


183 


Av.« 


Ml) 


212 


210 


240 


234 


254 


228 


266 


254 


251 


251 


222 


205 


'b) 


221 


221 


253 


247 


267 


241 


279 


267 


263 


263 


234 


218 



(1) Cattlemen. — (2) Horsemen. — (3) Ordinary labourers, 
men. — (5) Other workmen. — (6) General average. 



(4) Special work- 



— 35 — 

ing summary, which is based on figures not only for wor- 
kers engaged by the year but also for all regular male work- 
ers, where (a) means ordinary hours and (b) the total num- 
ber of hours of work actually done. 

The figures very clearly reveal the enhanced amount of 
work which is demanded from agricultural labourers in May 
and during the months of July to October. 



Hours of work regulated by national agreement. 



Agtiinst the background of these figures concerning the 
working-time conditions prevailing in the year 1919 — 1920 
should be regarded the settlement in this subject which, in 
respect of the hiring year 1920—1921, was made by local 
agreements in connection with the National Agreement of 
1919. Thus the number of working hours, not including 
intervals, which may be exacted per diem during the different 
months of the year has been fixed. In the counties of Central 
Sweden, as a rule, the following distribution has been 
laid down : November, 8 hours per day ; December, 
7 y, ; January, 8 ; February, 8 7,; 1 March — 15 April, 9 ; 
16 April — 30 September, 10; October, 9 hours. For South 
Sweden a different distribution has been arranged with a 
more even distribution of working time among the different 
months; in Skane, for instance, 9 hours in October and 
November, 8 hours from December to February, and 10 IkOurs 
from March to September. Deducting days off, the -iggre- 
gate working time per annum amounts to about 2,650 hours, 
with the exception of Skane, where the ordinary working 
time is about 50 hours longer per annum than in other coun- 
ties. Above the ordinary working time labourers who drive 
horses and servants boarded by the employer are obliged 
before the beginning of working time to clean out the stalls 
for, and groom, at most 3 horses. For cattlemen it has been 
laid down that the ordinary working time is the time « that 
is required for rational management and care of the stock, 
which time as a rule should not exceed 10 hours and under 
no circumstances for regular work inay amount to more than 
11 hours per day, not counting meal-times ». The number 
of intervals per diem and their length have also been fixed 
in the local agreements. As a rule, they consist of an inter- 
val of ly, hours for dinner during those times of the year 
when the working time exceeds nine hours a day, and ^f one 
hour during the other months. Agricultural work proper 
must not, as a rule, begin before 7 a. m., nor end later than 
7 p. m. (on Saturdays 6 p. m.). For overtime work there is 
special compensation, usually 50 "/o higher than the ordi- 
nary hour's pay 



— 36 — 



Hours of work regulated by custom. 



According to 
infoniialioii t'roin 


7.6 


7.8 


8.4 


9.2 


a 


c 




3 
< 


a. 


-6 
8.7 


o 
Z 

7.9 


7.5 


A- Cliairuien of 
parish councils 


9.7 


9.8 


9.8 


9.8 


9.6 


B. .aimer and j ,. 
Labour Or- J/j; 
gauiziilions. ; 


8.0 


8.4 


9.1 


9.8 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


9.9 


9.0 


8.2 


7.6 


7.9 


8.3 


9.2 


9.8 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


9.9 


9.0 


8.3 


7.7 



According to section A of the table, which is bast d on 
figures from about 1,250 chairmen of parish councils, the 
daily net working time during the months June — August, 
when the M'orking day is longest, would be 9.8 hours on an 
average, and during the months of December — February, 
when the working day is shortest, it would be 7.5 — 7.8 hours. 
The average summer working time for the same category of 
labourers in. 1919 amounted, as mentioned above, to 9.9 and 
7.8 hours respectively. To judge by this, the working time 
during the last year has been further shortened, certainly 
in the main in consequence of the settlement in the ai'ove- 
mentioned collective agreements, as the effective working 
time agriculture is laid down according to a division of time 
which closely agrees with that given in the table^ 

The way in which working time has been arranged in 
accordance wdth these agreements finds stili more distinct 
expression in the working-time figures, obtained direct from 
265 organized employers and 210 agricultural trade-unions 
which have been abstracted in Section B. The diver^£;ences 
from A, it will be seen, are small, but remarkable enough : 
according to both sides, the average working time would, 
as a rule, be somewhat longer than it is according to the in- 
formation of the parish councils. The explanation of this 
should probably be sought partly in the great difficult es in 
the exact fixing and stating of working time in agriculture 
and partly in the varjdng range and scope of the inforniationo 

The questionnaire of the enquiry contained a question whe- 
ther the figures given could be regarded as striting the effec- 
tive hours of labour, or whether they ought to be reduced to 
allow for the lime taken in going from the farm to the place 
of work and back again. In the answers given attention is 
often directed to the above-mentioned fact that, while in in- 
dustry the time of work is usually reckoned froin the arrival 
of the workmen at, till his departure ^rom, the place of work, 
on large farms a considerable part of the working time is 
taken for covering the distance from the farmhouse to the 
place of work and back again. Usually this « walking time » 
is included in the ordinary working time. To obtain any 



— 37 — 

exact figures concerning the time which is taken for going 
out to work and returning, naturally meets with great diffi- 
culties, as the conditions are so very different not only on 
different properties but even on the same farm, where if 
situated on an adjacent field not so much as a quarter of an 
hour would be required for the purpose, while in a distant 
field or wood a couple of hours might be required. A special 
enquiry with regard to the above mentioned 74 farms has 
shown that the average time for going out and returning has 
been one hour per day per labourer. As might be expected, 
the « walking time », as a rule, has been longer in Central 
Sweden (average 1.2 hours) than in South Sweden (average 
0.8 hours). 

In this connection it ma}^ be mentioned that the other side 
of the « walking time » problem, namely the distance from 
the labourer's home to the employer's farm has not, so far as 
we know, been noticed in the regulation of the working time, 
although this question may be of very great importance, es- 
pecially on properties which include amongst their labourers, 
crofters living a long way off. 

Finally the questionnaire had included the following ques- 
tion : « Do you consider that the present working time in 
agriculture is suitable? If not, what changes would you pro- 
pose with regard to its length and disposition (during differ- 
ent months and between different hours of the day) ? » 

The utterances on the main question may be preliminarily 
summarized as follows : 



Kind of inlbrniant 


Suitalilc 


Suitable, hut 

dis[)osilion 
should lie 
chanycd 


Answerer?: who con- 
sider that the present 
working limo is : 


Too short 


Too long 


Chairmen of parishsNumber . . . 
councils 'Percentage. 

At^ricullural Employ-^Number . . . 
CIS 'Percenlage, 

Agricultural Trade- \ Number . . . 
Unions 'Percentao'e. 


1,359 
85.5 

202 
76.2 

40 
14.7 


29 
1.8 

11 
4.2 

3 
1.1 


177 
11.2 

52 
19.6 

1 
0.4 


24 
1.5 

227 

83.8 





If one looks at thcparties chiefly interested, the employers 
and the employees, we find that, while three-fourths of the 
former regard the present working time in agriculture as sa- 
tisfactory and only one-fifth urge its lengthening, only one- 
seventh of the agricultural trade-unions are satisfied with 
their present working time and more than four-fifths consid- 
er that it ought to be further shortened. As regards how 
far such a shortening ought to go, however, opinions seem 
to be very much divided. While certain trade-unions, espe- 

142164 



— 38 — 



cially those of agricultural labourers engaged by industrial 
concerns, desire to be placed on a complete footing of equal- 
ity with their fellows in industry, that is to say an eight-hour 
day all the year round or at least as an average, the majority 
of the rest hmit themselves to proposing less thorough-going 
changes, chiefly aiming at the shortening of the ten-hour day 
in the summer to 9 1/2 or 9 hours, the reduction of the cattle- 
men's long working dav, or the inclusion in the ordinary work- 
ing time of the horsemen's work in feeding and grooming, 
a further shortening of the working time on Saturdays, etc. 



CHAPTER II 

MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF OR PROVIDING 
AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT 



Introduction 

The present chapter contains a resume of the organisation 
and activities of the employment service and unemployment 
insurance in various countries, as well as a discussion of the 
schemes submitted for the consideration of governments in 
the questionnaire prepared by the International Labour Of- 
fice concerning Agricultural Questions. These include 
schemes for stabilizing emf)loyment such as land settlement 
and small holdings, cooperative holding of land, types of 
farming in reference to employment and supplementary 
employments. 



A. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 



The Governments have been much interested in the ques- 
tion of the placing of agricultural labour in recent years, and 
in their replies to the agricultural questionnaire most of 
them pronounce in favour of the adoption of a recommend- 
ation extending the national sj'stem of employment exchanges 
to agriculture. 

A measure of this kind is especially necessary on account 
of the great fluctuations in agricultural work, the necessity 
for the sudden and rapid transference of large masses of 
workers, the multiplicity and irregularity of the work, the 
poverty which is generally prevalent among agricultural work- 
ers, and the urgency of their work. The associations of land- 
owners and the Agricultural Chambers in Europe were the 



— 40 — 

first to realise the need of organisation in this respect. At an 
early date they set up centres for the recruiting and placing 
of agricultural workers. The central offices for agricultural 
workers (Feldarbeiterzentrale) in Germany and Austria, and 
the Chambers of Agriculture in France were formerly the 
most highly developed organisations for the recruiting and 
placing of foreign labour in agriculture. 

This example was soon followed by the official labour ex- 
changes which attempted to unify the labour market and to 
induce workers of rural origin who had drifted into industrial 
work for which they were unfitted, to return to work on the 
land. 

Before the war it was the Central Powers which carried out 
this policy most actively. The placing of agricultural labour 
had attained real importance in these countries, especially 
within the Economic Union of Central Europe. In other count- 
ries a number of private associations for the placing of 
agricultural workers also sprang up. 

These conditions were, however, modified by the war. 
During the war the Governments perceived the necessity for 
a satisfactory distribution of agricultural labour which had 
become still more scarce. Interesting and successful systems 
were created in France, Italy and the United States for this 
purpose, but certain of these war organisations have already 
ceased to function. Other countries, such as Switzerland, Swe- 
den, Norway and Canada, already have well-developed em- 
ployment exchanges which may serve as models; while still 
other countries, such as India, Poland and the Netherlands 
are making a close study of the problem, and are attempting 
to set up an effective system. 

From the experience abready gained it would appear that in 
accordance with the Washington Draft Convention concern- 
ing workers in general, the Genoa Draft Convention concern- 
ing seamen, and the recommendation of the Elmigration 
Commission concerning emigrants, the solution should be 
sought in a development of the national system of employ- 
ment agencies, regard being had to the adaptations required 
by the special needs of agriculture. 

The special requirements prevailing in agriculture which 
should be taken into account include the following in parti- 
cular. 

(1) National labour should be as mobile as possible, so that 
workers may be transferred quickly and successfully from one 
district to another. 

(2) There eventually should be transport facilities for for- 
eign seasonal workers, and information shold be supplied 
to them. 

(3) Recruiting of the workers required for busy seasons 
should be facilitated. 

(4) Measures should be taken to check the rural exodus 



— 41 — 

as far as f)ossible and to induce agricultural workers to 
remain on the land. 

(5) Agricultural workers who do occasional spells of other 
work should be induced to return to agriculture. 

Some details of the most interesting experiments in the 
placing of agricultural workers by public employment ex- 
changes in various countries are given in the following pages. 

Austria 

There is no general law concerning labour exchanges in 
Austria. The general public employment exchanges which 
exist are co-ordinated by the Labour Exchanges attached to 
the District Industrial Commission. The Central Exchange Of- 
fice is attached to the Ministry for Social Welfare. There is a 
Head Office for Agriculture in the Federal Ministry of Agri- 
culture which deals with agricultural questions. There is 
also a provincial office for the exchange of agricultural lab- 
our, with an official of superior rank at the head, attached 
to the government of each of the provinces. This organisa- 
tion has, however, no special local organisations. The ex- 
change of agricultural labour is carried out in each province 
by the competent sections of the general public employment 
exchanges. In Vienna it is at present carried out by the 
Agricultural Society. 

Belgium 

The organisation of public employment agencies in Bel- 
gium has made great progress since the war. The Govern- 
ment has completed the work previously undertaken in this 
sphere by a certain number of communes by setting up a 
network of labour exchanges all over the country. The num- 
ber of placings made by these institutions in 1920 was 57,409. 
As regards agriculture, however, their work is almost negli- 
gible. In 1920 there were only 207 placings of gardeners and 
agricultural workers. 

A certain number of employment exchanges were set up 
shortly after the Armistice in purely agricultural districts. 
These were abolished by the Government at the beginning of 
1920 as experience had shown that they had little chance of 
success. 

Canada 

The Employment Service of Canada is organised under the 
Employment Offices Co-ordination Act 1918, amended 1920. 
Each province maintains its own employment offices, subsi- 
dised by the Federal Government, the whole sj'^stem being 



— 42 — 

co-ordinated by the latter. To assist the Minister of Labour 
in the administration of the above Act, an Employment Ser- 
vice Council of Canada has been appointed, consisting of one 
member each appointed by the Provincial Governments, two 
members each appointed by the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association, the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, and 
the Canadian Council of Agriculture, three members appoin- 
ted by the Department of Labour (of whom two are women), 
one member each appointed by the Railway War Board, the 
Railway Brotherhood, the Returned Soldiers, and the Soldiers 
Civil Re-establishment Department. 

The clearance work of the Employment Service is well 
organised. Each local office reports daily to the clearing 
house of the province (1) positions unfilled and impossible to 
fill locally, (2) applicants unplaced and willing to leave loca- 
lity. Similar information is sent from the provincial clearing- 
houses to interprovincial clearing-houses at Ottawa for the 
East and Winnipeg for the West. Finally application for 
employment and orders for labour that appear to be espec- 
ially difficult to satisfy are circulated in a Dominion clear- 
ance bulletin. 

The Employment Service works in close co-operation with 
the Department of Agriculture, whose representatives in the 
counties are in close touch with the fanners, and are able to 
pass on demands for labour to the employment offices. Great 
facilities are also given by the post offices, which forward 
such demands, on special forms of post card size, free of 
charge. A third factor of great importance is the telephone; 
most of the farmers possess one, and this enables them to 
get into iminediate touch with the nearest employment ex- 
change. 

There are 91 employment offices in Canada. 

The following table shows the total numbers handled by 
the Employment Service of Canada in all industries for the 
year 1919-20. 



1 MEN 


WOMEN 


TOTAL 


Ajiplioalions 

fiom 
workpeople 


'S 

- o 

> ~ 


.2 


Applioations 

from 
workpeople 


I o 

r. c 
> 


rt " 
> 


.\pplioalions 

fi'om 
workpeople 




.2 

> 


437,200 


396,924 


307,883 


33,050 


52,098 


21,054 


470,250 


449.022 


328,937 



There were also 51,663 casual placements (i. e. placements 
for less than a week's work). 



— 43 — 

The recent report received from the Department of Labour 
for the fiscal year 1920-21 gives the following employment 
statistics for agricultural work : 95,103 applications for em- 
ployment or 21,5% of the total ; 103,138 vacancies notified or 
22.9 V„, of the total and 82,271 placements or 24.2 "A of the total 
for all industries. In the cities of Toronto and Winnipeg, 
special farm labour departments are maintained in the local 
offices. To meet the demand for help on the western farms 
for the spring seeding a special effort was made to recruit 
workers as they were released by the mines and lumber 
camps at the close of the winter activity. To this end, tem- 
porary offices were opened at Big River and Hudson Bay 
Junction in Saskatchewan, and Bow^sman and Barrow's Junc- 
tion in Manitoba, and as the workers became available from 
the camps or mines, they were despatched direct to spring 
work on farms in the Prairie Provinces. 

« The demand for harvesters for the western wheat crop 
taxed the Service heavily. In the four weeks from August 
11 to September 6, the Service received orders for almost 
50,000 w^orkers of whom approximately half were required by 
farmers in the w^estern provinces. A conference was held 
with the passenger traffic managers of the raihvays and 
general policy with regard to the harvest excursions, adver- 
tisement of the excursions in the eastern provinces, the rail- 
way' rates, and the method of distribution from Winnipeg 
were discussed. For some years the railwa^^s had refrained 
from running excursions out of the Maritime Provinces with 
the result that the entire burden of the western harvest 
labour demand fell upon the provinces of Ontario and Que- 
bec at a tiine when they required farm labour. In view^ of 
this and also of the fact that there was some unemployment 
in the coal mining districts of the Maritime Provinces in the 
summer of 1919 it was arranged to despatch excursions from 
those provinces though at a somewhat higher fare than from 
Ontario and Quebec. Employment offices in British Columbia 
also gave special attention to the harvest labour deinand 
from the Prairie Provinces and about 500 persons were de- 
spatched from the Pacific coast. By this plan, the burden of 
supplying the harvest labour requirements of the west was 
more evenly distributed, and at the same time unemploj^- 
ment in the Maritime Provinces was considerably relieved. » 

The Employment Service of Canada is available for all 
workers, including those engaged in agriculture. The main 
problem is that of seasonal workers, and this formed one of 
the principal subjects of discussion at the annual conference 
of Western representatives of the Einplojmient Service of 
Canada, which was held at Regina, Sask., on March 8 and 9, 
1921 (1). 



The Labour Gazette (Canada), April 1921, pp. OO.l-fiOr,. 



-_ 44 — 

The General Superintendent of Employment Agencies for 
Alberta, « pointed out the seasonal nature of farm labour and 
the influence of climatic conditions on the demand. The dif- 
ficulties faced by the Employment Service in supplying har- 
vest labour were described. Owing to the extremely rapid 
vegetation in the three prairie provinces it is almost impos- 
sible to forecast when harvesting will commence in the var- 
ious sections of the country. Harvest labour must be import- 
ed, but as to when and in what quantity no advance infor- 
mation is available; consequently either too many or too 
few labourers are imported, or they are brought in either 
too early or later than they should be. The demand for labour 
in other quarters during the harvesting season accounts for 
the shortage in farm labour. At that period of the year 
there was a great demand for men among the mining compa- 
nies, lumbering firms, railway construction contractors, and 
on government and municipal works. » 

The representative of the Saskatchewan Grain Growers' 
Association, submitted recommendations which had been 
agreed upon by the representatives of the various farmers' 
organisations who were present, and which included : 

(a) Abolition of private labour bureaux. 

(b) Periodical survey to estimate labour requirements for 
any period (farmers' associations should be used for this 
purpose where possible). Labour Bureaux should make every 
effort to adjust labour supply to meet requirements of seas- 
onal employment within the province, by making the trans- 
fer of labour from agriculture to winter industries and vice 
versa. 

The Commissioner of Labour and Industry made the fol- 
lowing suggestion towards the solution of the farm labour 
problem : That a more general use of the Employment Ser- 
vice be made by the farmers, and that there be less indiscrim- 
inate hiring of men from other sources; that the idea be 
impressed upon farmers that hiring of men a few days 
before they are actually needed is cheap insurance against 
loss due to labour shortage later on; that newspaper inter- 
views by individuals « boosting » the crop conditions in the 
locality, and the possible shortage of men, be discouraged, 
and that such interviews should be offset by a system of cen- 
tralized reliable official advertising of actual conditions by 
the Employment Service. » 



Chili (1) 

A Bill relating to the establishment of Employment 
Exchanges is under consideration by Congress. An Employ- 



(1) Reply of the Government of Chili to Questionnaire II, 1921. 



— 45 — 

ment Service has been improvised on different occasions for 
supplying employment for workers and providing free trans- 
portation to their work. Recently, in view of the unemploy- 
ment in saltpetre, copper and coal mines, a large numl)er oi 
workers in these industries have been found agrici Itural 
employment. 



China (1) 

On the farms the labourers usually form into small groups 
of from 25 to 100 men, under the direction of a « headman » 
and his assistants. When labour is needed, the employer 
makes a contract with the headman, who sends him workers 
for the job. The headman collects bills and divides gross 
receipts with his men in an agreed ratio, which varies in 
various communities. As the headman usually knows local 
conditions well, his information on emplojanent and labour 
is accurate. In the absence of employment bureaux this 
organisation though antiquated, is highly useful for lessening 
unemployment in seasonal labour such as agriculture. 



France 

There is a dual organisation for the placing of agricultural 
labourers in France under the auspices of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and the Ministrj-^ of Labour respectively. 

The first system, which is controlled by the National Office 
for Agricultural Labour (2) at present includes about 50 de- 
partmental agricultural agencies, most of which were 
founded by the local associations of farmers. The object of 
these agencies (3) is on the one hand the recruiting and plac- 
ing of farm workers, and on the other the improvement of 
the labour conditions of the peasants. Although they are 
attached to the Ministry of Agriculture they are organisa- 
tions of a private character and are subject to the declara- 
tion referred to in Article 84 of Book 1 of the Labour Code 
concerning free private employment agencies. No statistics 
of their work have up to the present been published. They do 
not, however, appear to have accomplished much (4). 

The second system is that of departmental labour 
exchanges which are controlled and co-ordinated by the 
Ministry of Labour, and deal with all workers in industry, 
commerce and agriculture. These exchanges are very active 



(1) This inlormation is derived from an article by Ta Clien, M. A. of Columbia 
University, in the Monthly Labour Review, Deceu her, 1920. 

(2) Set up in the Ministry of Agriculture by the Act of 25 October 1919. 

(3) Circular of the Ministry of Agriculture of 13 September 1920. 

(4) Association francaise pour la lutte contre le chomage, Bulletin No. 49-May 
1921. 



— 46 — 

in the placing of agricultural labour. They have correspond- 
ents in the principal rural centres; they carry on propaganda 
even in the smallest communes, and they have, wherever 
possible, set up agricultural sections. During the recent 
unemployment crisis they attempted to divert the town 
unemployed, many of whom were peasants who had left the 
land, back to the country districts. This work of redistribu- 
ting labour for the benefit of agriculture is carried on system- 
atically. The Bulletin dii Marche dii Travail, published by 
the Ministry of Labour, gives a weekly statement of the 
number of vacancies notified in agriculture which have not 
been filled at the end of the week. These returns enable the 
employment exchanges which have agricultural workers on 
their registers to place themselves in direct touch with the 
exchanges in departments where suitable employment is 
available. The total number of agricultural placings made in 
1920 by the exchanges attached to the Ministry of Labour 
exceeded 50,000. This figure is, however, comparatively small 
in proportion to the total placings in industry and commerce, 
which amounted to more than a million in 1920. 

The idea of setting up a separate system of agricultural 
labour agencies distinct from the industrial, commercial and 
domestic agencies, meets with opposition from the specialists 
exchanges which are administered by joint committees, and 
in this subject, who state their views in the Bulletin de I' asso- 
ciation francaise pour la lutte contre le chomage (1). They 
consider that the well-established network of departmental 
which have fjroved their work, should be sufficient for the 
requirements of agricultural employment, particularly if 
special branches for this industry are set up. 

At the congress of the National Federation of Land- 
workers at Limoges in 1920 emphasis was laid on the impor- 
tance of a single system of labour exchange as being more 
favourable to the mobility of labour and calculated to avoid 
the danger of dividing industrial and rural workers into dis- 
tinct and opposed classes. The report submitted to this Con- 
gress contains the following passage : 

« The question of employment exchanges is particularly 
important in our view. The question is, however, how they 
should be organised... We cannot think of being satisfied 
with the muddle of official administration. The stern lessons 
of the war have, however, induced the authorities to consider 

the application of a new system employment exchanges 

with joint representation. This system has already shown 
good results in industry and cominerce and may equally well 
be successful in agriculture. It is only necessary to develop it 
and to adapt it to the needs and requirements of this branch 
of production We are thus obliged to contemplate the 



(1) No. 41, Ueceniber 1920; and No. 49, May 1921. 



— 47 — 

creation of special branches for agriculture. It would be 
still better to set up offices with joint representation in every 
province at least in districts which are essentially agricultural 
in character. These offices might be connected with the 
central office through the departmental or regional office. » 

The resolution passed by the Congress expresses « the 
desire to see the system of labour exchange by joint repre- 
sentation extended and developed under the control of trade 
organisations on the same conditions as for commercial and 
industrial workers in those departments where the trade 
union point of view has prevailed. » It also demands that 
all private or clandestine employment agencies which still 
exist should be suppressed. The work of the public 
employment exchanges as regards French agriculture makes 
it particularly clear that the public organisation of the 
exchange of labour is a means of combating not only unem- 
ployment but also the shortage of labour. The finding of 
emplo3anent is also the recruiting of labour. As regards the 
latter point it should be mentioned that in the matter of 
recruiting foreign labour there is liaison between the agricul- 
tural employment exchange organisations and the organisa- 
tion of the Ministry of Labour for the recruiting of foreign 
workers. 

In 1900 the number of foreign agricultural workers who 
immigrated into France was as follows (1). 

Men Women Children Total 

Spanish or Portuguese... 28.884 7.059 5.499 41.442 

Italians 8.399 1.479 686 10.564 

Belgians 14.417 604 192 15.213 

Poles 1 .392 320 181 1 .893 

Total 53.092 9.462 6.558 69.112 



One of the difficulties in the recruiting of foreign labour 
is that after the employer has paid the travelling expenses 
of the foreign worker, the latter may break his contract 
shortly after arriving. The mutual insurance of employers 
against this risk appears to be a suitable remedy, and the 
Agricultural Labour Bureau of the Department of Mourthe- 
et-Moselle has undertaken an interesting initiative in this 
respect (2). 

Germany 

Up to the present the placing of agricultural or other labour 
has not been regulated by law in a uniform manner in 



(1) La main-d'ocuvre aijricole, June 1921. 

(2) For details of the organisation, sec La main-d'ccuvre atjricole, April 1921. 



_ 48 — 

Germany. Even before the war, the South German States 
had a uniform employment exchange organisation which 
also embraced agriculture. In Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Alsace, 
Baden, Schleswig Holstein and Brandenburg the agricul- 
tural employers have accepted the public employment ex- 
changes and have given financial assistance to the Associa- 
tions for the Exchange of Labour. . . In east Prussia, on the 
other hand, the Chambers of Agriculture have maintained 
their independent position as regards the placing of native 
agricultural labour as well as regards other matters, al- 
though they have exchanged information concerning 
the demand and supply of labour with the public agencies 
of the towns. In the year 1909, the Germany Agricultural 
Chambers of Labour only found employment for 12,000 na- 
tive workers, and in 1913 the figures had fallen to 3355 men 
and 3515 women (in addition to 97,637 foreign workers). In 
the later years, however, the public employment exchanges, 
most of which are in the towns, found agricultural employ- 
ment for about 60,000 workers (In 1895 only 2,135 agricultural 
employees were provided with posts by 10 agencies). In the 
last 3'^ears before the war, these organisations made the fol- 
lowing placings : 

Year Placings 

1910 62.341 

1912 91.517 

1913 103.840 

1914 158.241 



In 1911, for example, the Munich employment excha^ige 
alone found agricultural employment for 4,400 town work- 
ers, of whom 84% were servants and 16% day labourers. 
The Agricultural Section of the Berlin employment exchange 
in the first year during which it functioned (1914) placed 
2,956 urban workers in agriculture. Since the war, this pro- 
cess of the unification of the labour market for native 
workers has been still further developed. 

By an order of 9 December 1918 (R.G.B.1421), the Prussian 
Central authorities empowered the Minister of Commerce to 
issue a nuniber of measures and orders dealing with the 
employment exchange system, especially as regards the 
compulsory institution of public employment exchanges, the 
regulation of the work of such exchanges, the institution of 
Central Organisations, to co-ordinate the work of all 
employment exchanges, including agricultural emplojment 
exchanges, and the drawing up of reports on the state of the 
labour market by the employment exchanges. 

According to the order or 16 March 1919 (R.G.B. p. 
310) employers in agriculture and forestry are obliged to 
report all vacancies at once to an employment agency which 



— 49 — 

is not carried on for profit, and to inform the same agency 
within 24 hours when these vacancies are filled. 

The employment exchanges must, so far as possible, find 
agricultural employment for persons who have already been 
engaged in agriculture or forestry as long as there are vacant 
posts in agriculture with suitable wage and labour condi- 
tions. No exchange not carried on for profit and no person- 
carrying on an employment agency for profit, may provide 
persons who, at the outbreak of war, or during the war, 
were engaged in agriculture or forestry, with employment 
in any other occupation unless they have become unfitted for 
work in agriculture or forestry. Until this order is revoked, 
employers in other industries than agriculture and forestry 
may not engage workers who, at the outbreak of war or 
during the war were engaged in agriculture or forestry 
unless they have become unfitted for work of this kind. 
Male and female unemployed workers previously employed 
in agriculture or forestry, as well as other male and female 
workers previously engaged in these industries who can 
prove to the local authorities of their last place of residence 
that they have obtained a post in agriculture or forestry and 
are therefore obliged to change their domicile, receive 
various privileges, e. g., free transport to the place of em- 
ployment and a suitable travelling allowance. Members of 
the worker's family who form part of his household and are 
obliged to accompany or follow him to his new place of 
employment in order to keep house for him, receive free 
transport and a suitable travelling allowance, etc. The 
expenses are paid by the commune or communal union of 
the last place of residence. In the case of unemployed per- 
sons, the unemployment relief funds are used ; in the case 
of other workers, half of the expenses are refunded to the 
commune or communal union of the last place of domicile 
by the Federal Government and the State. Employers and 
persons carrying on employment agencies for profit, who 
contravene this order, are liable to a fine not exceeding 
3,000 marks. The order will be revoked when the shortage of 
labour in agriculture comes an end. 

The various States have issued orders, e. g., the Prussian 
Provisional Order of 12 September 1919, according to which 
a public employment exchange must in principle be set up 
in every subordinate administrative district. These exchanges 
may be combined in association with other employment 
agencies not carried on for profit, and provisional offices for 
the co-ordination of the system may be set up. These offices 
which are known as Landesarbeitsdmter are to take over 
the work of the Central Administration Bureaux. 

Very little information concerning the work accomplished 
by this provisional organisation as regards agriculture is 
available. In 1919, it was still believed that great masses of 
urban workers could be immediately transferred to agricul- 
ture. This was in fact done, but on the other hand, there was 



— 50 — ' 

an equally important movement in the other direction. No 
exact figures for 1919 are available, but the proportion may 
be estimated in many cases at 60 or even 80 per cent. The 
number of town workers placed in agriculture by the labour 
bureaux of the States in 1919 was about 10,000 in Sachsen- 
Anhalt, and about 600 in Brandenburg; 6,209 urban workers, 
mostly from Saxony, were found employment in East Prussia. 
In 1920 the number of placings was smaller, as the labour 
shortage in agriculture was most acute shortly after the end 
of the war in 1919. 

The 1920 figures were as follows : 

Total Men Wom 

Labour Bureau for Sach- 

sen-Anhalt 2.693 505 2.188 

Labour Bureau for Bran- 
denburg 800 — — 

Labour Bureau for Lower 

Saxony 951 242 709 

Workers sent to East 

Prussia 2.229 — — 

The Sachsen-Anhalt Labour Bureau collected exact infor- 
mation through its welfare workers in 1920 concerning the 
number of their workers who remained in agricultural 
employment and their success. The main points are given 
below. 

On 1 September, 34 per cent of the men and 58 per cent of 
the women were still employed, while later, on 1 November 
there were still 27 per cent of the men and 40 per cent of 
the women. Of these 48 per cent and 52 per cent respectively 
had already been employed in agriculture in the previous 
year. A particularly important point is that individual work- 
ers engaged in seasonal work on large estates often obtain 
permanent posts on smaller properties. The Federal Depart- 
ment for employment exchanges, recognising the economic 
value of works of this kind, has recently issued a regulation 
laying down the principle that special arrangements for the 
investigation of posts and for welfare work may be regarded 
as measures of productive unemployment relief. The above- 
mentioned Federal Orders have been maintained in order to 
remedy the shortage of labour in agriculture. Thus the 
Bavarian Minister for Social Welfare states in an order dated 
17 June 1921 to the district and communal administrative 
officials and to the labour bureaux, that these orders « are not 
revoked by the repeal of the orders concerning demobilisa- 
tion, and the abolition of the demobilisation authorities and 
committees which has since taken place ». 

Before the war Germany imported 400,000 foreign seasonal 
workers every year to relieve the shortage of agricultural 



— 51 — 

• 
workers. These workers were recruited by the private 
« German Labour Offices » set up by the Chambers of Agri- 
culture and other agricultural employers' organisations, and 
subsidised by the State. The principal object was to eliminate 
private agents, as this system involved disadvantages both 
for employers and workers. The Labour Offices, whose work 
was limited after the war to the recruiting of agricultural 
workers, are obliged to ensure that the foreign workers shall 
obtain normal conditions of work. 

As breach of contract is often due to the activity of recrui- 
ting agents, the President of the Federal Department for 
Labour Exchange issued an order dated 26 May 1920 (Zentral- 
blatt fiir das deutsche Reich, No. 25) prohibiting profes- 
fessional employinent agents on pain of punishment from 
finding employment for foreign immigrant workers, and 
making it a punishable offence for foreign immigrant 
workers to leave one post in order to take up another. The 
order was issued by virtue of the powers conferred on the 
Federal Department for Labour Exchange bv the Federal 
Order of 5 May 1920 (R.G.B. p. 876). Agricultural Cham- 
bers and individual employers can however themselves 
engage foreign workers through their agents or other repre- 
sentatives. The foreign workers are supplied with identifica- 
tion cards at the frontier for purposes of supervision and 
especially to avoid breaches of contract. 

An Order of the Minister of Labour dated 24 July 1920 laj's 
down that the necessity of obtaining foreign labour must be 
established by joint committees of the interested parties or 
by the Provincial Labour Offices. Thus the employment of 
foreign labour in agriculture is strictly controlled, especially 
in Prussia. According to the latest decree ot the Prussian 
Minister of the Interior dealing with this subject (2 May 1921), 
police proceedings may be taken against employers who 
employ foreign labour in posts for which permission has not 
been given by the Provincial Labour Office. Foreign workers 
who accept work in such posts may also be deported or sent 
to other posts. In most cases proceedings for breach of 
contract are taken in virtue of these provisions. In a circular 
of 6 July 1921 « concerning the prevention of breach of con- 
tract by foreign workers » , the Federal Minister of Labour 
recommends the governments of the States to issue regula- 
tions on the model of those in force in Prussia. 

It is proposed to regulate all labour exchanges in future by 
a Federal Act. Two Draft Bills have already been placed 
before the public for consideration. 



— 52 — 

Great Britain 

The public employment exchanges are open to agricultural 
workers on the same terms as to other workers, but compar- 
atively little use is made of them for this purpose. This ap- 
pears to be due partly to the fact that agriculture is not includ- 
ed in the Unemployment Insurance Act (and agricultural 
workers are, therefore, under no obligation to register at the 
exchanges) and partly to the fact that fanners prefer to ob- 
tain their labour direct. Thus, in the four weeks ending 
3 June, 1921, there were 2,637 applications from workers 
(men), 893 vacancies notified, and 647 vacancies filled; the 
figures for women were 351, 129 and 72 respectively. The 
total numbers on all industries for the saine period were, for 
men 407,387; 33,270; and 31,633; and for women 164,540; 
25,518; and 16,970. 

The report of the committee of enquiry into the work of 
the employment exchanges, which was published in 1920, 
says : « we recommend that the employment exchanges 
should continue to deal with agricultural labour. While the 
exchanges do not perform a large volume of work for agri- 
culture, their work of this type is appreciable, amounting to 
about 100 vacancies filled each day throughout the kingdom. 
We do not think that employment exchanges or branch em- 
ployment offices should be established with special regard 
for agricultural needs, but the general requirements for local 
offices to administer unemployment insurance will, no doubt, 
go a long way to provide offices at which workpeople seek- 
ing employment in agriculture can suitably be dealt with. 

We would add that the conclusions which we have reached 
on this point are in harmony with the draft convention adop- 
ted by the International Labour Conference at Washington in 
1919, recommending the provision by the State of free public 
employment agencies under the control of a central autho- 
rity. )) 

In an appendix to the report of the committee on unem- 
ployment insurance in agriculture appointed by the Agri- 
cultural Wages Board the following summary for England 
and Wales, made up on the 9th of each month, is given : 



1920 
January. . . . 
April 

July 

October. . . . 

1921 
January . . . 


Wor 
Males 


kers regis 
F'emalcs 


tered 
Total 


Vac 
Males 


ancles noli 
Females 


fied 
Total 


7.204 
4.095 
2.594 
1.891 

3.081 


102 

110 

109 

79 

113 


7.306 
4.805 
2.703 
1.970 

3.194 


321 
421 
434 
347 

169 


54 
68 
99 
30 

13 


375 
489 
533 
377 

182 



— 53 — 

In explanation of the fact that the number of workers re- 
gistered and vacancies notified in January 1921 was onl}' half 
the number in January 1920, it is suggested in the note ac- 
companying this summary that in January 1920 unemployed 
workers were possibly keeping their names on the register 
in expectation of the continuance of the Unemployment Don- 
ation, wheras in January 1921 « the number of persons 
describing themselves as farm workers was reduced by rea- 
son of a belief that by so describing themselves they would 
be disqualified for receiving benefit under the new Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act ». 



Holland 

In the Netherlands there exists a very complete and increa- 
singly efficient network of public labour exchanges. These 
exchanges have however done little as regards agriculture. 
In 1920, out of the large total of 154,305 placings, only 1,486 
referred to agricultural employment. 

The small number of placings in agriculture attracted the 
attention of the Government, which called a conference of 
all the agricultural organisations to discuss the situation. 
They were asked whether it was desirable to attempt to 
bring together the demand and the supply of agricultural 
labour by means of official labour exchanges. 

The representatives were almost unanimous in giving an 
affirmative reply to this proposal, especially as regards tem- 
porary migrations of agricultural workers from one district 
to another for special work. 

The Government has therefore appointed a Commission 
of Enquiry to investigate how the work of the labour ex- 
changes could be extended so as to satisfy the requirements 
of agriculture as fully as possible. 



Hungary 

In Hungarj^ the public system of employment exchanges 
for agricultural labour is organised in accordance with the 
Order of the Ministry of Agriculture dated 20 September 
1899, which was issued in exercise of powers granted by 
Act II of the year 1898. In addition, an official organisation 
for the placing of labour in industry, commerce and mining 
was subsequently set up on the basis of Act XVI of 1916. It 
was not, however, in any way connected with the former 
organisation. 

The real purpose of the agricultural labour exchange sys- 
tem is merely to carry out the mass recruiting of seasonal 
workers in one district for harvest work in another. Like the 



— 54 — 

general administration, the organisation has three stages : 
there are local and municipal organisations, and a central 
organisation (the Labour Exchange section of the Ministry 
of Agriculture) which have to co-ordinate the supply and 
demand for labour throughout the country. 

The organisation does not deal with the individual placing 
of rural workers, servants, drivers, or other specialised work- 
ers. Its activities are confined to harvest time, when the 
Central Office in particular does a considerable amount of 
work. In one year the number of harvest workers for whom 
employment was found was estimated at 80,000 and on an- 
other at 100,000. The statistics are however drawn up in such 
an unskilful manner that no great importance can be attach- 
ed to these figures. The principal defect of the organisa- 
tion is that in reality it hardly exists except on paper. It is 
the General Administrative Organisation which is entrusted 
with the exchange of labour and the officials have neither 
sufficient time, knowledge or interest — they receive no 
special compensation for this additional work — to discharge 
this task in a satisfactory manner. 

This Organisation cannot be described either as public or 
as impartial. The unemployed workers are registered at a 
certain time by the municipal officials, and a central office, 
without any consideration for the conditions of labour which 
are affected, places them as it thinks fit at the disposal of any 
large landowner who may be short of labour or even, in many 
cases, who is threatened with a strike. The workers do not 
even have the opportunity of choosing the most favourable of 
the opportunites of employment which are offered,They have 
of course, no knowledge of the methods of work of the organ- 
isations. Since the war, the Ministry of Agriculture has sev- 
eral times expressed the intention of re-organising this system 
on modern principles, and at least of giving the principal re- 
sponsibility for the exchange of labour to the municipal 
organisations. 



India 

In reporting the ratification of the Washington Draft Con- 
vention concerning Unemployment, the Secretary of State for 
India said* : 

« The creation of free public employment agencies in India 
has hitherto been thought unnecessary, since the demand for 
industrial labour has for long exceeded the supply, and the 
unemployment of agricultural labour is unknown in ordi- 
nary seasons, although in a few congested areas wages 
remain relatively low owing to the outside demand for indus- 



* See Official Bulletin, Vol. IV, N» 3, p. 19-20. 



— 55 — 

trial labour failing to reach these areas effectively. Here we 
think that the institution of unemployment agencies might 
facilitate migration to areas where the demand for industrial 
labour is never fully met. But when serious injury is caused 
to agriculture by seasonal calamities, we find it necessary to 
go much further than merely giving applicants information 
of existing openings for emploj'ment ; we provide actual 
employment or other suitable relief for those who need it and 
provide an agency for searching them out. Our famine 
organisation, as is well known, is devised to deal with unem- 
ployment on a most extensive scale. Although this organi- 
sation is only called into active operation when the need 
arises, and works for the most part through the agency of 
Government officials who are entrusted also with other 
duties, yd every province of India has an elaborate Famine 
Code, which has been progressively improved in the light of 
past experience ; the officers who have to work under it, 
should need arise, are familiar with its provisions, and the 
experience of many years past has shown that this organisa- 
tion is capable of dealing economically with unemployment 
on a scale for which few Western countries could show a 
parallel. It is true that unemployment in the strict sense in 
India under any conditions that can be foreseen must arise 
only from one cause, that of serious and widespread injury 
to agriculture and when this occurs ordinary unemployment 
agencies would not meet the emergency. But our famine 
organisation deals not only with the agriculturist and the 
agricultural labourer, but with the village artisan whose live- 
lihood depends on the custom of the agriculturists. We not 
only provide for labourers thrown out of work, but for the 
small cultivator who has been deprived of the crops of the 
season ; and so far as possible we place him in a position, by 
an extensive system of loans on specially easy terms and, if 
necessary, by other measures, to cultivate his fields when the 
famine season closes The organisation is thus, in effect, a fam- 
ine prevention system designed to prevent shortage in the 
year following actual failure of the corps. In view of the fact 
that our industrial labour is almost entirely recruited from 
rural tracts, the only circumstance that is likely to over- 
stock the industrial labour market at anj^ time is the agricul- 
tural unemplojanent due to famine, and our machinery for 
the relief of famine thus largely helps to inaintain the rela- 
tively favourable position in which industrial labour stands 
at present, and so far is in accordance Avith the policy indi- 
cated in the Convention. As we have indicated al)ove, howe- 
ver, it is desirable to encourage the migration of agricultural 
labour from certain congested areas ; and we have under 
consideration the desirability of creating regular public em- 
ployment agencies in such cases. We have, moreover, no 
objection to associating these agencies, when created, with 
advisory bodies representative of employers and workers, 
and we are undertaking an examination of the possibility of 



— 56 — 

collecting further information regarding unemployment. In 
the belief that the measures which, as explained above, we 
are either taking or propose to take, will constitute an effec- 
tive compliance with the provisions of the Convention, we 
propose to recommend it to the Legislature for permission to 
ratify it. » 



Italy 

The organisation of a public employment exchange system 
in Italy was carried out by the decree-law of 19 October 1919 
which also instituted compulsory unemployment insurance. 
The principle of the organisation is as follows : the Govern- 
ment provides subsidies in support of the free labour exchan- 
ges set up by the provinces, the communes and certain private 
associations which fulfil certain conditions. The Government 
itself sets up labour exchanges in districts where none exist ; 
it is responsible for co-ordinating all the various kinds of 
local offices; it prohibits employment agencies carried on 
for profit. 

The principal labour exchanges which are recognised and 
subsidised by the Government, in addition to those set up 
by the provinces and communes, are those instituted by 
agreement between the employers' and workers' organisa- 
tions, and those attached either to a workers' organisation 
alone or to an employers' organisation alone but recognised 
by the other side either by agreement or de facto. 

There are a certain number of agricultural employment 
exchanges of the two latter kinds. Thus the model collective 
agreements drawn up by the Provincial Federation of Agri- 
cultural Workers of the province of Bologna laid on the em- 
ployers the obligation to apply exclusively to the employment 
agency of the trade union in order to obtain labour. The 
employer may either engage all the workers he requires en 
masse, or he may engage them individually. In the latter case 
he has to pay the trade union a special fee as compensation 
for the unemployment which the system of the individual 
engagement of hands is liable to involve for its members. 
The collective agreements also frequently lay down the num- 
ber of workers to be employed per hectare under cultivation. 

The employment agencies play an important part in orga- 
nising the periodical migratory movements of labour neces- 
sitated by certain kinds of agricultural work within the 
Kingdom of Italy, particularly rice cultivation. During the 
war a decree dated 14 March 1918 made it compulsory to 
apply to the joint labour exchanges for the recruiting of 
labour for the rice fields. The employers had to declare to 
the syndic of their commune before a certain date the num- 
ber of workers they would require at harvest time. In the 
same way, workers who desired employment in the rice- 



— 57 — 

fields of the provinces of Novaro and Pavia had to make an 
application to the syndic of their commune. The syndics had 
to communicate the applications of the employers and work- 
kers to the competent labour exchanges, and the workers 
were given cheap tickets for the journey from their homes 
to the places of work on presentation of a' certificate from 
one of the competent labour exchanges. This organisation 
has now lost its compulson,' character; but in 1920 the joint 
labour exchange at Mortara, which is competent for the 50 
communes of Lomellina, placed 32,420 persons in rice har- 
vesting and cleaning. Of these 29,534 were recruited in the 
district and 2,886 elsewhere (1). 



Japan 



The Japanese Government has recently established a sys- 
tem of Employment Exchanges which includes agricultural 
workers under the Department of Home Affairs. A central 
Clearing House has been set up in the Department and branch 
exchanges have already been established in each of the 
46 prefectures. 

The need for an employment service for placing workers 
on the land especially during the recent trade depression may 
be seen from the following statistics prepared by the Home 
Department respecting the movement of discharged factory 
workers to the land. 

The total number of workers discharged and their re-em- 
ployment in agricultural work is as follows : 



Year 1920 



March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . . 

October 

November . . . 
December . . . . 
January (1921) 



Total number 
discharged 



84,820 
103,568 
133,359 
147,482 
109,088 
101,633 
105,919 
100,428 
215,058 
128,979 

81,586 



Re-employed in 
Agricullnrc 



10,323 
18,108 
34,839 
56,017 
26,263 
22,422 
24,592 
20,265 
68,302 
40,933 
13,65Jl 



(1) II Mercato del Lavoro April 1921. 



58 — 



Norway 



The engagement of labour proceeds partly through official 
and partly through private, employment bureaux. The lat- 
ter, however, are of comparatively little importance in Nor- 
way. The official engagement of labour is regulated by an 
act of the 12th June 1906 ; the private engagement by an 
act of the 12th June 1896. 

According to the act regarding the engagement of labour, 
passed in 1906, there shall, in such districts as the King may 
decide, be established a public office for the engagement of 
labour of every kind. Such offices have not been established 
in a number of districts. The office shall according to the 
said law be under the management of a chairman elected 
by the Town or District Council and of an equal number of 
workers and employers. As chairman there must not be 
elected anyone who, as worker or employer, is directly con- 
nected with any undertaking that employs labour. 

In all cases the procuring of employment is arranged free 
of charge. The expenses of the office are borne partly by the 
State and partly by the local authority. 

The act of 1896 regarding hiring and employment offices 
decrees that the carrying on of such offices is subject to 
license. The license is granted only by a government official 
designated for the purpose. Private employment agencies are 
bound to hand in to authorities the same statistical returns 
as the official labour exchanges. The local authority fixes 
the remuneration the agency is to receive for its work (1). 

At the end of 1919 there were 46 employment exchanges 
in Norway, and the total number of vacancies filled in all 
industries was 78.515; 6.075 were in agriculture and forestry, 
details of which are as follows* : 





Applications 

from 
workpeople 


Vacancies 
notified 


Workers placed 
in employment 


Applications 
from workpeople 


Men 
Women. . 


7.084 

623 


5.40.0 .0 


5.173 
426 


5.646 
429 


Total. . . 


7.707 


12.570 


5.599 


6.075 



Poland. 

In Poland the finding of employment for workers of all 
kinds and in all occupations is in the hands of the Offices 



(1) This extract from « Agriculture in Norway », a report received from the 
Norwegian Government is quoted verbatim. 

* Statenn Inspektorat for Arbeidsformedlingen af Arbeidsledighetsforsikrincjen, 
Arsberetniny, l'Jia-iy20. 



— 59 — 

for Labour Exchange and Protection set up by the Ministry 
of Labour and Social Welfare. 

The princijKil duties of these offices are twofold : the find- 
ing of employment for workers in the country itself, and 
the supply of information to workers who wish to emigrate. 
As many of the emigrants to the neighbouring countries go 
to undertake agricultural work, the Offices play an import- 
ant part in this respect. 

It should also be pointed ou that the Extraordinary Arbi- 
tration Commission, which acts in virtue of the Act of 
11 March 1921 concerning the settlement of disputes between 
agricultural employers and workers, has laid down by a decis- 
ion dated 7 April 1921 that in the provinces of Warsaw, 
Lodz, Lublin, Kielce and Bialystock employers are obliged 
to notify the State labour exchanges of the names of the 
workers dismissed at the end of the year for which they are 
engaged, and the number of workers required for the next 
year. 



Sweden . 

There are 35 public employment exchanges in the country 
working in close cooperation with one another. Once a 
week the lists of vacant places and applications for situations 
are exchanged between the local offices; lists of vacancies 
for the district are drawn up from these special lists. An im- 
portant contributory factor in the development of the ex- 
changes is the telephone, which is very widespread in the 
agricultural districts of Sweden, and is very largely used by 
farmers who wish to get into touch with the employment 
exchanges. 

Agricultural workers make use of the exchanges to a con- 
siderable, and an increasing, extent. In 1906, 31,000 va- 
cancies were filled in all industries, of which 2,000 were agri- 
cultural ; the figures for 1912 w^ere 105,000 and 26,000 ; and 
for 1920, 170,185 and 38,661. 

The following table shows the proportion of vacancies fil- 
ied in agriculture and forestry to the total number fiP.ed in 
all industries : 

1902-12 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 
19.5 23.9 23.1 22.5 25.0 27.4 26.4 25.1 25.6 

It is clear from these figures that there has been a consider- 
able development in the activity of employment exchanges 
in finding work for agricultural labourers, the above propor- 
tion having increased from rather less than 1/5 in the years 
1902-12 to a little more than 1/4 in the year 1920. At seven 
out of the 35 exchanges in the country more than half the 
places filled were in agriculture. 



60 — 



The following figures are for the year 1920. 



Agricul- 
ture ...... 

Total for 
al workers. 


Men 


Women 


Total 




Applications 

from 
vvoork people 


c « 


s 

"o -a 
> 


Applications 

from 
work people 


ir. 

O O 


a; 

'o 13 
c3 — 


Applications 

from 
work people 




ir. 

>- 


50.492 
178.445 


46.034 
119.689 


33.343 
97.312 


6.079 
100.381 


14.877 
126.316 


5.318 
72.673 


57.171 
278.826 


60.911 
246.003 


38.661 
170.185 



Switzerland 

Of the 16 public employment exchanges, a certain number 
show considerable activity in finding work for agricultural 
workers. The report of the Headquarters of the Swiss Em- 
ployment Exchanges states that, in 1917, 5,146 persons were 
placed in employment in agriculture. 

The reports of the Central Office of Swiss Employment 
Exchanges for 1917 and 1918 show the following figures relat- 
ing to agriculture : 



1917 
1918 


MEN 


WOMEN 


TOTAL 1 


Applications 

from 
workpeople 


-r 
•- 

c f5 


'Z "^ 

> 


c 

'Z e ° 
M a 
-- a. 

ir P 

< ^ 


1 

C •- 

024 
810 


a — 
> 

229 
278 


Appliealion.s 

from 
workpeople 


1 1 




7,282 
7,835 


8,901 
8,135 


5,089 
5,406 


440 
415 


7,722 
8,250 


9,525 
8,945 


5,318 
5,084 



Close co-operation exists between the employment ex- 
change organisation and the Swiss Peasants Union (1) which 
publishes the number of vacancies in its publication, the 
Revue des Marches Agricoles. 

The Union has proposed that a central agricultural employ- 
ment exchange should be attached to the Union. The duties 
of this central exchange would be : 



(1) Inlernalional Review of Agricultural Economics (International Institute of 
Agriculture). Rome. December, 1920. 



— 61 — 

(1) Finding employment in agriculture for boys and girls 
who are leaving orphan institutions, etc.; 

(2) Finding employment for students and other persons 
who are desirous of doing agricultural work during the holi- 
days; 

(3) Finding remunerative employment on well-organised 
farms for the sons of agriculturists on completing their pro- 
fessional training; 

(4) Finding employment for young people on farms, as 
volunteers; 

(5) Finding employment for farm stewards; 

(6) Finding employment for workers, principally on large 
farms. 

The central exchange would organise branches in places 
where there are no public exchanges, and where there is a 
need for an office of this kind. 



United States. 

The provision of suitable arrangements for dealing with 
seasonal requirements in agriculture is recognised as a matter 
of great importance, and the United States Employment Ser- 
vice of the Department of Labour, working in co-operation 
with the Department of Agriculture, has applied itself to the 
problem. In the last annual report (1) it was stated that « the 
work had been undertaken early in the spring by establishing 
contact with farm bureaux, farm agents, agricultural schools, 
and rural postmasters, and by working out plans of cooper- 
ation with these agencies. In some of the larger cities spe- 
cial farm labour bureaux were established in the offices of 
the service for the purpose of suppljdng farm hands during 
the season of plowing and planting; and finally a nation- 
wide campaign, which extended to the colleges and univer- 
sities of the East and the Far West, was carried on to provide 
the army of workers needed for the harvest in the wheat 
belt of the Middle West. For the purpose of recruiting and 
distributing harvest hands, many of the permanent field 
offices were strengthened by the addition of experienced 
farm agents, and the activities of these offices were supple- 
mented by the establishment at strategic points of 12 tempo- 
rary offices. The result of these efforts, combined with an 
extensive campaign of publicitj', was that a sufficient supply 
of labour was secured to harvest the entire wheat crop of 
1919. The number of harvest hands actually registered and 
directed to jobs in the wheat fields during the season in the 



•Annual Report of the Director General, U. S. Employment Service, for the fiscal 
year ended 30 June 1920, pp. 18-20. 



— 62 — 

30 offices maintained for the purpose was 53,072, while many 
thousands more passed through the offices and received 
general instructions regarding the fields. » 

Similar arrangements were made for the 1920 harvest, the 
operation being directed from the zone clearance office esta- 
blished in Kansas City early in the spring of 1920. « The 
zone office took early steps to ascertain the acreage sown to 
wheat and the probable number of men that would be needed 
during the cutting season, and in this connection the zone 
clearance officer personally visited points in all the States 
mentioned ». 

The following taken from a report by the Federal Director 
of Oklahoma is of general interest, 

« We did less advertising and used less publicity in out of 
State newspapers and spent less money per capita in the 
State in handling the harvest labour problem than in any 
previous year. The field organisation for distribution pur- 
poses was superior this year to that of the past; besides there 
was complete cooperation with outside States with which 
the department was in touch at all times. Labor was moved 
into the State in groups from surrounding States by telegraph. 
There was a surplus of men to be had from several States 
which we did not have to disturb because there was no 
demand for them. The department has yet to hear of any 
complaint concerning the manner in which the harvest labor 
problem was handled this year. The total cost per capita for 
making harvest labor placements this year was approxima- 
tley 11 cents... 

« The following list of occupations taken from sheets picked 
at random shows the wide range of employment usually fol- 
lowed by men who come to the harvest fields : Lumberman, 
cook, prize fighter, trainer, conductor, motorman, farmer, 
laborer, student, bartender, mechanic, carpenter, clerk, sten- 
ographer, dockworker, section hand... The farmer needs a 
special service, which cannot be given by an office where 
but one or two men are employed who find it necessary to 
wait upon hundreds of applicants for all kinds of positions, 
and who, because of the very conditions under which they 
are compelled to work, find it impossible to give an applic- 
ant for a farm job any more attention than one applying for 
a place as dishwasher or for an hour's work putting in a ton 
of coal. The establishment of farm-service sections will go 
far towards permanently relieving the acute labor conditions 
now facing the farmers of the country at large. 

« The zone officer has kept in close touch with the harvest 
situation throughout the season, and frequent bulletins giving 
cutting dates, wages, demand for labor, location of offices, 
and other pertinent facts were issued. As a further aid to the 
recruiting campaign approximately 15,000 posters announc- 
ing probable cutting dates and location of offices were 
hung up in as many post offices in territory from which 



— 63 — 

most of the harvest labor was expected to come. Employment 
offices and zone clearance officers outside the wheat belt 
rendered assistance of great value and showed every desire 
to cooperate to the end that the « Big Wheat Belt » should 
not lack sufficient labour to harvest the millions of acres- 
sown to wheat. The Chamber of Commerce of Kansas City 
cooperated as usual and furnished several clerks to the tem- 
porary office opened in the Union Depot in that city. The 
Kansas State Agricultural College and county agents' orga- 
nisation were exceedingly active participants. The office at 
Kansas City, Mo., handled thousands of men, but because of 
the lateness of the season and the consequent impatience of 
the men to get into closer proximity to the fields comparat- 
ively few were directed to actual employment from this city. 
This year, unfortunateh% a great many men were induced to 
enter the fields two weeks too early by independent and wild- 
cat advertising on the part of persons who were more con- 
cerned in securing a surplus of labor than in an equitable dis- 
tribution and a square deal to the men. Independent adver- 
tising is hard to control, and men who are induced to go to 
the wheat fields by inspired news stories, paid advertising, 
etc., unless such advertising bears the indorsement of the 
Emploj^ment Service, always take a chance of being the vic- 
tims of selfish communities or individuals. » 



B. UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



The position as regards unemployment insurance for agri- 
cultural workers in the various countries is as follows : 



Australia (1) 

The Queensland Government introduced a bill dealing 
with unemployment in September 1919. The chief features 
of this scheme were : 

(1) The establishment of an unemployment council ; (2) 
relief works as a remedy for unemployment; (3) unemploy- 
ment insurance provisions; and (4) labour farms for the 
normally unemployable. The unemployment insurance clauses 
of the proposed law which applied to practically all workers 
provided for the payment of unemployment benefits from 
a fund to be raised by an assessment upon employers 



(1) Memorandum of Information and Selected List of References respecting Un- 
employment Insurance, pp. 17 and 18. Department of Labour, Canada. 



— 64 — 

The workers were not required 'to contribute to the fund nor 
was there provision in the law for a State subsidy. With 
regard to the latter point, however, the member who intro- 
duced the bill, declared that although the Government would 
not contribute directly to the fund, ample obligations would 
rest upon the Crown both to find employment in the majority 
of cases and also to give financial support to the fund, in the 
event of the amount raised from employers being insufficient 
to meet the claims for benefit. 

This Unemployed Workers' Bill passed the Legislative 
Assembly, but on its second reading in the Legislative 
Council an amendment was moved and carried by which the 
measure was postponed for six months. 



Austria 

The Act concerning coinpulsory unemployment insurance 
does not apply to agriculture. 



Belgium 

A bill concerning compulsory unemployment insurance is 
at present under consideration. It does not make insurance 
compulsory for agricultural workers, though they would be 
encouraged to form unemployment insurance funds by con- 
siderable subsidies from the public authorities. 

A special Congress, summoned by the Trade Union Com- 
mittee of the Labour Party and the independent trade unions, 
has examined this bill (1). As regards the exclusion of agri- 
cultural workers from compulsory insurance, the represen- 
tative of the workers in the building trade pointed out that 
most agricultural workers work in certain industries during 
the winter, and that if they were not insured they would 
constitute a danger for the permanent workers in these in- 
dustries. 

The representative of the agricultural workers demanded 
that insurance should be compulsory, particularly for horti- 
cultural workers. 

The administrators of the Fonds national de crise, which 
is at present supporting and supplementing the work of the 
trade union unemployment insurance funds until the new 
system of compulsory insurance has been set up, have how- 
ever found it difficult to control the insurance of semi-agri- 
cultural and semi-industrial workers. They have decided to 
strengthen the measures of control to be applied to such 
workers, and to exclude them from the system if it should 



il) Le Moiivement syndical beige, 2.7.21. 



— 65 — 

prove impossible to provide sufficient guaraniees against 
abuses. 



Ciiii.i (f) 



The Cliilian Government states : « Our Government, 
convinced of the necessity of establishing a general insurance 
of workers against unemployment, has drawn up special pro- 
visions for this purpose to be included in the draft Code of 
Labour and Social Welfare. Previous to this Government 
Bill another Bill was presented to Congress providing that no 
undertaking shall solely or partially cease work without giving 
notice to the Governor of the Province of the number of wor- 
kers which it proposes to dismiss and that in all such cases of 
dismissal the undertaking shall be bound to pay its employees 
and workers a compensation equal to fifteen days' wages or 
salary; with the addition in case of dismissal without notice 
to the Governor of the Province, of a fine equal to the total 
amount of such compensation payable. » 



I3ENMARK 



Insurance against unemployment is provided for by the 
Act of 22 December 1919, amending the act of 8 April 1914 
Unemployment funds, which are defined as ((associations of 
employed persons... who have combined to provide mutual 
assistance in case of unemployment... by means of a specified 
contribution », are entitled to a grant from public funds. 
Only employed persons without means (an unmarried person 
owning property not exceeding 5,000 kroner, or a inarried 
person owing property not exceeding 10,000 kroner), whose 
main employment or principal means of subsistence is the 
occupation in which they work for a wage, ma}' become fuli 
members of an unemployment fund. Persons who do not fui 
fil these conditions may become contributing members, buf 
without having any claim to assistance, until such time a« 
they are qualified for admission to full membership. 

Agriculture has only quite recently llgurcd among the in- 
dustries in which such funds existed; in 1916-17 there were 
none, while in 1918-19, 25,389 persons were insured. The fol- 
lowing table shows the number of gardeners and agricul- 
tural workers insured against unemployment during the last 
ten years. No figures are yet available for the year 1919-20. 



(1) Reply or the Government of Chili to Questionnaire II, 1021. 



66 



Year ending 31 March (1) 





1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


Gardening 

Agriculture . . . 

Tot A I 


— 


133 


129 


188 


207 
207 


209 


,261 
261 


326 
326 


918 
7.520 


1.542 
25.389 


— 


133 


129 


188 


209 


8.438 


26.931 



Germany 

The Bill concerning unemployment insurance which was 
brought before Parliainent by the Government and after- 
wards withdrawn did not apply to agriculture. A new bill is 
at present in preparation, but the text has not yet been pub- 
lished. 



Great Britain 

The UnemployiTient Insurance Acts specifically exclude 
agriculture from their scope. On December 2nd 1920 a Com- 
mittee was appointed by the Agricultural Wages Board « to 
enquire into and report upon the extent to which the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act might be made applicable and bene- 
ficial to agricultural workers ». The committee was compo- 
sed of two employers' representatives, two workers' repre- 
sentatives and a chairman, and the report was signed by all 
five members They consider three methods by which insur- 
ance against unemployment might be possible : (1) by the 
inclusion of the industry of agriculture in the general scheme 
provided by Unemploj^ment Insurance Act, 1920, (2) bj'^ the 
adoption of a special scheme C) for agriculture under Sec- 
tion 18 of the Act, or (3) by a i>urely voluntary scheme out- 
side the Act. 

The Committee investigated first of all the incidence and 
nature of unemployment in agriculture, an inquiry all the 
inore necessaiy as the employers' representatives on the com- 
mittee expressed the opinion that « there is no prospect that 
the meml3ers of the National Fermers' Union will support 
any scheme for insurance unless it can be shown that the in- 



(1) Arbcjdslshedsinspektreus Inclberelning til indcnrigsministerict 1918-19, p. .'!. 

(2) Any industry can contract out of the Act, if a special scheme, put forward 
i>y a Joint Industrial Council or an association of employers and employees, is 
approved by tli* Minister of Labour. 



— ()7 — 

cideiice of unemployment is serious or at least likely to be- 
come so )). 

The conclusion of this point may be summarized as fol- 
lows : During the latter part of the nineteenth century, 
changes in farming jjrought about « a great decrease in the 
number of men employed on farms )>, but « with the decrease 
came greater stability and there seems no doubt that in most 
districts the large majority of farm workers are in constant 
employment year after year ». At the end of the w^ar, when 
demobilisation was complete, « there were about a hundred 
thousand fewer men employed in agriculture in England and 
Wales than in 1914 ». 

Evidence supplied by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fi- 
sheries shows that, even during the war, there was a great 
ditference betw^een the numbers employed in summer and 
winter respectively. « As it is inconceivable that there was 
any large surplus population in those j'^ears who w^ere out of 
work, the inevitable conclusion is that there is a certain class 
of workers who favour the pursuit of agriculture during the 
summer and some other occupation during the winter... It 
is computed that the number amounts to about 5 per cent 
of the maximum number employed in the summer. » 

The conclusion of the committee, based on evidence sup- 
plied by the National Farmers' Union, the National Union of 
Agricultural Workers, the District Wages Committees and the 
Ministiy of Labour, is « that while there is no doubt very 
little lack of employment among highly skilled and expe- 
rienced agricultural w^orkers, it is impossible to say to what 
extent it prevails among the less skilled men... So far no 
large body of agricultural workers has protested against ex- 
clusion (from the Unemployment Insurance Act) while evi- 
dence afforded by the returns made to the National Union 
of Agricultural Workers shows that there is at least a large 
number of labourers who do not desire to be included... No 
indication has been afforded as to the reasons which have led 
to this expression of opinion, but it may be taken as strong 
l^resumptive evidence that the dangers of unemployment do 
not present themselves as imminent to those who hold these 
views. Under these circumstances, therefore, the Committee 
are of the opinion that it would not be desirable at the pre- 
sent time to press for the inclusion of agriculture in the gene- 
ral provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1920. 
With regard to a special or voluntary scheme « there appears 
at the present to be no likelihood of attaining the agreement 
between employers and workers which is a condition prece- 
dent to any such action. Nor is there any indication of an 
approach to an agreement for establishing a voluntary 
scheme, which would clearly be impracticable unless it receiv- 
ed the whole-hearted support of the organisations on bolli 
sides, and the adherence of the great majority of employers 
and workers throughout the country ». 

In conclusion, the Committee « having so far examined the 



— 68 — 

subject find that they unable to agree upon any recom- 
mendation to the Board and recognise that without such 
agreement further progress is impracticable. On the facts 
before them they conclude : 

1. That there is a general opposition both by employers 
and workers to the inclusion of agriculture under the general 
provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1920. 

2. That there is no evidence that a special scheme for agri- 
culture under the Act would, or would not, be acceptable to 
employers or workers, and that in any case the information 
at present available as to the incidence of unemployment in 
agriculture is insufficient for the preparation of such a 
scheme. 

3. That there is no evidence of such general agreement as 
would be necessary for the consideration of a voluntarj' 
scheme of insurance against unemployment outside the Act, 
and independent of State aid. » 

Mr. Dallas, one of the Workers' representatives on the com- 
mittee, stated that he signed the report as he agreed with it 
on the whole, but he wished to put on record that although 
the report was correct in saying that « no large body of agri- 
cultural workers has protested against exclusion » from the 
Act, he believed that in some districts of different counties 
there was an undoubted desire to be so included. 



Holland 



In the Netherlands there is a general system of voluntary 
unemployment insurance encouraged by Government subsi- 
dies. Agricultural workers have participated in fact in this 
system since 1920. On the 1st January 1919 there were only 
154 agricultural workers insured against unemployment; on 
the 1st January 1920 there were 30,775, and on the 1st Ja- 
nuary 1921, 32,106. The total number of insured persons in 
all industries on the latter date was 398,276. 

The total sums paid to agricultural workers as unemploy- 
ment benefit were as follows : 

1916 433 fl. 

1917 3,229 )) 

1918 298 » 

1919 180 )) 

1920 86,165 » 

Since that time there appear to have been unfavourable de- 
velopments as regards insurance. The Government statistics 
for April 1921 show that there were then still 30,000 insured 
agricultural workers, while in May there were only 11,000 
and in June it is stated that no information was received. 



— 69 — 

The fluctuations of unemployment among agricultural wor 
kcrs are shown by the following table : 

Percentage of unemployed. 

1919 1920 



January 5.0 25.1 

February 12.3 15.2 

March 3.2 8.8 

April 1.8 4.4 

May 1.8 0.7 

June 1.5 0.5 

July 3.5 1.0 

August 2.1 1.3 

September 1.7 1.1 

October 1.6 0.9 

November 4.2 2.7 

December 17.0 20.5 

Although these figures only cover two years they show the 
seasonal character of agricultural unemployment. The unem- 
ployment crisis is acute during the months of December, 
January and February, and is still perceptible in March and 
April. It is only during th(,>sc live months of the slack season 
that the members of the Federation of Agricultural Workers 
receive unemployment benefit. The benefit is paid for a maxi- 
mum period of 36 days. It amounts to 1 60 florins per day, 
while the weekly contribution is 0.25 florins. In 1920. the 
Government subsidy was 150 0/0 of the contributions of the 
insured persons, but the Government decided as from the 
1st May 1921 to reduce this amount to 100 0/0. 

An increase in the contribution paid by the members thus 
became necessaiy to maintain the financial equilibruim of the 
insurance fund. 



Italy 

Italy is the only countrj'^ which has introduced compulsory 
unemplojnncnt insurance for industrial, commercial and 
agricultural workers. This system was set up by the decree- 
law of 19 October 1919, which came into force on 1 January 
1920. During the first year contributions were collected but 
no benefits paid, as the decree laid down that 24 fortnightly 
contributions must be paid before insured persons were enti- 
tled to unemployment benefit. The payment of benefits began 
on 1 January 1921. The first results which have been pub- 
lished show that in consequence of numerous difficulties the 
decree is very far from applying in actual practice to all the 



— 70 — 

workers mentioned in the text. Thus (1) on May 1921, out 
of a total number of 250,145 unemployed as given in the 
returns, only 23,000 were in receipt of the benefit provided 
for by the decree-law. 

Serious difficulties have been encountered as regards agri- 
culture in particular. A large number of agricultural em- 
ployers' organisation asked that the application of the decree- 
law to agriculture should be suspended on account of the dif- 
ficulty of collecting the contributions by affixing special 
stamps to the insurance cards. The Government therefore au- 
thorised agricultural employers in March 1920 to sus])end the 
payment of contributions for the time being. It was however 
understood that these contributions were still due as from 
1 January 1920, and would be paid in some other form to 
be settled later. The question was studied by the Central 
Executive Committee for labour exchanges and unemploy- 
ment, with the assistance of representatives of the agricul- 
tural employers and workers, and it was agreed that it was 
not possible in principle to adopt a special system for the 
collection of the unemployment insurance contributions of 
agricultural workersand that the decree-law of 19 October 
1919 should be put into force again at once, though the prac- 
tical difficulties should be investigated and other forms of 
payment might be adopted in exceptional cases. 

The persons concerned were informed of this decision by 
a circular dated 8 Juty 1920. 

A decree-law dated 30 January 1921 contains provisions in 
favour of persons insured against unem])loymcnt who, 
through no fault of their own, have not paid the minimum 
of 24 fortnightly contributions in 1920 which entitle thein to 
the unemployment benefit. As the payment of contributions 
by agricultural workers was temporarily suspended this in- 
cludes agricultural workers who can show that their contri- 
butions were paid regularly for the time during which they 
were employed after 1 July 1920. 

The National Federation of Agricultural Workers, at a 
congress which was held on 26 and 27 July 1921 and was spec- 
ially devoted to the prol)lem of unemployment, unanimously 
demanded that the unemployment benefit should be increas- 
ed and that the period before payment is begun, which is at 
present seven days' unemployment, should be reduced, as 
this provision deprives a large number of agricultural labcur- 
ers, who work intemiittently and in rotation, of the unem- 
ployment benefit. 

Norway 

The Norwegian Government states there has been a con- 
stant scarcity in the supply of both male and female labour in 

(1) Bolletiiio del Lavoro c dolla Prcvklenza social<', Maggio 1921. 



— 71 — 

ngriciiltiirc. Noithor has llicrc occurred during Ihc lasl few 
decades any lack of einploynient as the result of special eco- 
nomic circumstances. Nor has there been any special difti- 
cully in obtaining employment during the time of the year 
when the actual agricultural work owing to climatic condi- 
tions is greatly reduced. That this has been the case is in the 
first place due to the fact that Norwegian agricultural oper- 
ations are so many sided. The question of special measures 
for the prevention of unemployment for agricultural worker.-, 
is therefore of little importance in Norway. 

No compulsory insurance against unemployment has been 
introduced in this country. On the other hand, under the act 
regarding stale and communal grants to Norwegion unemploy- 
ment funds, passed on the 6 th August 1915 and with an 
amendment of the 29th July 1918, the public authorities 
make a grant to Norwegian private unemployment funds 
which satisfy certain conditions laid down in the act. Such 
funds receive from the state a refundment of half of the 
amount of money with which they support their beneficiaries 
who are resident in Norway, provided that these latter are 
Norwegian citizens or have been resident in the country for 
the last two years. In order to obtain such state support the 
rules of the fund must contain a provision that, amongst 
other things, no member is entitled to support unless he has 
been a member of the fund for at least half a year, that the 
support allowed shall not amount to more than half of the 
average daily wage in the branch of work in which the mem- 
ber in question is employed, that the support shall not be 
given for a longer period than 90 days at the most in the 
course of twelve months, and that the member concerned 
has, before the support has been paid out, sought in vain for 
employment through an official labour exchange, provided 
such an office has been established in the district in question. 
Provincial laws of 29th July 1918, 23rd July 1919, 16th July 
1920 and 1st April 1921, allow of this period being prolonged 
bv the Government. 



UiNMTKD S'lA'J'ES (1) 

The desirability of introducing compulsory unemploy- 
ment insurance has been under discussion for a number of 
years in the United States and a concrete project has recently 
been ])rought forward in the Wisconsin Legislature. The 
Bill, which has been referred to the Committee on Judiciary, 
is in the main modelled on the British law. It contains how- 
ever certain features which should be noted. The risk of 
unemployment is apparently regarded by the framers of the 



(1) Memorandum of Information and Selected List of References respecting Un- 
employment Insurance, pp. 18, 19 and 33. Department of Labour, Canada. 



— 72 — 

Bill as an industrial hazard analogous to the risk of indus- 
trial accident or disease. Thus '' unemployment compcnsn- 
lion " is payable by his last employer to an unemployed 
person fulfilling the requirements of the Act. Employers 
liable for the payment of compensation for employment are 
required to insure or otherwise provide for such liability 
in the same manner provided for workmen's compensation. 

« The fundamental assumption of this unemployment pre- 
vention bill is that industry can prevent unemployment » 
says a summary issued by its sponsors. « The bill offers an 
inducement to scientific production, where workmen are 
employed steadily. Non-profit-making mutual insurance 
companies will be the main agencies which will endeavour to 
prevent unemployment. Its experts will be at the service 
of its members. They will devise methods for reducing un- 
necessary labour turnover. Spasmodic employment of work- 
men will be discouraged by a system of premium rates which 
will be based upon the stability of employment for each estab- 
lishment. The establishment with the greatest number of 
" hirings '' and " firings " will pay the largest premium 
rates. Hence good management will be rewarded for its effic- 
iency in preventing unnecessary layoffs. There are many 
employers to-day who have so reduced their labour turnover 
that men are never laid off on account of the lack of work. 
This bill would not affect these employers materially ; their 
premium rate would be practically nil. » 

The bill, however, excepts persons who arc employed by 
farmers or canneries. 

Such unemployment funds have now been established by 
twenty-nine of the labour unions. None of these include 
farin-labourers. 

Workers who have been assigned employment through an 
official labour exchange or who in some other manner can 
prove that they have a prospect of obtaining work in -in 
other part of the country are allowed by the authorities to 
travel at half price on the railways or mail-carrjdng boats 
to their place of work. 

The law regarding the engagement of labour and that 
regarding grants to unemployment funds are at present 
under revision at the hands of an unemployment insiu'ance 
commission appointed by the Department for Social Affairs. 



Conclusions 

It has been shown that attempts have been made in 
various countries to insure agricultural workers against 
unemployment. Some degree of success has been obtained in 
the form of compulsory insurance in Italy, and in the form 
of subsidies to the trade union funds in Denmark and the 
Netherlands. 



— 73 — 

In no case, however, can it be said that tlie system has been 
undeniably successful. Agricultural workers on the whole 
show very much less enthusiasm for this kind of insurance 
been spontaneously organised by agricultural workers, and 
it is only by means of compulsion or by large State subsidies 
that the institution has been to some extent developed in 
certain countries. 

The indifference of agricultural workers to unemployment 
insurance is to be explained by the great difference between 
industrial and agricultural emplojnnent. 

In industry there is a very clear distinction betweeii 
employer and worker, and there is no intermediate stage 
between employment and unemployment. This is not always 
the case in agriculture where many workers have a plot of 
ground of their own, an accessory occupation, animals of 
their own which require looking after, or some other means 
of employing their time profitably when agricultural work is 
at a standstill. Total unemployment among agricultural 
workers is rare. 

In law and in logic insurance is intended to protect men 
against the consequences of chance events. Is it possible, 
however, to regard winter as an event of this kind ? Every 
year agricultural work comes to a standstill, increases or 
slackens according to the season. Is it reasonable to set up a 
system of insurance against events which are so inevitable 
and so clearly foreseen ? These considerations apply, at any 
rate, to most agricultural workers in countries and districts 
where small holdings prevail, and where there is no sharp 
distinction between the worker and the employer, where 
nearly all workers have something of the character of both, 
where the employer sometimes becomes an employee, where 
the peasant is often only temporarily an agricultural labourer, 
and where it is possible for him to rise into the superior class, 
enable the worker to attain to a superior condition by giving 
easier access to the land by developing supplementary agri- 
cultural occupations rather than compulsory insurance, which 
in such conditions always has a more or less artificial char- 
acter. It is only for the real agricultural labourer who is 
destined to remain throughout his life in a dependent condi- 
tion and is unlikely to become a farmer himself that insu- 
rance has any real use. This is the ordinary position of agri- 
cultural workers in certain countries. 

For agricultural workers of this kind unemployment con- 
stitutes a real problem, which is more serious than in most 
other occupations. It is one of the fundamental causes of the 
distress from which they suffer, and perhaps the strongest 
motive which induces them to migrate into industry. 

Tkus, although unemployment insurance has not generally 
been satisfactorily applied to agriculture, it appears to 
be desirable for certain classes of landworkers ; and the 
experiments already made do not indicate that it is imprac- 
ticable. 



— 74 — 

If, however, insurance is to be anything more than relief 
and if it is to be applied to those persons who really need it, 
careful study is still required to determine the extent and 
nature of the risk of unemployment in each category of agri- 
cultural worker, and in each country ; and to settle the form 
to be adopted and the conditions of insurance in each 
country and each branch of agriculture, detailed research 
should be undertaken. 



C. — SCHEMES FOR STABILIZING EMPLOYMENT 

1. — LAND SETTLEMENT 

Introduction 

The following pages consist of a summary of land settle- 
ment legislation in a few representative countries. There are 
included those countries which supplied information to the 
International Labour Office in response to its questionnaire, 
together with a few others which were considered of out- 
standing importance as affording valuable experience in the 
field of land legislation and land scttleinent with a view to 
l)romoting more intensive use of the soil and giving oppor- 
tunics to workers in industry to establish themselves upon 
the land. 

Australia 

The main points in the Australian system of land settle- 
ment and loans to farmers and settlers are the following : 

(1) Administration through a central body, usually termed 
the Land Settlement Board, which carries out the land policy 
of the State. 

(2) Provision for both individual and colony form of settle- 
ment. For this purpose Crown lands may be set aside, or 
private land may be purchased. 

(3) Preparation of plans of settlement after examination 
and classification of the land; grouping of lands convenient 
for the creation of town sites, farm labourers' allotments, 
and regular farm areas. 

(4) Organised construction of agricultural improvement 
works, erection of buildings, and the like. 



(5) Selection of settlors l)y the Land Setllenieiil Board, on 
the basis of their fitness for agricultural work. 

(6) Alienation of land with a view to preventing specul-!- 
tion as anuch as possible. This is done by means of long- 
term leases, limitations upon the fee-simple, and long-lenn 
credit purchase. 

(7) Extension of long-term credit to settlers and farmers 
at low rates of interest for the purchase of holdings. This 
system is characterised by small initial payments, payment of 
principal and interest on the amortisation plan over a long 
period of years — twenty j'ears and over; the exaction of 
a reasonable rental on leaseholds, and the extension of op- 
portunity to the settler to purchase at any time and to receive 
due compensation for improvements made. 

(8) Co-operative community organisation for marketing 
products, obtaining credits, and organising other community 
activities ; the State also assists in the establishment of 
demonstration farms, where the farmer can secure agricul- 
tural advice and instruction. 



Soldier Settlement 



Supplementing the general land settlement and land credit 
legislation in each of the Stales of the Commonwealth, (de- 
scribed in the following pages), the provisions of which are 
open to all Australian citizens, the Coiiimonwealth and the 
various States made special provision for encouraging the 
settlement of discharged soldiers and sailors upon the 
land. The Premiers' Conference of 1917 initiated this legis- 
lation. At this time tlic Commonwealth engaged to provide 
£500 as an advance to individual soldiers and sailors, who 
desired to settle on the land. This amount was raised to 
£625 in 1919 and to £1,000 at the July 1920 Conference of 
Premiers. New South Wales enacted special legislation in 
1916-1917, Victoria in 1917 and 1918, Queensland and Western 
Australia in 1917, South Australia in 1916, and Tasmania in 
1916, with amendments in 1917, 1918, and 1919. 

Specially advantageous modifications are made in the 
general land settlement laws. Under this legislation, state 
loans run for a period of from 10 to 40 years. In New^ South 
Wales the time of payments is governed by the period of the 
lease. In South Australia and Tasmania loans run for 
21 years; in Western Australia 25 years; in Queensland from 
10 to 40 years; and in Victoria 31 1/2 years. 

The rate of interest is generally 3 1/2 per cent, for the 
first year, increased annually by one-half per cent, up to a 
certain maximum fixed by the Minister of Land. In Queens- 



— 76 — ' 

land a definite maximum of 5 per cent, is fixed. The land 
is lield by the ordinary closer land settlement tenures de- 
scribed below. The residence requirements, before coimplete 
freehold ownership may be granted, are waived iii the case of 
soldier settlers in most instances. Frequently, as in Queens- 
land, no rent is payable for the first three years. In West- 
ern Australia, again, no rent is payable for the firts year 
of occupancy, and no taxes for four years. 

The Government of Australia appropriated £20,000,000 
for the purposes of this legislation ; the State of Victoria ap- 
])ropriated £2,250,000 (for the first three years), and Tas- 
mania £ 350,000. In Queensland the appropriation is deter- 
mined annually as may be necessary; no statement is made 
concerning the amount of the appropriation in New South 
Wales and Western Australia. 

The State assists the soldier intending settlement upon the 
land by paying part of his subsistence costs for six months, 
while awaiting the time when the land will begin to yield. 
The fares of the man and his family to the place of settle- 
ment are also paid by the Commonw^ealth Repatriation De- 
partment, and a limited amount towards the costs of the re- 
moval of the settler's household effects. Where the men are 
given agricultural training, the cost of maintenance is shared 
by the State Loans Department and the Repatriation Depart- 
ment. 



Operation of Soldiers' Settlement Legislation 



Under the soldiers' settlement legislation the Common- 
wealth agreed to provide advances for 20,855 settlers. Up to 
30 April 1920 the nimibcr settled was 15,509. The amount 
asked for by the States in 1919 was £ 28,773,699. The amount 
reimbursed to the State Governments by the Commonwealth 
lo 30 June 1920 was £ 11,235,716, distributed among the States 
as follows : 



States of Commonwealth Amount reimbursed 

by Commonwealtli 

New South Wales £ 1,996,731 

Victoria 5,750,371 

Queensland 728,08 1 

South Australia 614,058 

Western Australia . . .' 1,166,097 

Tasmania : ■ 980,375 

£ 11,235,716 



— 11 — 

General land law Administration 

The public lands of Australia, or Crown lands as these arc 
termed, are administered in each of llie States by a Land 
Department under the direction of a responsible Minister. 
The administrative functions of most of these Land Depart- 
ments are to some extent decentralised by a division of the 
States into land districts, in each of which there is a land 
office under the management of a land officer. 

In most of the States public lands are classified according 
to their situation, the character of the soil, etc. The modes 
of tenure under the Acts, conditions as to improvements or 
residence, amount and method of payment of purchase price 
or of rent, vaiy between the dilTerent States. The administra- 
tion of certain special Acts relating to public lands has, 
in some instances, been placed in the hands of special boards. 

Mining leases and the general administration of mineral 
lands is usually in the hands of a special department. 

The public lands in the several States of the Common- 
wealth may now be alienated (1) : By free grant (in trust 
for certain specified periods) ; (2) By direct sale and purchase, 
which may be either by agreement or at auction; (3) Vr^ con- 
ditional sale and purchase. Public lands in the several 
States imay also be occupied under a variety of forms of leases 
and licenses, issued both by the Land Department and by the 
Mines Department. 

In Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Northern 
Territory perpetual leases are issued for an indefinite period 
upon payment of an annual rent, while in all the States leases 
or licences of comparatively large areas may be obtained 
for grazing. Provision is also made in all of the States for 
convenient forms of leases and licenses for special purposes 
and for special classes of land. These tenures, which relate 
more particularly to the subject of home colonisation, are 
those in existence under the closer Settlement Acts, the 
Village Settlement Acts, and the Small Holding Acts. 



Closer Settlement (1). 

In all the States Acts have been passed authorising the Gov- 
ernments to re-purchase alienated lands for the purpose of 
cutting them up into blocks of suitable size, and throwing 
them open to settlement on easy terms and conditions. Special 
Acts have also been passed in several of the States, autho- 



(1) The following account has been taken practically verljatim, with a few 
etlitoiial changes, from tlie oriicial Year Book of the ConinionwealUi of Australia 
(No. i:{, 1920). Melbourne, l'J20. 



rising the establishment on particular lines of co-o,pera- 
tive communities, village settlements, and labour colonies. 
Lands may be acquired either compulsorily or voluntarily in 
New Soutb Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and Tasmania, but 
only voluntarily in South Australia and Western Australia. 
The following table gives particulars up to the latest avail- 
able date of operations under the Closer Settlement Acts for 
each State and for the whole Commonwealth : 



New South Wales 

Victoria 

Queensland 

South Australia . . 
Western Australia 
Tasmania ....... 

Commonwealth .. 



Area acquired 



Acres 



1.272.470 
570 617 
785.311 
748.689 
446.804 
75.633 

3.899.524 



Purchase 
price 



5.440.629 

4.2.52.543 

1.955.060 

2.469.478 

421.373 

274.563 

14.813.646 



Farms al oUeii 



Number Acres 



2.885 

3.431 

2.755 

2.757 

704 

258 

12.790 



1.268.046 
478.368 
662.756 
695.882 
304.937 
68.163 

3.478.152 



Total Areas acquired and allotted up to 30 June 1919 

The following table shows the area of private lands acqui- 
red in each State for the financial year 1901 and for each 
year from 1908 to 1919. 

Areas of Private Lands Acquired, 1901 and 1908 to 1919 





New South 




Queens- 


South 
Aust.(lj 


Western 


Ta^^niania 


Conimou- 




Wales 




land{l) 


Australia 




wealth 


A' ros 


Acres 


A crcs 


■Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


1901 
1908 


142^403 


28.553 
211.140 


132.760 
456.742 




46.624 
170.881 


'25!l77" 


207.937 
1.. 360. 797 


.354.4.51 


1909 


321.209 


237.400 


497.095 '2) 


.500. 464 (M 


215.822 


33.079 


1.805.069 


1910 


461.723 


343.829 


497.095(2 


.527.501(3 


349.-522 


34.441(4) 


2.114.111 


1911 


676.278 


455.954 


.537. 449 '2 


.592.972 


297.391 


34.448^4) 


2.594.492 


1912 


676.438 


515.604 


664.. 363 


619.469 


303.469 


45.731 I'll 


2.825.C74 


1913 


676.439 


560.081 


664.363 


61 9.. 568 


144.333 


49.206(1) 


3.021.365 


1914 


685.156 


567.687 


664.363 


632.715 


446.804 


60.232 


3.0.56 957 


1915 


685.1.56 


.564.. 520 


664.363 


611.402 


446.804 


73.162 


3. 015. 407 


1916 


745.883 


564.600 


785.311 


661.117 


446.804 


73.320 


3 277.035 


1917 


747.204 


.567.943 


785.311 


685.217 


446.804 


75.259 


3.307.738 


1918 
1919 


759.. 526 


.565.442 


785.311 


685.611 


446.804 


75.2.59 


3 317.953 


823.899 


711.071 


785.311 


691.109 


446.804 


75.2.59 


3.533.453 



(1) Particulars are lor calendar years. 

(2) To the preceding ;51 December. 

(3) To 80 .lune. 

(4) Including 4581 acres of Crown lands. 



— 79 — 

Government Loans to Settlers. 

For the purpose of promoting pastoral, agricultural, and 
similar pursuits, with the object of assisting settlers in erect- 
ing buildings and carrying out improvements on their hold- 
ings, general systems have beeji established in all the States 
and in the Northern Territory under which financial aid 
is rendered to settlers by the state governments. In many of 
the Closer Settlement and similar Acts, how^evcr, special pro- 
visions have been inserted with the object of lending money 
to settlers taking up land under these Acts, with which to 
build homes or effect improvements. 

The aggregate amount of loans extended, repayments, and 
profits to the state under this legislation is contained in the 
table below. This gives the latest figures available that is, 
to June 30, 1919. 



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— 82 — 

Land settlement and land credit 
in the states of commonwealth. 



New South Wales 

Under the Closer Settlement Act of 1901 provision was 
made for the acquisition of private lands or of Crown lands 
held under lease, for the purpose of closer settlement. No 
power of compulsory resumption was conferred by the Act, 
which was consequently practically inoperative. Under the 
Closer Settlement Act of 1904, as amended in 1906, 1907, and 
1909, and the Closer Settlement Promotion Act 1910, the Go- 
vernment is empowered to resume private lands, either by 
agreement or by compulsory purchase, and to alienate them 
on favourable terms to persons who desire to settle and make 
homes for themselves and their families on the soil. The 
administration of the Closer Settlement Acts is in the hands 
of a Board. Land acquired under the Acts is subdivided into 
blocks or farms, and by notification in the Government Ga- 
Gazette is declared to be a settlement purchase area available 
for application. The Gazette notice also gives all necessary 
information as to the class and character of the land, and th3 
capital value, area, etc. of each block of farm. 



Closer Settlement Purchase. 

Under this tenure a settler may acquire the freehold of the 
land under a system of deferred payments. A deposit of 
6 1/2 per cent, of the notified value of the settlement purchase 
must be lodged with the application, except in the case of dis- 
charged soldiers or sailors, who are not required to pay any 
deposit, and a similar amount by way of instalment, paid an- 
nually until the purchase-money, together with interest at the 
rate of 5 1/2 per cent., is paid off. Prior to 1 September 1917 
the deposit and annual instalments ranged from 5 per cent, to 
6 per cent, and the interest from 4 per cent, to 5 per cent. 
Under this system the balance due to the Crown will be paid 
off in thirty-one years, the holding then becoming a freehold. 
A condition of residence for five j^ears attaches to every settle- 
ment purchase. Under the amending Act of 1918 interest 
only may be paid in lieu of such instalments for such periods 
and subject to such conditions as the Minister may deter- 
mine. The Minister may also grant postponement condition- 
ally or unconditionally of such interest or one or more instal- 
ments of purchase money, if satisfied of the inability of the 
holder to pay, provided that the amount owing to the Crown 
does not exceed the original capital value plus 80 per cent. 



— 83 — 

of the value of improvements effected on the settlement pur- 
chase since commencement of title. 

Permissive Occupancies. — The Minister may grant per- 
mits to occupy any lands within a settlemeni purchase area 
which remain undisposed of, suhject to certain terms and 
conditions. 

Sales by Auction. — Areas within closer settlement dis- 
tricts necessary for township settlement may be set apart by 
notification in the Gazette. Attlotments, each of which may 
not exceed half an acre in extent, within such areas may be 
sold by auction. 

Promotion Section of the Closer Settlement Acts. — Under 
this Section any three or more persons or any one or more 
discharged soldiers within the meaning of the Returned Sold- 
iers (Amendment) Act 1917, each of wliom is qualified to 
hold settlement purchases and who desire to purchase from 
the same owner any private lands may, upon entering into 
an agreement with the owner and subject to valuation by the 
Advisory Board and the Savings Bank Commissioners, 
acquire such lands through the Minister on Closer Settlement 
conditions. 



Areas Acquired and Disposed of 

Up to 30 June 1919 127 estates had been opened for settle- 
ment under Closer Settlement Acts. 

The following statement gives particulars of the aggregate 
areas opened up to 30 June, in each year from 1909 to 1919. 

CLOSER SETTLEMENT .\REAS, 1909-1919 



Year ended 
30 June 


Areas 


C'Tpilal Values 


Acquired 

land.s 


Adjoining 
Crown 
lauds 


Total 


Acquired 
lands 


Adjoining 
Crown 

lands 


Total 


190i).... 
1910.... 
1911.... 
1912.... 
1913.... 
1914.... 
1915.... 
1916.... 
1917.... 
1918.... 
1919.... 


Acres 

321.209 
461.723 
591.861 
676.438 
676.439 
685.1.56 
685.1.56 
745.883 
747.204 
7.59.-526 
801.366 


Acres 

28.064 
83.045 
86.127 
87.760 
87.759 
89.. 540 
89.. 540 
91.987 
91.996 
91.996 
94.254 


Acres 

349.273 
544.768 
677.988 
764.198 
764.198 
774.696 
774.696 
837.870 
839.200 
8.51.522 
895.620 


i 

1.246.508 
1.624.858 
2.293.399 
2.666.516 
2 667.203 
2 685.660 
2.685.660 
2.870.116 
2.895.638 
2.946.221 
3.173.885 


f 

42.878 
147.977 
148.696 
156.796 
159.973 
163.254 
163.254 
167 962 
168.175 
170.259 
175.331 


f 

1.289.386 
1.172 835 
2.442.095 
2.823.312 
2.827.176 
2.848 914 
2.848.914 
3.038.078 
3.063.813 
3.117.480 
3.349.216 



— 84 — 

The total area thus set apart has been divided into 
1,832 farms, comprising 868,979 acres, the remaining area 
being reserved for recreation areas, roads, stock routes, 
schools, etc. 

The following table gives particulars as to the disposal of 
the farms by closer settlement purchase for each year ended 
30 June, 1909 to 1919. 



CLOSER SETTLEMENT ALLOTMENTS, 1909-1919 



Year 


Farms allotted by Board 
to date 


Total amount 
received 

in respect of 
settlement 
purchases 


Total 
number of 

applica- 
tions 

received 


Number 


Area 


Value 


1908/1909 

1909/1910 

1910/1911 

1911/1912 

1912/1913 

1913/1914 

1914/1915 

1915/1916 

1916/1917 

1917/1918 

1918/1919 


683 
941 
1.316 
1.485 
1.554 
1.567 
1.588 
1.609* 
1.622 
1.624 
1.736 


Acres 

312.075 

471.639 

604.319 

673.610 

734.924 

734.125 

742.610 

748.753* 

759.753 

760.083 

786.942 


£ 

1.192.283 

1.731.480 

2.420.035 

2.722.564 

2.767.370 

2.806.285 

2.834.792 

2.860.636* 

2.905.550 

2.907.055 

3.105.214 


£ 

73.133 
142.945 
220.720 
274.440 
363.425 
493.795 
506.073 
718.660 
834.485 
985.863 
1.139.176 


953 
1.209 
1.328 
1.555 
1.568 
1.578 
1.591 
1.612 
1.625 
1.625 
1.740 



Labour Settlements 

These settlements were founded by the Labour Settlements 
Acts 1893 and 1894, amended and replaced by the Labour 
Settlements Act 1920. Land may be set apart for lease for a 
period of 28 years as a labour settlement under the superin- 
tendence of a Board of Control. The functions of the Board 
of Control are to enrol members of the settlement ; to make 
regulations concerning the work to be done ; to apportion the 
work among the members ; and to distribute the wages and 
profits. The Minister is empowered to grant financial assist* 
ance to the Board of Control. 

Only two settlements have been established under the Act. 

The Murrumbidgee Irrigation Act 1910 provided for the 
acquisition of 1,668,000 acres near Narrandera. in Riverina, 
for irrigation and other purposes in connection with the 
Burrinjuck Irrigation Scheme. Part of this area has since 
been made available. 



(*) Including 45 Settlements PuPchase farms of 24,714 acres, with a capital 
value of £107,710 since converted into homestead farms. 



85 



Victoria 



Closer Settlement Act, 1915 

The Closer Settlement Act in Victoria is administered by a 
Board consisting of three persons appointed by the Governor- 
in-Council, and entrusted with power to acquire, either com- 
pulsorarily or by agreement, private lands in any part of the 
State for the purpose of closer settlement. The Board may 
dispose of all lands acquired, either Crown lands or repur- 
chased lands, on conditional purchase leases either as (a) 
farm allotments not exceeding £2,500 in value, (b) workmen's 
home allotments not exceeding £ 250 in value, or (c) agri- 
cultural labourers' allotments not exceeding £ 350 in value. 
The price of the land must cover the cost of the original 
purchase and the cost of all improvements. Land acquired 
by the Board may also be sold in small areas in fee simple 
as sites for churches, public halls, butter factories, creameries, 
recreation reserves or other public services. 

The Board may approve of an agreement between an 
owner and one or more persons to purchase a farm or farms 
not exceeding £ 2,500 in value. On the property being acqui- 
red by the Board, the applicant obtains a lease under Closer 
Settlement conditions. 

Closer Settlement Leases. — Every conditional purchase 
lease is for such a term of years as may be agreed upon by 
the lessee and the Board, and payment must he made with 
interest at 4 1/2 per cent, per annum by sixty three half- 
yearly instalments, or such lesser number as may be agreed 
upon. Under the Act postponement of payment of instal- 
ments may be granted by the Board up to 60 per cent, of the 
value of improvements. The lessee must personally reside 
during eight months in each year on his allotment, and for 
six years he must carry out prescribed improvements. There- 
after, he may, with permission, transfer, assign, mortgage, or 
sublet his allotment. After twelve years, if all conditions 
have been fulfilled, a Crown grant, with the same residence 
condition as that contained in the lease, will be issued. In 
the case of workmen's homes allotments the land must be 
fenced within one year, and a dwelling-house to the value of 
at least £50 must be erected within the same time ; 
within two years further improvements must be made to the 
value of at least £ 25. As regards agricultural labourers' 
allotments, a dwelling-house to the value of at least £ 30 
must be erected Avithin one year, and within two years the 
allotment must be fenced. In the case of workmen's houses 
and agricultural labourers' allotments, the lessee may at any 



— 86 — 

time transfer, assign, or sublet with the consent of the 
Board. 

Advances to Settlers. — The Board may make advances for 
the purpose of fencing and building dwelling-houses, and is 
empowered to erect dwelling-houses, out-buildings, or im- 
proveaments on any allotment at a cost not exceeding £ 500 for 
any one allotment. Any sum so expended is repayable, with 
interest added, by instalments extending over a prescribed 
period, not greater than twenty years. Provision has also 
been made for deferring payments in cases of hardship, as 
well as for advances (to the extent of 60 per cent, of the value 
of the improvements) to enable work to be carried on. Special 
advances may also be granted to purchase wire netting in 
rabbit-infested districts. 

Loans to Municipalities. — Loans may be made out of the 
Closer Settlements Fund for the purpose of carrying out any 
road making or other public works within the boundaries of 
an estate. 

Areas acquired and made available for Closer Settlement. 
— The following statement shows the operations which have 
taken place in Victoria under the provisions of the Closer 
Settlement Acts, 1898 to 1915, up to 30 June, 1901 and 1908 
to 1919 ; 



CLOSER SETTLEMENT 1901 AND 1908-1919 





^ "^ 


How made available for settJemnnt 









5) -J 




'3 Z 
S 5 ° 




•■sp 


Total 


g .£■ o 


-S 9 

1 s 












3t^ 


Total area a 

by Goveri 

to da 


[X- t 

To 


c -^ 

C K C 

a o V 

o — .3 


r «^ ? 

o = S 

pi 




a <s 
* > 




receipts 
to date 


ID "" 


"a £l 
> — 

W (J) 

a ^ 

2 u 

< a 




Acres Acres 


.Veres 


Acres 


Acres 






f 


f 


Acres 


1901 


28.553 


28.461 


69 





44 


240 


193 


7.529 






1908 


211.140 


486.971 


473 


917 


724 


1708 


1470 


245.095 


85.501 


10.549 


1909 


237.400 


193.015 


228 


660 


610 


2242 


1645 


337.803 


121.247 


5.789 


1910 


"342.829 


237.670 


243 


1659 


617 


2242 


1880 


391 . 746 


153.890 


9.302 


1911 


455.954 


363.676 


571 


2761 


_ 


— 


2708 


606.5^)8 


234.038 


54.214 


1912 


515.604 


474.410 


512 


3651 


— 


— 


3354 


765.076 


318.338 


71.367 


1913 


563.554 


498.701 


512 


3658 


3564 


6334 


3306 


922.842 


397.803 


64.550 


1914 


567.687 


500.819 


828 


8829 


24.903 


— 


4112 


1.213.593 


456.511 


60.028 


1915 


527.993 


50t).454 


782 


5111 


26.163 


— 


4227 


1.432.187 


528.960 


56.525 


1916 


568.073 


513.281 


778 


5547 


27 . 193 


— 


4331 


1.661.427 


569.445 


51.878 


1917 


571.953|517.467 


781 


4720 


27.546 


4201 


4509 


1.670.959 


608.728 


43.017 


1918 


56-9.334 


502.475 


783 


4622 


29.577 


4210 


4594 


1.974.744 


655.380 


30.619 


1919 570.617 


501.537 


785 


4586 


30.244 


5037 


4476 


2.300.705 


729.493 


28.689 



Areas Alienated and in Process of Alienation. — The follow- 
ing table shows, as far as available, particulars of areas alien- 
ated absolutely and in process of alienation on 30 June 1901, 
and from 1908 to 1913 : 



Areas Alienated and in Process of Alienation, 1901 and 

1908-1913 



Year 


Alienated Absolutely 


Total 


In process of 
alienation 


Conditional 
purchase completed 


Sold for 
cash, etc. 


1901 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 


Acres 

2.504 
4.924 
8.705 
9.770 
9.804 
12.560 


Acres 
183 

268 
1.307 
1.320 
1.382 
1.450 
8.694 


Acres 

183 
2.772 
6.231 
10.025 
11.152- 
11.254 
21.254 


Acres 

174.812 
190.784 
221. 5C5 
303.024 
397.402 
425.761 



Up to 30 June there were also acquired under the Dis- 
charged Soldiers' Settlement Act 1917 (including Crown 
Lands and Closer Settlement Areas taken over), 182,550 acres 
at a cost of £ 1,982,223. Applications granted numbered 995, 
and 144,788 acres were made available for farm allotments. 



The Small Improved Holdings Act 1906 

Under this Act, which has been repealed, 2,822 acres at a 
cost of £53,568 allotted to 260 settlers were purchased close 
to towns where industrial employment could be obtained by 
the settlers. 

These settlements are now under the control of the Closer 
Settlement Board. 



Village communities 

The rights of lessees of land in Village Communities are 
now provided for in the Land Act 1915. Certain unalienated 
Crown lands were surveyed into allotments of 1 to 20 acres. 
The price is not less than twenty shillings an acre. Addition- 
al areas may be acquired by conditional purchase. The rent 
is a nominal one for three years. The total amount of 
monetary aid advanced up to the 30 June 1919 was £ 67,379 



of which sum the amount repaid to date was £ 44,768. After 
three years a lease may be obtained. 

On the 30 June 1919 there were 346 settlers actually 
residing, and 146 not residing, but improving, making a total 
number of 492 in occupation. Including wives and children 
the total number in residence was 1,360. 



Closer Settlement in the Irrigation Districts 

The movement for closer settlement in the irrigation dis- 
tricts started about ten years ago, when the State adopted the 
policy of purchasing large areas of land commanded by irriga- 
tion schemes, and subdividing them for intensive culture. The 
Amending Closer Settlement Act of 1912 (now incorporated 
in the Closer Settlement Act 1915) transferred to the Water 
Supply Commission the entire management, leasing, and gen- 
eral supervision of all such areas within irrigation districts. 
The State had expended between three and four million 
pounds on irrigation works, which were not being used to 
their full extent. Under the Goulburn Scheme, the largest 
of the State works, more than half the available water was 
being wasted. The reason was lack of people to cultivate the 
land as irrigation requires. Previously, in the various dis- 
tricts the average size of farms varied from 400 to 600 acres, 
while under irrigation from 12 to 80 acres will now give 
employment to a good-sized family and furnish them a com- 
fortable living. The large farms of the irrigation districts 
could not be properly cultivated by their owners, and the only 
way to make irrigation a success was to subdivide these hold- 
ings and bring in farmers to cultivate the smaller areas. To 
this end the State offered to buy suitable land in any district 
having a reliable water supply at a price fixed by impartial 
export values, and has now purchased 118,400 acres for this 
purpose, and now administers also the irrigated closer settle- 
ments established on Crown lands at Merbein and Uyah, 
which contain respectively about 8,000 acres and 3,000 acres. 
This land is sold to settlers on terms of 31 1/2 years with 
4 1/2 per cent, interest on deferred payments, under what are 
known as closer settlement conditions, which, while providing 
for the liberal terms and advances require, on the part of 
the settler or his successor, residence on the block for at 
least eight months in each year. These payments are calcu- 
lated on the Credit Fonoier basis and are equalised through 
the whole period. As a result, the settlers, by paying an ad- 
ditional 1 1/2 per cent., or six per cent, in all, on the cost 
for 31 1/2 years, pay off both principal and interest. In the 
early stages of irrigated closer settlements the State under- 
took, where desired by settlers, to prepare portions of their 
holdings for irrigation by grading, seeding, and constructing 



— 89 — 

distributory channels, settlers being allowed to pay the cost of 
such works by instalments extending over ten years. The 
development of these settlements has, however, now reached 
such a stage that this is no longer necessary. Contract labour 
is available to new settlers, and there are facilities for the 
carrying out of this work locally, but financial assistance to 
the same extent is still available. To help the settler of small 
capital, the State will build him a house and allow 20 years 
to pay for it. The cash payments required are as follows : 
On houses costing less than £ 100, £ 10 ; while on houses 
costing more the cash payment varies from 12 1/2 to 30 
per cent., of the estimated cost. The State also makes 
loans to settlers equal to 60 per cent of the value of perman- 
ent improvements, these loans to be repaid in 20 years. 
Five per cent, interest is charged on all advances — whether 
for houses, preparing land, or money furnished to the settler. 

In the case of discharged soldiers, the cash deposits on both 
land and houses are dispensed with, and further concessions 
can be made in the form of suspension of payment of instal- 
ments during the first one, two, or three years of occupation. 
Last year 386 blocks were granted to new settlers, 352 of 
whom were discharged soldiers. During the past ten years 
97,700 acres have been settled in farms averaging fifty acres 
each — which are now the homes of 1985 new settlers. 
There are also 317 allotments coinprising 12,800 acres ready 
for immediate occupation and a further 9,000 acres being 
prepared for settlers. 

At Shepparton, one of the oldest of these settlements, there 
are now 269 settlers living where there w^ere originally 21. 
At Kohurra, another earh' settlement, some settlers made 
such satisfactory progress that they paid in full their land 
and other instalments, when their leases, which were for 
31 1/2 years, were only some seven years old. In Koyuga there 
are now fifty settlers with good houses, many young 
orchards, fine crops of lucerne and vegetables, where in 
November 1910 there was not a house, a family, or an acre of 
cultivated land. Of the total area settled, 26,000 acres are 
under lucerne, 14,000 under fruit, and 15,000 under other 
crops. There are now fourteen settlers' homes for everj^ 
one that existed on these areas when repurchased by the 
State. Four hundred and eighty six of the settlers are dis- 
charged soldiers. 

Reports received regularly from officers in charge of irri 
gation districts indicate that in nearly all cases the settlers 
are making good progress on their holdings, and that there 
is undoubtedly an increasing feeling of security and perman- 
ence pervading these settlements. 

The Murray Frontage Settlements are showing continual 
progress. The value of the last season's production from the 
main Merbein Settlement of 6,000 acres reached the splendid 
total of £250,000. These settlements are becoming increas- 



— 90 — 

ingly attractive to new settlers. Irrigable blocks have al*- 
ready been allotted there to 166 qualified soldiers, but th? 
demand for such lands was so keen that the Commission has 
acquired the large estate of 30,000 acres known as " Red 
Cliffs " (adjacent to the Mildura Settlement) and is now pre- 
paring it for occupation by fully 1,000 additional returned 
soldiers. 



Queensland 

Under the provisions of the Closer Settlement Act of 1906 
private lands may be re-purchased by the Crown, either by 
agreement or compulsorily. 



Compulsory Acquisition 

The owner of an estate in possession, the whole of which is 
proposed to be taken compulsorily has the right to retain in 
one block, land of the value of £ 10,000 to £ 20,000 according 
to the value of the whole estate. The maximum sum which 
may be expended on the acquisition of land for tlie purpose 
of closer settlements is £ 500,000 in any one year. 



Disposal of Land 

A sufficient part of the land acquired must be set apart for 
roads, public reserves, and townships, and up to 1916 the 
remainder was proclaimed open for selection as agricultural 
farms under the Land Act 1910, which repealed the Land 
Acts 1897 to 1909 ; and under the Closer Settlement Act 
Amendment Act of 1913 the term of the lease was 40 years. 
The rent to be paid for the first year is equal to £ 10 for every 
£ 100 of the purchasing price : and (no payment being requir- 
ed during the second, third, or fourth years) an annual pay- 
ment of £ 6 6s. od. for every £ 100, continued from the fifth 
to the fortieth year, will, at the end of the term, have paid 
off the principal sum together with interest. 

From January 1917 the opening of land for agricultu- 
ral farm selection has not been allowed. Under the present 
law, the remainder of the land (after pro\^sion for roads, 
reserves, etc.), is opened for selection as perpetual lease selec- 
tions at an annual rent fixed by the Minister, but at a rate per 
cent, of the capital value not more than the rate of interest 
paid by the Government on the purchase money of the estate 
of which the lands forms part. The deposit of 10 per cent, is 
abolished, but so also is the provision that no rent need be 



— 91 — 

paid during the second, third, and fourth year of the term. 
The rent may be re-appraised for each period of fifteen years. 

Areas Acquired and Selected 

The following table gives particulars of the operations 
under the above Acts at the end of the year 1901 and of each 
year from 1908 to 1912 : 



CLOSER SETTLEMENT, 1901 AND 1908 TO 1918. 





Niiinber of 


Total area 


Total Aiiiovint 


Total Area 


Year 


Estates 


acquired to 


of Purchase 


selected to 




acquired 


date 


money 


date. 2 






Acres 


f 


.\i'i-es 


1901 


15 


132.760 


335.056 


124.710 


1908 


27 


456.742 


1.208.013 


364.334 


1909 


27 


497.095 


1.349.251 


409.381 


1910 


27 


537 . 449 


1.490.489 


437.496 


1911 


29 


644.385 


1.670.330 


496.315 (') 


1912 


29 


664.363 


1.713.165 


525.168 


1913 


29 


664.363 


1.713.165 


543 . 788 


1914 


29 


664.363 


1.713.365 


559.597 


1915 


29 


664.363 


1.713.165 


582.788 


1916 


30 


785.311 


1.955.060 


589.047 


1917 


30 


785.311 


1.955.060 


587.724 


1918 


30 


785.311 


1.955.060 


595.719 



The total area opened for selection up to the end of the 
year 1918 was 641,363 acres, of which 595,719 acres had been 
selected by 2,220 selectors. There remained 45,644 acres 
unselected or reserved. The total amount of rent paid up to 
the same date was £1,309,454, the amount in arrears being 
£29,001. At the end of the year 1918 there were 2,220 select- 
ors holding 2,338 agricultural farms, 252 unconditional selec- 
tions, 73 perpetual lease selections, and five prickly pear 
selections. In addition, land and improvements to the value 
of £ 86,641 had been sold at auction. 



Group settlement 

The Special Agricultural Selections Acts 1901 to 1905 were 
partly repealed by the Amending Act of 1909, which was in 



(1) In addition there were at th« end of the year 1912, 11,750 acres sold at auc- 
tion and 3,136 acres retained by the Government for experimental farms and other 
sal«s. 

(2) In addition at the end of the year 1918 thei-e were 12,278 acres sold at auction 
and 3,411 acres retained by the Government for experimental farms and for other 
sales. 



— 92 — 

its turn repealed by the Land Act 1910. Under the last Act 
land may be set apart for members of bodies of selectors who 
desire to settle in the same locality. The terms and condi- 
tions are similar to those in force for single selectors. Every 
group selection is subject to the condition of personal resid- 
ence during the first five years of the term. 

The Special Agricultural Selections Act 1905 provides that 
financial aid may be granted to all or any of the members of 
a body of selectors or agricultural homesteads. Advances 
may also be made to each selector for a value not exceeding 
£80 for the purpose of buying tools, rations, stock, and 
poultry. 

The portions opened for " group settlement " in 1918 num- 
bered 341 and comprised a gross area of 110,620 acres. Up 
to the end of that year 295 portions, comprising 95,702 acres, 
valued at £ 113,498 had been applied for by members of the 
bodies of settlers for whom they were opened. This part of 
the Land Act is operated almost exclusivelj'^ in the settlement 
of returned soldiers. 



South Australia 

Under the provisions of the Crown Lands Acts the Com- 
missioner may repurchase land for the purposes of closer 
settlement at a cost not exceeding £ 600,000 in any two years. 



Disposal of Land 

The Crown Lands Act Further Amendment Act 1910 
increases the value of the blocks into which estates may be 
subdivided for closer settlement purposes from £ 2,000 to 
£ 4,000 unimproved value, or, if the land is suitable for pas- 
toral purposes only, to £ 5,000. The purchase money with 
interest thereon at 4 per cent, per annum is payable in 128 
half-yearly instalments. 

For the first five years, improvements to the value of £ 3 
for every £ 100 of the purchase money must be effected 
yearly. 



Areas Acquired and Selected 

The following table shows the area of land acquired by the 
Government in South Australia for the purposes of closer 
settlement, and the manner in which the same has been dis- 
posed of under the provisions of the Crown Lands Acts for 
the years 1902 and 1908 to 1918. 



93 



CLOSER SETTLEMENT, 1902 AND 1908 TO 1918 



Yi-ar 


.\ica of 
huuls re- 
purchased 
to :U Dec. 


Agreements 

with 
covenants 
to purchase 


Total Area 

Leased as 

Homestead 

Blocks 


Perpet- 
ual 
leases 


Miscel- 
laneous 
leases 


Sold 


Remainder 
unoccu- 
pied 
(including 
roads) 


Right 
of pur- 


Perpet- 
ual 








chase 


lease 












.\cres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


.Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


1902 


150.481 


— 


2.717 


3.073 


90.128 


309 


403 


59.851 


1908 


354.454 


261.457 


1.590 


1.953 


74.651 


281 


9.142 


5.380 


190^) 


500.464 


296.013 


1.381 


1.779 


75.045 


50.056 


24.641 


51.549 


1910 


527.501 


357.480 


1.241 


1.510 


62.386 


40.077 


35.266 


29.541 


1911 


622.422 


411.370 


1.077 


1.414 


55.121 


40.082 


43.969 


69.389 


1912 


624.122 


436.038 


894 


1.386 


49.857 


40.101 


57.884 


38.408 


1913 


629.574 


434.417 


818 


1.344 


50.998 


134 


61.061 


82.146 


1914 


657.629 


476.332 


796 


1.584 


51.863 


164 


63.964 


62.926 


1915 


666.299 


487.853 


753 


1.579 


51.588 


164 


65.484 


58.878 


1916 


729.963 


487.855 


733 


1.513 


52.138 


164 


66.607 


121.453 


1917 


743.191 


501.439 


703 


1.531 


71.896 


144 


112.642 


54.836 


1918 


743.191 


497.032 


703 


1.531 


54.826 


144 


124.728 


64.227 



During the financial year 1918-19, one property of 5,497 
acres was repurchased. The total area repurchased at 30th 
June 1^19 was 748,689 acres, the purchase money being 
£ 2,469,478. Of that area 695,882 acres had been allotted to 
2,757 persons, the average area to each being 252 acres. 



Irrigation Areas 



Under the Irrigation and Reclaimed Lands Act 1914, 
special provisions are inade for granting perpetual leases of 
reclaimed lands. The maximum area of irrigable or reclaim- 
ed land one person may hold in any irrigation area is 
50 acres, but in the case of partnerships 50 acres may be held 
by each partner up to a maximum of 150 acres. Land above 
the irrigating channels is also offered to lessees of irrigable 
blocks for dry farming, grazing, etc. Each block is offered 
under perpetual lease, at a rent not less than a sum equivalent 
to 4 per cent, of the unimproved value of the land plus the 
cost of reclaiming. In the case of swamp lands in the reclaim- 
ed lands, a drainage rate of from 5s. to 7s. 6d. per acre 
per annum is payable. On the irrigable land the water 
rate has been fixed at 30s. per acre per annum for 
the first four years, after which an amount will be charged 
sufficient to coverthe actual cost of supplying water, and the 
interest on pumping plants, channels, etc. A sliding scale 
covers both the rent and the water rates for the first four 
years. Under Paft V of the Act a fund has been con- 
stituted called the Lessees of Reclaimed Lands Loan Fund, 
consisting of money provided by Parliament to be expended 



— 94 — 

by the Department in assisting settlers on the irrigation 
areas by fencing, clearing and grading their blocks, and con- 
structing irrigation channels, drains, and concrete tanks 
thereon ; such improvements will be undertaken up to a value 
not exceeding £ 15 per acre of the irrigable area in each 
lessee's block, but before the work can be commenced a 
deposit must be paid equal to 15 per cent, of the value of such 
improvements as estimated by the Department. 

The total cost of the work, less amount of deposit paid, 
will be treated as a loan to the lessee, and will be repayable 
in 20 equal annual instalments, after the expiration of five 
years, or any shorter period if so desired by the lessee, the 
current rate of interest being charged. 

Any lessee will be permitted to accept the contract for 
carrying out his own improvements, according to the specifi- 
cations and estimate of the Department, up to the maximum 
amount per acre, as mentioned above. 



Village Settlement 

Out of the reserved lands the Commissioner is directed to 
set apart for the purpose of village settlement such land as 
he shall consider fit (a) for horticultural purposes, to be term- 
ed (( horticultural land » ; and (b) for agricultural purposes, to 
be termed « commonage land » ; and (c) land whereon any irri- 
gation works are situated. Land so set apart is to be div- 
ided as follows : - Horticultural lands into blocks as near- 
ly as practicable equarin unimproved value, and of about ten 
acres in extent; and the commonage lands into one or more 
blocks of such area as the Commissioner rnay determine. 
The lands so set apart in each case form the district of the as- 
sociation. No person may hold more than two blocks. Com- 
monage lands may only be leased to the association on per- 
petual lease, and all unleased horticultural blocks are under 
the control of the association. Every member of an associa- 
tion must provide or contribute towards the maintenance 
and regulation of irrigation works and the care and cultiva- 
tion of the commonage lands. 



Homestead Blocks 

Aboriginal reservations, except those au Point Mc Leay or 
Point Pearce, and other suitable lands may be offered as 
homestad blocks on perpetual lease or lease with a right of 
purchase. Each block must not exceed £ 100 in value and 
residence by a member of the family for at least nine months 
of every year is compulsory. 

There is now hardly any demand for homestead blocks. 



— 95 — 

persons generally preferring small blocks of repurchased or 
Crown lands on ordinary conditions. The system appears 
to be of value only in centres of ])opulation where work can 
be obtained, and within a reasonable distance of a school. 

Advances uj) to £50 may be made by the Commissioner to 
any homestead blockholder who has complied with the con- 
ditions of his lease agreement, to assist in erecting permanent 
buildings on the blocks, or other improvements. Advances 
must be repaid, with interest at 4 per cent, per annum, by 
twenty equal instalments, commencing twelve months from 
the date of advance. The Commissioner may, in case of 
hardship, extend the time of repayment, deferred payments 
bearing interest at 5 per cent, per annum. The total amount 
advanced up to the 30 June 1919 was £41,376, of wliich 
£ 39,664 had been repaid. 

The total number of leases and agreements of which pur- 
chase had been completed to 31 December 1918 was 2.381, 
comprising 35,781 acres, at a purchase price of £ 87,296, or an 
average of £ 28s. lOd, peracre, the average of each holding 
of which purchase was completed being 15 acres. 



Western Australia 



Under the Agricultural Lands Purchase Act 1909, which 
repealed and consolidated the Agricultural Lands Purchase 
Acts 1896 to 1904, sums not exceeding in the aggregate 
£ 400,000 may be expended on the repurchase of Crown lands 
near the railways, suitable for immediate cultivation. 

For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Acts, 
a Land Purchase Board has been constituted. Advised by 
the report of the Board, the Minister, with the approval of 
the Governor, may make a contract for the acquisition of the 
land by surrender at the price fixed by the Board, or at 
any lesser price. 

After reservation of part of the repurchased land for public 
purposes, the remainder is thrown open for selection. The 
maximum area held by one person must not exceed 1,000 
acres, in special cases 2,000 acres. 



Conditions of Sale to Selectors 

The maximum selling price of any repurchased land is 
equal to 105 per cent, of the actual cost of the land plus the 
cost of any improvements made upon it. A lease for twenty 
to thirty years is issued at a rent, the half-yearly instalments 
of which are to be at the rate of £ 317 s. 9d. for each £ 100 of 
the selling price. Improvements must be the value of one- 



% — 



fifth of the purchase-money every two years of the first ten 
j^ears of the lease. One-half of the land must be fenced 
within the first five years and the whole within ten years. 
Loans may be granted to selectors under the provisions of 



the Agricultural Bank Acts. 



Areas Acquired and Selected 

The transactions conducted under the provisions of the 
Agricultural Lands Purchase Acts are shown for 1901 and 
for each year from 1908 to 1919 in the subjoined table :- 



CLOSER SETTLEMENT, 1901 AND 1908-9 TO 1918 (1) 







. 


1 - 









Year 


0, w 


Total purchas 
money 


Roads, 
reserves, elc 


Totid area 

made 

available 

for selection 


"Z '"^^ 


Total area 

occupied to 

date 


Balance of 

area availabl 

for selection 


Total revenu 

received to 

date 




Acres 


!• 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


£ 


1901 


46.624 


52.764 


1.459 


45.165 


4.295 


37.235 


7.930 


14.451 


1908-09 


215.822 


131.373 


11.142 


204.680'30.950 


189.820 


15.531 


94.438 


1909-10 


249.522 


158.041 


10.757 


228.823:25.134 


213.416 


15.407 


111.125 


1910-ir 


297.391 


262.302 


14.876 


282.51550.032 


261.942 


20.573 


129.386 


1911-12 


303.469 


270.622 


14.506 


282.885 8.375 


264.885 


18.000 


151.110 


1912-13 


446.804 


421.333 


12.799 


290.67010.835 


270.945 


19 . 724 


175.245 


1913-14 


446.804 


421.333 


128.605 


315.133 


2.451 


268.260 


46.873 


210.675 


1914-15 


446.804 


421.373 


15.825 


430.979 


4.122 


272.190 


158.789 


239.409 


1915-16 


446.804 


421.373 


15.825 


430.979 


342 


271.242 


159.737 


268.232 


1916-17 


446.804 


421.373 


15.825 


430.979 


11 


269.648 


161.331 


295.740 


1917-18 


446.804 


421.373 


15.825 


430.979 


2.813 


267.008 


163.971 


319.759 


1918-19 


446.804 


421.373 


15.825 


430.979 


38.890 


304.937 


126.002 


343.767 



On the 30 June 1919 the total expenditure, exclusive of 
purchase-money, but including interest, was £192,901 which 
left a balance of £ 150,866. At the same date the amount in- 
vested as sinking fund was £ 143,028. 



Working Men's Blocks 

Any person not already holding land within the State is 
entitled to obtain a lease of lands which have been surveyed 
and thrown open for selection as working men's blocks. The 



fl) The figures for 1901 are up to 31 December. For subsequent years they are 
given as up to 30 June. 



— 97 — 

maximum area that may be selected by one person within 
any town or goldfield is half an acre, to be paid for in ten 
years by half-yearly instalments. Residence and improve- 
ment conditions must be fulfilled. At the expiration of the 
lease, or at any time after five years from the date 
of the commencement of the lease, upon compliance 
with all conditions and upon payment of the full purchase- 
money and fee, a Crown grant will be issued. No person 
w^ho has once held a working man's block is allowed to 
select another, except under very special circumstances. 

The following table shows the number and area of 
accepted applications for working men's blocks during each 
year, as well as the total number and area in existence at the 

END OF THE YEAR 1901 AND FOR EACH YEAR FROM 1908 TO 1919 



PARTK ILARS OF WORKING MEN'S BLOCKS 1901 AND 1908 TO 1919 





Applii^alioiis accepted 


Block areas occupied 


Year ending 
June 30 


















Number 


Area 


Number 


Area 






acres 




acres 


1901 a 


O 


6 


t 


31 


1908 


91 


131 


387 


.537 


1909 


88 


189 


408 


667 


1910 


122 


148 


440 


719 


1911 


53 


99 


388 


722 


1912 


28 


56 


327 


688 


1913 


1 


4 


230 


617 


1914 


1 


1 


168 


590 


1915 


Nil 


Nil 


189/^ 


584 


1916 


1 


11 


176 


565 


1917 


Nil 


Nil 


134 


510 


1918 


Nil 


Nil 


108 


482 


1919 


Nil 


Nil 


83 


451 



Tasmania 



The principles of closer settlement were not introduced into 
Tasmania until the Closer Settlement Act of 1906 was passed. 
Under this act which was amended in 1908 and again in 
1911, and consolidated in 1913, power is given to the 
Minister for Lands, on the recommendation of the Closer 



<d) For financial yar ended 30 June. 

ib) Increase due to cancelled leases being rcinstat.'d. 



— 98 — 



Settlement Board, to purchase compulsorily or by agreement 
private land in any part of Tasmania for the purpose of 
closer settlement, and also to deal with and dispose of any 
unoccupied Crown landfor the same purpose. 



Disposal of Land 

Lands so brought under the Act are subdivided into farm 
allotments of a suitable size not exceeding £4,000 in value 
and are disposed of on lease for minety nine years. 
The rental is determined by the Board at a rate not exceeding 
5 per cent, per annum on the capital value of the land. Any 
lessee who has fulfilled the conditions under the Act may, 
after the expiration of ten years of the term of the lease, pur- 
chase the land leased to him. The Minister has power to 
dispose of the fee simple of such land in any estate which is 
considered unsuitable for closer settlement. 

A lessee must improve his holdings to a value equal to 2 y^ 
per cent, on the capital value of the lands in each of the first 
ten years of the term of his lease, and he must, within two 
years of the date of the lease, personally reside on his allot- 
ment during at least eight months of each of the following 
nine years. 

Under the Amendment Act of 1911, provision is made for 
reserving a proportion of the allotments thrown open, and 
leasing the same, under special terms and conditions, to bona 
fide immigrants. 



Advances to Settlers 



The total advances by the Government in aid of the cost 
of effecting improvements to any one lessee must not exceed, 
pound for pound, the sum expended by him in fencing and 
building. Such advances must be repaid, together with the 
interest at 5 per cent., in equal half-yearly instalments, within 
a period not exceeding 21 years. 



Special Sales 

The fee simple of land acquired may be disposed of by 
sale on the recommendation of the Board as sites for 
churches, public halls, dairy factories, fruit-ureserving fact- 
ories, mills, or creameries. The area sold may not exceed 
one acre in the case of a church or public hall, or five acres 
in other cases. 



— 99 — 



Areas Acquired and Selected 

Up to the 30th June 1919 twenty-four areas had been 
opened up for closer settlement. Particulars are given in the 
following statement :- 



Year 


Nuinl)er 

of rariiis made 

availal)le 


Nunil)er of 
(amis allottetl 


Area of farms 
allotted 


Rental of 
farms allotted 


Total area 
purchased 








Aci'es. 


£ 


Acres 


1907 


(31 


54 


10.365 


1.923 


13.397 


1908 


28 


26 


8.191 


634 


11.780 


li)09 


49 


45 


9.117 


789 


7.902 


1910 


9 


15 


1.872 


539 


1.362 


1911 


'M 


36 


4.965 


168 


5.143 


1912 


11 


7 


3.912 


563 


6.147 


1913 


18 


21 


5.652 


1.134 


3.745 


1914 


24 


17 


8.975 


1.959 


10.756 


1915 


36 


53 


15.153 


4.393 


12.930 


1916 


o 


11 


1.729 


476 


157 


1917 


5 


15 


3.900 


993 


1.939 


1918 




8 


2.366 


205 


Nil 


1219 








Nil 


Nil 



The total purchase money paid by the Government up ta 
the 30th June 1919 was £274,563. 



Northern Territory 

In the Northern Territory a Board is constituted to deal 
with assistance to settlers. During 1918-19 the number of 
applications received and dealt with by the Board was 18. 
The total amounts of loans granted during the year was £422. 
A sum of £ 864 has been repaid on account of loans granted 
to date, and interest on the same. On 30th July 1918 the total 
amount outstanding was £ 7,214. 



Canada (1) 

The Canadian Scheme of land settlement provides for the 
placing of individual settlers upon the land, as well as for the 
organisation of communitj'^ groups of colonists. Under the 
general homestead law^s of Canada, any citizen may secure 



(1) For the information in this report the International Labour Office is indebted 
to the Director of Information of tlie Soldiers' Setlement Board Ottawa, Canada. 
Material has also been obtained from the Canada Year Book, 1919, published by the 
authority of the Ministry of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, 1920. (Pages 532-542). 



— 100 — 

a homestead after complying with a term of residence of 
three years, and after making certain improvements on his 
land. Compliance with these terms gives him complete 
ownership of the homestead. 

Supplementing the homesteading operations of the Domin- 
ion Government, each of the provinces has come to the as- 
sistance of agriculturists by the provision of credit from Go- 
ernment funds to facilitate the operations of farming. The 
various acts provide for advances to settlers or farmers upon 
the security of a mortgage upon lands and buildings. Spe- 
cial loan companies, consisting of farmers, are created; and 
through them the provincial monies are loaned out under 
supervision of farm loan boards. 

Repayments of Loans usually run over a period of from 5 
to 25 years, with interest at 5 or 6 per cent. Complete freehold 
title is given to any land purchased. In all this legislation it 
is indicated as desirable for the settler to provide himself 
with capital. 

Under the Dominion Soldiers' Settlement Board Legisla- 
tion, provision is made for the placing of soldiers upon the 
land. The settlers under this Act are carefully chosen on 
the basis of their agricultural experience; up to May 1921, 
centres weres organised and maintained by the Board in war- 
ious provinces for training settlers. As a part of its scheme, 
the Government extends financial assistance in the form of 
loans for the purpose of purchasing land and equipment, and 
making permanent improvements upon the settlement. 

The agricultural experiment stations of the provinces sup- 
ply the necessary agricultural information to settlers and as- 
sist them in organising co-operative groups for marketing 
and other purposes. The progress of the settler upon his land 
is observed by government inspectors and agents, and pract- 
ical suggestions are made to him as to improving his land, 
and purchasing livestock and machiner3\ The Board also 
supplies free courses of instruction in home economics and 
farm subjects for the women members of the settler's house- 
hold. 



Provincial Farm Loan Legislation. 

Alberta. — The Alberta Farm Loan Act of 1917 established 
a Farm Loan Board together with a Commissioner of Farm 
Loans appointed by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. The 
Board may make loans for thirty years on first mortgages of 
farm land, for the purposes of clearing agricultural land, 
purchasing livestock and equipment, erecting buildings, and 
making improvements. No loan is for a greater amount 
than 40 per cent, of the appraised valiio of the land taken as 
security. Repayments are made in equal instalments of ca- 
pital and interest, with a rate of interest sufficient to cover 



— 101 — 

interest payable by the Board, cost of raising money, and the 
Board's expenses. 

British Columbia. The Land Settlement Board of British 
Columbia, under the Land Settlement and Development Act» 
1917, with amendments, is authorised, under the direction of 
the Ministry of Agriculture, to make loans to farmers along 
lines similar to those outlined in the Alberta Legislation, the 
amount of the loan not to exceed 60 per cent, of the value of 
the land offered as security ; nor is it to be less than $ 250, nor 
more than •? 10,000 to any one borrower. Loans are to be 
repaid in 15, 20, or 25 years by equal half-yearly instalments, 
including principal and interest. Short term loans are made 
available, but not to be repayable by instalments. 

The interest on loans is to be, as nearly as practicable, not 
more than 1 1/2 per cent, in excess of the rate paid by the 
provincial government on the net amount realised by the 
sale of securities to raise the funds used for loaning. 

The general policy of the Land Settlement Board is to re- 
duce the money-lending feature to the minimum necessary, 
and to promote more genuine land settlement. The First 
Annual Report of the Board, of December 31 1917 states its 
policy as follows. 

a) To direct efforts to the settlement and development of 
those agricultural areas situated conveniently for transporta- 
tion facilities and available for production at the smallest 
possible cost; 

b) To adopt the necessary measures to establish commu- 
nity settlements in the areas suitable for mixed farming, fruit- 
growing, and all branches of agriculture requiring intensive 
cultivation; 

c) To cultivate the active and sympathetic co-operation of 
the Faculty of the University of British Columbia, and all 
other reliable authorities, in determining the products for 
which specific areas are best adapted ; 

d) To foster the co-operation of the Department of Lands, 
the Public Works Department and all other branches of the 
public service in harmonizing and co-ordinating public ex- 
penditure in the areas affected. » 

Reclamation projects are also being fostered. Among 
others there is now under way a project expected to take 
three years and to cost $ 1,500.000 

Manitoba. The Manitoba Farm Loans Act, 1917, establish- 
ed the Manitoba Farm Loans Association, managed by a 
Board of five members appointed by the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor-in-Council. The Association has a capital of $ 1,000,000 
in shares of $ 5. each. Loans are made for such purposes as 
clearing and improving land for agriculture, erecting buil- 
dings, purchasing equipment, etc. No loan may exceed 
$ 10,000. nor 50 per cent, of the value of the land. Every bor- 
rower must be a share-holder in the farm loans association. 



— 102 — 

New Brunswick. The Act to Encourage the Settlement of 
Farm Lands, 1912, created a farm settlement Board with 
power to buy and sell real estate and buildings. Sales are to 
be made to bona fide settlers only, and payments are to be 
made by instalments. The Lieutenant Governor-in-Council 
is authorised to borrow money to carry out the purpose of 
this legislation. Under the Act (according to the latest infor- 
mation available) more than 345 farms have been bought, of 
which 333 have been re-sold to farmers at $ 275,644. 

Nova Scotia. By the Act for the encouragement of settle- 
ment on farm lands, 1912, the Government guarantees loans 
made by loan companies to farmers on the security of land 
or buildings, to an amount not exceeding 90 per cent, of the 
value of the property and the total amount of the loan, toge- 
ther with interest on same. Repayments of the principal of 
the loan are applied to the reduction of the guarantee by the 
Government. The Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council is also 
empowered to guarantee the bonds of anj^ loan company to 
the extent of the advances made by it under the Act. The 
amount guaranteed by he Government up to September 1918 
was $ 47,706. 

Ontario. The Northern and North Western Ontario Devel- 
opment Act of 1912, with amending acts of 1915, 1916, and 
1918, the Farm Loans Act of 1917, the Act for the Promotion 
of Agricultural Development 1921, and the Act to Finance 
Agricultural Development 1921, comprise the Ontario legis- 
lation for the promotion of agricultural settlement, and the 
provision of State Loans for the purchase of land and for 
agricultural improvement. The Act of 1912 was limited to 
certain portions of the province, and provided for loans to 
settlers not exceeding $ 500 in any one case for the purpose 
of the improvement and develojDment of the land. The Act 
of 1917 authorised the provincial treasurer to loan money to 
municipal corporations, which would in turn make loans for 
farming purposes within their townships. 

The two laws enacted in 1921 extended the system and en- 
larged the borrowing powers of the provincial treasurer for 
the purposes of the Act. An Agricultural Development Board 
of three persons is provided for. 

The Board not only places loans, but is authorised to follow 
up borrowers and to secure the co-operation of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture for rendering assistance of an educa- 
tional nature to the settlers. Loans are made for the pur- 
pose of acquiring land? for the erection of buildings, and to 
pay otf existing charges on land. 

Loans are repayable in eqiial annual instalments of prin- 
cipal and interest. Loans rim for a term of not more than 
20 years nor less than 3 years. On a security of less than 
50 acres of land, a loan may not run for a longer period than; 
five years, nor exceed $ 12,000 to any one person. Loans 



— 103 — 

may be made to the extent of 65 per cent, of the vahie of the 
security as shown after valuation. 

The amount authorised to be borrowed bv the Provincial 
treasurer in 1918 was i? 5,000,000. The Act of 1921 permits 
the treasurer « to borrow money bj^ means of deposits in any 
amounts and from any persons or corporations, and to open 
offices for this purpose at such points in the Province of On- 
tario as he may find necessary ». The interest on such depos- 
its is not to exceed 4 per cent, per annum. The monies so 
borrowed will be available for loans to members of the asso- 
ciations created under the Farm Loans Act and the Agricult- 
ural Development Act. 

Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan Farm Loans Act, 1917, 
creates a farm loan Board consisting of a Commissioner and 
two members. The capital of the Board consists of money 
advanced by the provincial governinent, which is authorised 
to raise loans for the purpose, not exceeding $ 10,000,000. 
The loans are made on first mortgage only, for amounts not 
exceeding 50 per cent of the valuation of the properties on 
which the loans are made. The loans run for a period of 
thirtj' years, and payments are made in equal annual instal- 
ments. The interest rate is determined by the cost to th€ 
government of raising the money, together with the Board's 
expenses. The Board had loaned, up to December 31, 1918, 
a sum of $ 1,758,288. Applications for further loans had been 
approved at that date, which when made, Mould bring the to- 
tal amount of loans up to approximately $ 3,000,000. 

Soldier Settlement Board. 

The Soldier Settlement Board was organized in 1917 and 
was empowered by an Act of Parliament of that j^ear to as- 
sist eligible and qualified returned soldiers to settle upon the 
land. District Offices are maintained in most of the Provin- 
ces. Loans were authorised for the purchase of live stock 
and equipment and the erection of permanent improvements 
on Dominion Lands and also for the removal of encum- 
brances on farms held by war veterans. In February 1919 an 
Order-in-Council was passed extending the scope of the work 
and enabling the Soldier Settlement Board to purchase for 
returned men agricultural lands in any province. That Or- 
der-in-Council was confirmed bv Act of Parliament in July 
1919. 

Who may participate. 

Subject to regulations requiring previous adequate practi- 
cal farming experience in Canada and general fitness, mem- 
bers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, who saw service 
outside of Canada are eligible for the benefits of the Act, as 



~~ — 104 — 

well as those whose service was not outside of Canada but 
who are receiving or have received a service pension. The 
benefits of the Act also apply to ex-members of any of the 
Imperial Dominions or allied forces who resided in Canada 
prior to the war, and to Imperial and Overseas Dominion 
Forces who saw service out of their own country. In the case 
of Imperial or Dominion ex-service men not resident in Can- 
ada at the outbreak of the war, they will be required to 
work on a farm in Canada to gain experience before they are 
qualified to participate. They are also required to have suffi- 
cient working capital to maintain their dependents until re- 
turns from the land are forthcoming and to pay down 
twenty per cent of the cost of land, stock, implements and 
buildings. 

Financial assistance. 

Loans may be granted up $ 7,500 at five per cent interest, 
repayable on the amortization plan, in six annual instalments 
in the case of loans for stock and equipment, and in 25 an- 
nual instalments in the case of land and buildings. There 
are three classes of loans : — - On purchased lands : up to 
$ 4,500 for land purchase, up to $ 2,000 for stock and equip- 
ment and up to $1,000 for permanent improvements; on Do- 
minion lands : upto $ 3,000 for stock and equipment and per- 
manent improvements; on agricultural lands already owned 
by settler, up to $ 3,500 for the removal of encumbrances, up 
to $ 2,000 for stock and equipment and up to $ 1,000 for per- 
manent improvements, provided the total does not exceed 
$ 5,000. 

Applications for benefits. 

Since the commencement of operations 59,331 returned 
soldiers have made application to the Board for certificates 
of qualification. The consideration of these applications 
involved an examination of every applicant's war service and 
a close investigation of his past farming knowledge and 
ability, his moral risk, physical and general fitness, personal 
capital and assets and such matters. In most cases the Board 
or its Qualification Committee have had to interview the 
applicant n person. 

If an applicant is qualified he is granted a certificate and 
may make application for a loan forthwith. If he lacks ex- 
perience he is recommended to secure employment on a farm 
until he is able to satisfy the Board that he possesses the re- 
quired knowledge of farm management. 

Training centres were organized and maintained by the 
Board in several provinces and until May 1, 1921, pay and al- 
lowances were granted to men, especially those with families, 



105 



during the period of training. All training centres have been 
closed and are being disposed of. The only training now re- 
cognised is the practical experience under ordinary condi- 
tions and on the basis of wages current for farm labour. 



Qualified to farm. 

Of the 59,331 applicants, 43,063 were granted qualification 
certificates. Six hundred and fifty-one are now obtaining 
further practical farming experience before being considered 
as qualified. A number of the remainder are still in abey- 
ance, while others have been disqualified or recommended 
for practical training. The following table shows the num- 
ber of men settled on the land and the total amount of 
loans approved by provinces : 

Number Loans Amount 

British Columbia 2880 $12,798,827.93 

Alberta 5785 23,048,972.16 

Saskatchewan 4927 19,425,238.05 

Manitoba 3231 13,445,460.47 

Ontario 1442 6,337,362.52 

Quebec 341 1,744,991.46 

New Brunswick 491 1,504,135.47 

Nova Scotia 361 1,200,576.42 

Prince Edward Island. ... 313 866,186.00 



19771 $ 80,371,750.48 



Dominion Lands. 

The Governor General in-Council reserved all Dominion 
lands within a radius of 15 miles of any railway for returned 
soldiers. Eight thousand seven hundred and seventy-two of 
these men have taken advantage of this reservation and have 
occupied free lands. Thirty-one hundred, located on free 
lands, received from the Board financial assistance to pur- 
chase live stock and farm implements and to erect buildings. 
The total, therefore, of men who have gone on the land under 
the aegis of the Board is 25,443, including 19,771 who have 
received financial assistance. 

In the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and 
Manitoba), where Dominion lands were available, every eli- 
gible returned soldier was entitled under the Act to a soldier 
grant of 160 acres, and in addition to this soldier grant he was 
free to exercise his civilian right to homestead another 
160 acres. The average soldier grant and homestead taken 
up by returned men is 240 acres, making a total area of free 
lands disposed of, of over 2,000,000 acres. 



— 106 — 
Area of land occupied. 

The total area of land occupied by soldier settlers under 
the Act is 4,854,799 acres, made up as follows : 

Acres. 

Purchased land 2,153,184 

Encumbered land 360,227 

Soldier Grants : 

With loans 980,108 

Without loans 1,361,280 



4,854,799 



Average size and cost of farms. 

The average size of farms varies according to provinces, 
the largest being in the prairie provinces, and the smallest 
in British Columbia. The following figures show the ave- 
rage acreage of farms and average cost per acre, by pro- 
vinces : 

Province Average Average cost 

Acreage per Acre 

British Columbia 

Alberta 

Saskatchewan 

Manitoba 

Ontario 

Quebec 

New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 

Prince Edward Island. ... 86 27.70 



Saving in land purchase. 

In purchasing land or stock and equipment, the settler 
makes his own selection and drives the best bargain he can 
with the vendor. Before the Board will purchase, it requires 
appraisal by its own official, in order to ensure that the ex- 
penditure of public monej'^ is safeguarded and that no more 
than value is paid. In this waj', the Board has saved large 
sums of money to returned soldiers in purchasing land, and 
an amount aggregating $3,632,421.36 has been cut from the 
prices stated in the applications as the vendor's lowest price. 
This is an average saving over the whole Dominion of over 
seven and a half per cent. 



63 


$ 48.36 


232 


16.80 


223 


17.20 


220 


17.00 


99 


40.00 


116 


34.19 


138 


18.40 


140 


19.55 



— 107 — 

New lands opened. 

In 1919 the government gave the Board power to withdraw 
from Forest Reserves land that was suitable for agriculture 
and the first area withdrawn was a portion of the Porcupine 
Forest reserve in Saskatchewan. • This was thrown open July 
1,1919. for free entry, and 150 new settlers went in and estab-. 
lishcd a camp. Burning of brush land w^s undertaken, 
a station was built at Prairie River on the Canadian Northern 
Railway, and considerable work has been done in order to 
afford facilities for the new settlers. The Board also was 
given power to declare « settlement areas » where lands are 
being held from cultivation and the Board may purchase 
these lands at a figure to be decided by the Exchequer Court, 
if the owners are unwilling to sell at the price offered. There 
have been as well other large areas of id le lands in the Wes- 
tern Provinces which have come into the possession of the 
Soldier Settlement Board and disopsed of to returned sol- 
diers. Some of these areas are : 

Indian Lands. 

Number of Number of 
acres farming 

units 
established 

Ochopowace 18,453 57 

Piapot 16,318 54 

Poorman's 8,075 29 

Sumass 153.5 11 

Muskeg Lake . 8,969 29 

Big River 980 4 

Mistawasis 16,500 55 

Bobtail 6,505 32 

Acres. 

Gowesse et Karkiwistahaw 2,223 . 56 

Hudson Bay Lands 100,000 

Eastview 18,000 

Doukhobor Lands (Near Kam- 

sacki , . , 10,000 

The Soldier Settlement Board has made arrangements with 
the western provinces for the sale of school lands (i. e. lands 
held in trust for the benefit of educational institutions) to 
soldier settlers, and many desirable farms have been secured 
at very reasonable prices. 



New Land Broken. 

In the year 1920 soldier settlers broke 194,253 acres of new 
land, and it is expected that dmirig 1921 an area aggregating 
half a million acres will be brought under cultivation. 



' — 108 — 

An illustration of the work that has been accomplished in 
the new lands opened for settlement is afforded by the devel- 
opment of the Indian Reserves. For instance, on the Piapot 
Reserve near Zehner, Saskatchewan, which was entirely un- 
improved at the time of sale, splendid progress has been 
made. Apart froin erecting the necessary buildings and 
fences, sinking wells and putting up about 1200 tons of hay, 
2200 acres have been broken and prepared for crop in 1921. 
On the Ochopowace Reserve 1650 acres have been broken, in 
addition to the erection of buildings, fences, etc. This re- 
serve is near Whitewood, Saskatchewan. On the Mistawasis 
and Muskeg Lake Reserves, which were opened for settle- 
ment in August 1920, each of the settlers has broken from 
20 to 60 acres. The same development i-s proceeding in 
other Indian Reserves and in the grazing leases which have 
reverted to the Government. On the Pope Lease near Cal- 
gary, Alberta, settlers broke 2631 acres, erected buildings va- 
lued at $ 17,000 and fencing at a cost of $ 2,605. Each settler 
broke from 30 to 50 acres, and they are going in strong for 
dairying. 

How Loans were used. 

Loans were granted for the following purposes : 

To purchase Land $ 44,405,542 61 

To remove encumbrances on 

land owner by settler 1,917,582 66 

To erect permanent improve- 
ments 9,039,865 14 

To purchase stock and equip- 
ment 25,008,760 07 



$ 80,371,750 48 



There are 14,072 settlers on purchased lands with loans of 
$69,259,608.30; 1,964 on encumbered lands with loans of 
$ 4,742,778.80 and 3,735 settlers on Dominion lands with loans 
of $6,359,364.18. The average loan per settler is $4,065.13. 



Saving in stock and Equipment. 

As with the land, the settler makes his own selection of 
farm implements and stock, but the Roard exercises supervi- 
sion in the purchase in order to secure the best possible va- 
lue. By an arrangement with manufacturers of farm machin- 
ery, wagons and other equipment, a substantial cut in prices 
is given returned men, with the result that on the purchase 



— 109 — 

of $14,065,470.10 a saving of $810,334.06 has been effected. 
Live stock to the vahie of $ 10,562,239.11 has been purchased 
for soldier settlers. All stock and equipment is purchased 
by the Board and resold on lien agreements. As no cash 
paj'^ment is required on stock and equipment the security 
for the amount advanced is the stock and equipment itself. 
The Board holds title in this way to 38,363 horses and 62,201 
cattle, as well as thousands of sheep, swine, poultry and farm 
implements. 

Supervision. 

The system of supervision inaugurated bj^ the Board keeps 
track of the operations of all the men to whom loans are 
granted. In the early stages of a settler's farm career he will 
be visited possibly two or three times. The supervisor gives 
him advice concerning the best methods to be employed in 
making the farm a success. He is advised to purchase the 
live stock and machinery he needs, in all cases care being tak- 
en to see that he is not overloaded with implements he does 
not need or with stock he cannot feed. If the settler shows 
satisfactory progress, supervision is relaxed. It may be, how- 
ever, that the settler will not accept the advice proffered. 
In that case the supervisor can only assist in the purchase of 
his stock and equipment and visit him to see that he is not 
impairing the value of the Board's security. If it is found that 
the Board's security has been diminished by the actions of 
the settler, and that he is losing ground and will not be able 
to meethis obligations, the matter of securing a return of the 
land to the government comes up actively for consideration. 
It has been noted that in many cases of failure, the men have 
been those who steadily declined to accept the friendly ad- 
vice and assistance of the supervisor. The field supervisor is 
in a position to understand the needs of each individual set- 
tler, and advises him as to what should be purchased and 
what will be paid for by the Board. If he buys stock on his 
own initiative, he is not entitled to financial assistance to pay 
for it, unless the supervisor finds that he has purchased to 
advantage and that the animals are necessary to his progress. 



Home service Branch. 

The Soldier Settlement Board is interested not only in the 
success of the returned man on his farm, but in the work of 
his wife in the home. For this reason a Home Branch was 
established for the purpose of giving help and encouragement 
to the wives of the settlers, many of whom are from the Old 
Land, 

The Home Brancli has gained the hearty co-operation of 



— 110 — 

such organizations as the Red Cross, Canadian Patriotic So- 
ciety, Women's Institutes, Great War Veterans' Associa- 
tions, etc. 

Free courses of instruction in home economics and farm 
subjects, such as poultry, dairying, etc., are provided by the 
Board with the co-operation of Provincial Departments and 
many organizations, including extension departments of the 
imiversities. Red Cross, etc. Thirty-three courses have been 
held and approximately 2,000 women have taken advantage 
of the instruction offered. 



Repayments to the Board. 

For economy of administration and efficiency in collect- 
ions, standard dates of payment in all contracts have been 
fixed. In Ontario and the east, that standard date is Novem- 
ber first, and in Manitoba and west of that province it is Oct- 
ober first. In the fall of 1920 a fairly large number of sett- 
lers who had been established in 1918 or 1919 had payments 
falling due. There were 12,361 with the due payments aggre- 
gating $2,315,181. On the thirty-first of March, 8993, or 72.7 
per cent., of these settlers had paid $1,159,570, or 50.1 per 
cent., of the actual payments owing. In addition, 1,146 sett- 
lers made part payment in advance that is, before they had 
any payment at all due. These prepayments amounted to 
$ 794,123, so that the amount actuallv collected in instalments 
amounted on March 31, 1921, to $ 1,953,692. Considering the 
collapse of markets in the middle of threshing, it is felt that 
the showing is a remarkably good one. 

Settlers numbering 329 have repaid their loans in full. 
Of these 135 have sold out and have given up farming, while 
194 are continuing to operate their farms. 



Adjustments. 

By reason of death, ill health, failure, or lack of desire to 
carry on, 1,470 loan beneficiaries are under advisement as to 
the desirability of adjustment. Of these, 200 have been sold 
out completely. In these completed cases, there was inves- 
ted $ 708,709, and the actual receipts on resale were $ 711,336. 



Crop Production. 

The 1920 crop returns received by the Board show a total 
of $ 13,953,178 worth of main crops produced by soldier sett- 
lers. Some of the chief items are : 



— Ill — 





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112 



Chili (1) 

The Chilian Government concerns itself mth land settle- 
ment in two ways — (a) through the development of agricul- 
tural credit institutions, and (b) through legislation for the 
subdivision of property, with a view to increasing the num- 
ber of tilled farms. 

An agricultural mortgage credit has been promoted and 
capitalised by the Mortgage Credit Bank of Chili (Caja de 
Credito Hipotecario de Chili) created by the Act of 29 August 
1855, amended and supplemented by various subsequent Acts, 
the inost recent being that of 9 November 1908. This Bank 
has been an instrument in the development of agricultural 
credit in Chili. During the years 1905/1917 inclusive, the 
amount of bonds issued by the Bank amounted to 357.689.000 
pesos in native currency, together with 77.447.000 francs and 
375.000 pounds sterling. 

Under the law the Bank need not make loans of less than 
500 pesos, in which case the value of the property mortgaged 
will not be less than 2,000 pesos. However, for inany years 
the Bank did not grant loans of less than 5,000 pesos on the 
securit}^ of properties of the value of 20,000 pesos. In 1892 it 
began to grant loans for sums as low as 1,000 pesos on the 
security of properties of the value of 5,000 pesos. In 1898 it 
returned to its former practice of not making loans of less 
than 5,000 pesos, but in 1910 reduced this minimum to 3,000 
pesos on securitv of properties of a value of not less than 
10.000 pesos. 

As regards the division of agricultural property in Chili, the 
following table has been submitted b}^ the Government to 
show the present situation in the country. 

Classified areas of Holdings Number of Holdings 

Less than 20 hectares 61,560 

21 to 50 hectares 12,395 

51 to 200 hectares 10,522 

201 to 1,000 hectares 4,504 

1,001 to 5,000 hectares 1,083 

Over 5,000 hectares 249 

Total 90,313 

The Government at present has two bills regarding the 
matter of closer land settlement. The first bill empowers 
Ihe President of the Republic to acquire land for division 
and sale in small holdings of 15 to 25 hectares, while the se- 
cond bill empowers him to acquire land for the divison and 



(1) Reply of the Chilian GovernniL'nt to Questionnaire II, 1921. 



— 113 — 

sale in holdings of not more than 100 hectares. The Govern- 
ment is also interested in the colonisation of large agricul- 
tnral areas in the south of the country, and states its willing- 
ness to support proposals made with a view to adopting a 
general plan of colonisation applicable to agricultural coun- 
tries in general. The regulation of 1 September 1899 con- 
tains details concerning the placing of immigrants on the land 
by a system of individual settlement, rather than through a 
svstem of collective State colonisation. 



China (1) 

Small farming is a typical institution in China. Few far- 
mers own more than a few scores of mow C) of land. Most of 
them own ten to twenty mow. 

The Government has enacted a Reclamation Law under 
which a farmer may claim lots of waste land in Manchuria 
and Jehol on the payment of ten cents ^ Chinese^ per lot 
as security. The land must be put under cultivation within 
■an agreed number of years, which varies with the quality and 
acreage of the land claimed. The price of land ranges from 
30 cents to $1.50 [Chinese^ per mow. Should the land be put 
under cultivation within a smaller number of years than that 
agreed upon, the price is reduced. 

Farming corporations or individuals, well equipped, may 
claim large areas of land and bring agricultural labourers 
upon it for the purpose of cultivation. The same system of 
tenure as that prevailing in the interior of China is always 
adopted, and the labourers at once become tenants. 



Denmark (3) 

The larger proportion of the land in Denmark is cultivated 
by peasant freeholders and cottagers, the total number of 
these being about 180,000. There are only about 800 so-called 
large estates, that is. those consisting of over 500 acres. 

Legishition 

In support of the system of small holdings the Government, 
has enacted a series of laws, beginning with 24 March 1899, 



(1) The information in this report has been extract<^d from the reply of the 
Cliinese government to questionnaire ii, 1921. 

(2) A mow equals about one-sixth of an acre. 

i3) Sources : Reply of tlie nanish (lovernment to the questionnaire of the 
International Labour Oftice ; Aarbog for Bigsdagssamlingen, 1916-17 to 1920-21. 
Copenhagen 1917-1921; Statistiok Aarlxjg, 1920, Copenhagen, 1921; A Short Outline 
oif Danish Agriculture During the Last (loneration. Presented to Hritisli journalists 
on their visit to Denmark in August 1919 by the Union of Danish Agriculture, 
Copenhagen, 1919. 



— Ill — 

supplying to rural and urban labourers of small means State 
funds with which to purchase small holdings. Each law has 
been passed for a limited term of years, but no law has yet 
failed of re-enactment. The most recent basic legislation in 
^orce is that of 22 June 1917, amended 19 April 1918; 12 Feb- 
ruary 1919: 14 April 1920; and 6 May 1921. 

The general tendency of this legislation has been to in- 
crease the amount of the individual loans to borrowers per- 
missible under its terms, as well as to increase the amount 
of the annual appropriation for loans. 

The maximum loan to a borrower for the year 1922-23 is 
fixed as 22,000 kronen, while the present maximum is 12,000 
kronen. These maximum sums are graded according to the 
quality of the soil of the holdings upon which the loans are 
made, there being three maxima established, namely, 8,000 
kronen, 10,000 kronen, and 12,000 kronen. 

The rate of interest on loans is 1 per cent. The amount 
loaned must not exceed four-fifths of the value of the land 
taken as security for the loan, although in certain instances, 
when land is valuable, supplemental loans bring the ratio 
of loan to capital value up to 9 to 10. 

The provisions of the law are apj^licable to workmen and 
other persons of small means betw^een twenty-five and fifty 
years of age, w^ho are citizens of Denmark and owners of a 
certain amount of property. However, the law was recently 
amended to include farm workers who during the last five 
years have worked as such, whether or not formerly owners 
of farms. 

As regards the size of the holdings, the minimum area on 
w^hich advances are made is 2 hectares; the maximum area 
is not fixed, except in so far as the maximum amount of a 
loan limits it. 

Amounts appropriated 

The amounts appropriated for the purpose of each of the 
Acts in cjuestion have been as follows : 

Kronen 

Act of 1899 1,000,000 

Act of 1901 1,500.000 

Act of 1909 2,000,000 

Act of 1914 5,000,000 

Act of 1917 5,500,000 



Practical Effect of Legislation 

A summary of the number of loans and supplemental loaus 
on holdings, together with amounts advanced, is given in the 
following table : 



115 



SMALL HOLDINGS CREATED BY STATE LOANS IN DENMARK 
DURING THE YEARS 1900-01 TO 1919-20 



Year 


Loans for new hoUling.s 


Sui)pk-nuMital loans 
on holilings 


Nunil)ir 


.\niount 
Kromr 


NinnlHT 


Amounl 
Ki-oiuT 


1900 01 t(.19]0 1911 

1911 1912 

1912 1918 

1918 1914 

1914 1415 

1915 1916 

1916 1917 

1917 1918 

1918 1919 

1919 1920 


5 . 777 
498 
470 
872 
518 
565 
415 
274 
225 
150 


25.410.148 

2.989.214 
2.918.521 
2.816.605 
8.482.078 
4.214.182 
3.192.087 
2.117.545 
1.984.472 
1.811.886 


445 
704 
526 
875 
259 
794 
601 
355 
684 
589 


(1) 

660 . 860 

967.952 

691.490 

529.086 

841.721 

1.051.100 

888.474 

530.061 

1.349.710 

1.145.678 



Finland (2) 

In 1910 there were under cultivation in Finland 1,878,235 
hectares of land; natural meadow land comprised 959,406 
hectares; and forests and marshes 30,393,008, The total land 
area of Finland was 33,233,650 hectares. Ahout one-third 
of the forest and marsh area consisted entirely of marsh land, 
of which, however, a considerable part is capable of cultiva- 
tioiL 

Land Settlement Fund 

Al>out 20 years ago a State Land Settlement Fund was creat- 
ed in Finland. This Fund has granted loans to the commun- 
nal societies for settlement on the land. These societies in 
turn supply credit to the various land settlement undertak- 
ings. The State has also set aside a considerable sum for 
a Central Land Fund for Co-operative Societies, chiefly in 
order to supply floating capital to small landowners. The 
amount set aside for 1921 was 15,000,000 Finnisli marks. 



(1) Supplemental loans were not granted until under the Act of 1909; the flgures 
given are, therefore, for the single fiscal year lMO-11. 

(2) Source : Reply of the Finnish Government to Questionnaire 11, 1921. Suomen 
Titastolliuen Vuosikirja, uasi sarja, Seitseniasfoista Vuosikerta 1918; Aimuaire 
Statistique de Finlande, nouvellp serie, seixienie annee 1918; publication du Bureau 
central de Statistique de Fiuliuide, Helsingfors, 1919. 



116 



Method of Encouraging Land Settlement 

Land settlement has been encouraged in Finland through 
State credit; by the purchase and division of larsje estates; 
by the creation in 1917 of a central administration for land 
settlement; by extending the right of purchase to tenants of 
part of certain lands. This right was extended bv a special 
Act in 1918. 

About 12,500 properties have been created with the assist- 
ance of the sj'stem of State credit, and about 2.000 small 
holdings have been carved out through the division of large 
estates. The Act of 1918 will affect approximately 152,000 
farms which, under the Act, will be open to purchase by the 
tenants thereon. 

Schemes have l^een prepared for the opening up of land 
owned by the State, for settlement and a Bill is now under con- 
sideration for the purpose of facilitating settlement on 
land belonging to private individuals. 

The following tables give some other details resnecting 
the result of State colonisation and the extension of State 
ci'edits to small holders. 



LAND SETTLEMENT \l\E\ AND VALUE NUMBER OF SMALL HOLDINGS 

CREATED AND AGRICULTURAL ADVANCES UNDER THE FINNISH 

STATE COLONISATION SCHEME. 1905 TO 1917. 





ArcM 


Valui: 


Number 


Number 


^^;||■ 




(I'innisli 


of small 


of advances 




(Hfclaivs) 


MarlvN) 


holdings created 


mad<' 


1905 






1.846 


1.198 


1910 


1X8.405 


l.S.634.473 


7.729 


1.952 


1911 


205.924 


22.606.829 


8.990 


2.022 ■ 


1912 


225.516 


24.088.352 


9.507 


1.997 


1913 


243.106 


24.726.594 


10.338 


2.115 


1914 


253.773 


26.978.477 


10.842 


2.236 


1915 


260.014 


27.642.091 


11.160 


2.323 


1916 


2.54.945 


27.099.601 


10.900 


2.2.51 


1917 


210.995 


25.616.146 


10.213 


— 



In 1917 the area of forest land settlements was 20, 976 hec- 
tares, compri^>ing 1,699 small holdings 

Fr..\NCE 



In France, among other means of assisting intensive culti- 
vation of the soil, tliere exists a complicated system of agri- 
cultural credi! for the purchase and equipment of small hold- 



— 117 — 

ings. Its nuiin object is to i'ncoiinii*t> individual peasant pro- 
])rietorship ratlier than collective colonisation. It applies 
Ihrouohout the country, but for the devastated areas special 
legislation has been enacted, under which the state takes a 
larger part in providing the cai)ital for the reconstruction of 
farms ruined during the war. 

The fundamental principles of French legislation on small 
holdings are stated in connection with the so-called Ribot Act 
of 1908 as follows : («) a small initial fund or saving by the 
person interested ; (b) state loans at a low rate of interest ; 
(c) purchase or direct construction by the person concerned 
with the aid of mortgage loans ; (d) the establishment of real 
estate credit companies {Socictes dc Credit Imniohilier) to act 
as intermediaries between the state and individual borrow- 
ers. 

The part played by the French Land Credit Bank (Credit 
Fancier de France) will not be considered in this connection. 
It may, however, be noted that the amount paid out to be 
applied to agricultural credit in 1919 reached the sum of 
37,075,182 francs. The total amount placed at the disposal 
of the state for purposes of agricultural credit from the time 
of the passing of the Act of 1897 to the beginning of 1920 was 
more than 239,000,000 francs, not including a loan ol 
40,000,000 francs to be repaid in 1920. 

The Ribot Act of 10 April 1908, together with amending 
Acts subsequently passed, pro^'ides for the issue of credit to 
those wishing to purchase a holding not exceeding one hec- 
tare in area with a house on it. The purchase price of the 
holding must not exceed 1,200 francs, and borrowers must 
possess at least one-fifth of this value at the time of nego- 
tiating the loan, which is repayable over a period of 40 years 
and bears interest at a rate not exceeding 3 1/2 per cent. Bor- 
rowers must also take out a life insurance policy guaran- 
teeing the annual repayments of their loan in case of their 
death and produce a certificate that the property they wish 
to purchase fulfils all legal requirements as to sanitary con- 
ditions, etc. 

Credit is granted by the state through the Deposit Fund 
(Caisse des Depots et Consigncdions) to real estate creclit com- 
panies (Societes de credit immobilier) for periods of 25 years 
at an interest of 2 per cent. These companies must have a 
minimum capital of 100,000 francs, be approved by the Minis- 
ter of Labour and Social Welfare, and limit their activities 
to loans to individuals, housing companies, and cooperative 
housing societies. 

Provision for those wishing to acquire larger holdings with 



(1) Sources: Mlnisterc du Travail ct de la Prevoyance sociale. Habitations a 
ban niarche et Encouraciements a la petite nropriete, in Recueil de Documents sur 
la Prevoyance sociale. Nancy, Paris, and Strasbourg, Berger-Levrault. 1919; Charles 
Gide, Les Institutions dc Progres social, 5« ed. Paris, 1921, pp. 584-592; Interna- 
tional Institute of Agriculture. International Review of Agricultural Economics, 
1910-11, No. 3, 1914 No. 2, 1919 Nos. 1 and 2, 1920 Nos. 3, 5 and 10, Rome. 



— 118 — 

loans of longer term is made by the Act of 19 March 1910. 
The state issues loans free of interest direct to district agri- 
cultural credit funds (Caisses regionales de credit agricole). 
These advances may not exceed twice the capital of the funds 
and are repayable over a maximum period of 20 3'ears. The 
local funds lend to individual borrowers up to a maximum of 
20,000 francs (originally 8,000) for a maximum period of 
25 3^ears. The rate of interest is not fixed by law, but is 
usually 4 per cent, for short-term loans and is estimated at 
2 per cent, for longer terms. The borrower must offer either 
the property itself or a life insurance as security. 

The Act of 11 February 1914 was passed to extend the 
benefits of the Ribot Act to those wishing to attach a small 
plot of ground to their cheap dwelling accfuired under that 
Act, or to purchase a small farm. Loans are made through the 
real estate credit companies, and may not exceed four-fifths 
of the value of the property it is proposed to buy. The 
maximum loan on farm and other buildings in this connec- 
tion is 2,000 francs, and on land not exceeding one hectare, 
as under the Ribot Act, 1,200 francs. Wages-earners, tenant 
farmers, metayers, independent farmers, workers, and small 
employers working alone or with a single labourer and with 
the members of their own family are eligible for loans. 

The Act of 9 April was intended to apply the existing legis- 
lation to the special case of ex-service men, pensioners, and 
civilian victims of the war. The loans made by the state to 
the credit companies are free of interest and run for 26 years. 
The coinpanies may lend to individuals or groups of indivi- 
duals for the purchase, equipment, or restoration of a small 
holding, which mav not xceed 40,000 francs in value (origi- 
nally 10,000 francs,'but i. ^eased by the Act of 19 April 1921). 
The loans may not excee four-fifths of the maximum value 
and run for a maximum ijf 25 years at an interest of one per 
cent. A special annual grant of 50 centimes per 100 francs 
borrowed is made by the state for each child born to the 
borrower after the negociation of the loan. Among many 
other securities which may be offered is included the i)ension 
of the borrower, exclusive of a minimum of 350 francs not 
liable to distraint. 

One or two later measures may be mentioned. The Act of 
31 October 1919 authorised Departments and Communes to 
borrow from the state in order to acquire land, build on or 
equip it, and resell it in small holdings. The Act of 5 August 
regulated the issue of loans to agricultural credit societies 
through the National Office for from the state funds regu- 
larly set aside for agriculture (1). The district societies may 
lend to their members for a period of years at two per cent. 
interest. 



1 1) Agricultural Credit {Office nalionul clii Credil (ujricole). 



— 119 — 

Germany 

Historically the various States of the present German R'^- 
piiblic have been engaged in interior colonisation, or promot- 
ing the settlement of land, for over a generation. Interior 
colonisation in Germany began with the enactment of the 
Prussian law of 1886. The present survey, however, will not 
deal with interior colonisation in Germany prior to the war, 
nor will it deal with the work of interior colonisation v/hicb 
is being carried on by the individual States of the Federal 
Republic. In other words, there will be considered in this 
brief summary the two recent Federal laws dealing with land 
settlement, viz. the Federal Land Settlement Act (Reichssied- 
lungsgesetz) of August 11th, 1919, and the Federal Home ^iead 
Act (Reichsheimstattengesetz) of 10 May, 1920. 

German home colonisation is of four forms : (1) Die divi- 
sion of large estates into peasant holdings : (2) settlement of 
uncultivated land, especially" swamp land; (3) the creation 
of small settlements, which consists in the development of 
areas, either farms or unimproved land, in the vicinity of 
towns, for settlement by farm and industrial labourers, and 
by government employees and pensioners, and (4) the erec- 
tion in rural districts of tenements and small dAvellings, pro 
vided with adjoining arable land, to be leased to workmen. 
These four forms may all he realh'^ classified under twc 
heads : (1) the division of estate or tracts of already improv- 
ed lands for purposes of settlement, and (2), the reclamation 
and settlement of swamp and other waste lands. The work 
is undertaken by the state gover^nments, the most significant 
work having been done in Pr' ..>ia. The Federal Govern- 
ment under the new legislation iintinues as before to super- 
vise, encourage and co-ordinai'^" the work of the Federal 
States. 

Land Settlement Act, llth August, 1919 

Under the provisions of this Act the Federal Government 
requires the creation in the different Federal States of Public 
Land Settlement Undertakings (Siedlungsunternehmungen). 
The present land settlement commissions in existence in most 
of the States, associations of iand holders and other institu- 
tions interested, maj' act as Public Land S^^ttlement Undertak- 
ings. These bodies must consist of representatives of the 
settlers and the former owners of the land tTken over for sett- 
lement. In specified districts, where large estates pr.-vail to 
a certain exten!, the owners of such are required to organise 
Land Holding Asociations (Landliefrungsverbande), with 
whom the Public Land Settlement Undertakings deal in the 
acquiring of preperty from owners in the district. 



— 120 — 

Village communes (Landgcmeinden) and manorial estates 
(Gutzbezirke) can be required to provide their agricultural 
workers with a small leasehold to an extent of at least 5 per 
cent of the available cultivated area of such communes or 
manors. Land for intensive settlement purposes may be 
acquired by the various land Settlement Undertakings and 
Land Holding Associations either by means of legal right of 
pre-emption or by expropriation. In order to prevent spe- 
culation in land holding, the Public Land Settlement Under- 
taking is given the right to re-purchase any settlement if the 
settler sells or gives up the whole or part of it, or if he does 
not permanently inhabit or work thereon. 



Public Land Settlement Undertakings 

The size of each public land settlement district is fixed by 
the Central authority. Public officials or institutions may 
act as settlement undertakings. Reresentatives of the settlers 
and the former owners take part in the supervision of the 
settlement with deliberative voice. If, however, such repre- 
sentatives take part in the Council of Supervision of the in- 
dividual settlement, they need not have representation upon 
the land settlement undertaking proper. 



Land Holding Associations 

These are created in districts where according to the agri- 
cultural census of 1907 more than 10 per cent of the culti- 
vated area consists of estates having 100 hectares or over of 
cultivated land. The association consists of the owners of' 
the estates in question. The Provincial authorities may make 
local agricultural organisations or existing public land settle- 
ment undertakings act as land holding associations. This is 
to be done if the Land Holding Association is remiss in car- 
rying out its duty. All costs of the organisation and admin- 
istration of the Land Holding Association, are to be borne 
by the Association. 

Land subject to settlement 

Land open to settlement consists of State land and marsh 
and waste land. State land cannot be taken over from the 
present lessee until the expiration of his lease. In estimating 
the value of land taken over, temporary increases due to ab- 
normal conditions created by the war are not taken into ac- 
count. 

The Public Land Settlement Undertakings may expropriate 
marsh and other waste lands not cultivated. If, however, 
their owners undertake to reclaim an amount within a cer- 



— 121 -^ 

tain period the expropriation of such land eannot be under- 
taken. Compensation for marsh and waste hmd is the capi- 
talised net yield of the land in its unreclaimed condition. No 
appeal can be made to the Courts against the compensation 
fixed. 

Public Land Settlement Undertakings have merely the right 
of pre-emption of agricultural properties within their district 
having an area of 25 hectares or over. Thus they have no 
control over a great deal of the land now open to small hold- 
ing settlement in the diiferent federal States unless the Cen- 
tral authorities extend the right of |)re-emption. The right 
of pre-emption cannot be exercised until the owner has made 
a contract of sale of properties which come within the mean- 
ing of the Act nor can it be exercised if the owner has sold 
his land to a public body or to certain persons within certain 
degrees of relationship. 

In those districts where Land Holding Asociations have 
been created, the right of pre-emption is exercised by them 
instead of by the Public Land Settlement undertaking. It 
also has the power to expropriate land in case of urgent 
need. In fixing compensation here as in the case of land pur- 
chase for the land settlement undertaking, consideration can- 
not be given to abnormal war conditions in increasing land 
values. Questions of expropriation, its desirability from the 
economic point of view and the amount of compensation, are 
decided by a Permanent Committee of the Land Holding As- 
sociation which consists of a chairman appointed by the Pro- 
vincial Central Authorities and a representative of the Land 
Settlement Undertaking and of the Land Holding Association 
respectively. 

The Act defines the kinds of estates which may be acquired 
by the Land Settlement Associations by means of expropria- 
tion. These include (a) estates acquired during the war by 
persons whose principle occupation is or was not that of agri- 
culture, (b) estates which have changed hands several times 
in the last 20 years; (r) estates particularly badly managed. 
These have been defined bj^ special decree of 29 September 
1919, which provides, among other things that those shall bo 
considered as badly managed estates where the permanenth'^ 
engaged domestic servants or the number of habitable dwel- 
lings for such are obviously disproportionate to the siz^e of 
the estate; (d) estates whose owners do not live on them for 
most of the year and who do not manage them themselves; 
(e) estates which form part of exceptionally large holdings. 

Provision for Agricultural Workers 

Special provisions are made in the law for the benefit of 
agricultural workers. Among these are also included forest 
workers who are brought within the scope of the Act by the 
special regulations of 29 September 1919. The object is to 



122 

provide snial! holdings for agricultural workers. The mak- 
ing of the lease between the agricultural worker and his 
employer is entirely independent of the working agreement 
respecting hours and conditions of work. If a village com- 
mune or a manor cannot obtain sufficient land for supplying 
small holdings for its workers, it inaj^ secure the saine by 
compulsory leasing or expropriation. Furthermore if it is 
impossible to obtain any other land in the district to increase 
existing small properties, the provincial Central Authorities 
are to provide land from neighbouring State properties up to 
10 per cent, of the cultivated area; even if the lease of such 
land has not expired, the only exception to the exercise of this 
privilege being the fact that the land to be expropriated is 
needed for purposes of education, or for the use of agricul- 
tural educational institutions and experiment farming. The 
holders of leases are given greater assurance as to the stabil- 
ity of their tenure, and are protected against unjustified and 
unreasonable rent increases. 



Federal Homestead Act, 10 May 1920. 

The purpose of this Act is to prevent the seizure for debt of 
the house and garden plot (Wohnstatte) of the suburban 
dweller, and of the agricultural area or farm of the rural 
workers and dwellers (Wirtschaftsheimtatte), the latter lim- 
ited to an area that can be worked and managed entirely 
by a single family. This legislation is particularly applica- 
ble to the interests of handicraftsmen, agricultural labourers, 
and ex-Service men in Germany. The law defines juridi- 
cally the right of homestead, and aims to keep in the family 
the possession of the homestead, to prevent its dissipation and 
division among heirs^ and at the same time to discourage spec- 
ulation with it. The law is not concerned with the provi- 
sion of credit for land purchase nor with the establishment 
of small holdings. 



Great Britain (1) 

Among the first legislation in Great Britain to facilitate 
the access of the agricultural labourer -to the land was the 



(1) Sources, Small Holdings Colonies Act, 1915; Sailors and Soldiers (Gifts for 
Land Settlement) Act 1916; Small Holdings Colonies (Amendment) Act, 1918; Land 
Settlement (Facilities) Act, 1919; Departmental Committee of he Board of Agri- 
culure on Land Sc-ttlemcnt for Sailors and Soldiers; Interim report and Final re- 
port. Part I, settlement; Part II, Emplovmcnt Loudon, 1915, 1916; Report of the 
Committee of Section IV of the Advisory Council of the Ministrj' of Reconstruc- 
tion on the P:mploynient on the Land of Returned Soldiers and Sailors, London, 
1919; Annual Report for 1917 to 1920 of Proceedings under the Small Holdings 
Colonies Act 1916, Roard of Agriculture, London 1918-1921 ; the Land Report on 
the Land Enquiry Committee, volume I, rural, 4th edition, Ivondou 1913; Inter- 
national Review of Agricultural Economies, year XI, No. 10, October 1920, Rome. 



— 123 — 

Small Holdings Act of 1892. This, however, gave limited 
power for the purpose and led in 1908 to the enactment of a 
new small holdings law. This empowered the County Coun- 
cils to create small holdings by compulsory purchase. Cou- 
pled with this general legislation on small holdings, there has 
been built up a complicated system of advances and loans 
for the support of agriculture and land pmxhase. The land 
under this small holdings legislation is leased to tenants, and 
complaints have been made from time to time as to the secur- 
ity of tenure and the charging of excessive rents. Such, at 
any rate, were the findings of the Land Enquiry Committe-e 
of 1912, altrough it reported at the same lime that there was 
in general a large unsatisfied demand for small holdings. 

The Departmental Committee of 1915 recommended that 
the Board of Agriculture should undertake the provision of 
small holdings for ex-service men, and that the County Coun- 
cils, acting under the small holdings legislation, 1908, should 
provide land for ex-service men wiio might not care to settle 
in the state colonies. The Committee recommended the col- 
ony form of settlement, tenure of holding being by lease 
rather than by free ownership, each colony to consist of 
mixed farms of 35 to 50 acres. 

The original scheme provided for a large measure of co- 
operative farming, co-operative buying and a large diversity 
in community living. 



LcgisUdion. 

The Small Holdings Colonies Act, 1916, came as a direct 
result of the recommendation of the Departmental Committee 
of the Board of Agriculture on Land Settlements for Soldiers 
and Sailors. The Act authorised the Board of Agriculture 
to acquire 4,500 acres of land in England, 2,000 acres in Wales 
and Monmouthshire ; this was increased in 1918 to 14,000 acres 
in England and 20,000 in Wales and Monmouthshire. 

The Land Settlement Facilities Act, 1919, authorised the 
County Council to acquire land for small holdings, the consid- 
eration being an annuity payable by the County. At the 
same time, the County Councils were given a larger authority 
for the acquisition of land under the Small Holdings and 
Allotments Act, 1908. The Board of Agriculture can likewise 
acquire land compulsorily for the settlement of small hold- 
ings colonies under the Amendment Act, 1918. 

Under this general land settlement legislation the Govern- 
ment undertook respt)nsibility for any financial loss which 
might occur in the establishment of the small holdings 
colonies. 



— 124 



Small Holdings Colonies of the Board of Agriculture. 

The Board of Agriculture early developed the special type 
of profit shaiing colonies under which a colony is managed by 
a director, the settler being employed at the current rate 
of wages, but receiving an additional share of the profit of 
the farming operations. Each settler is provided with half 
an acre of land adjoining his cottage. The distribution of the 
profit is based on the amount of wages of any particular 
settler for the year. 

On the Patrington Colony, comj^rising 2,866 acres, 
where this type of colony was first tried, there were in March 
1921, 63 ex-service men. However, according to the Report of 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries on Proceedings 
under the Small Holdings Colonies Act, 1918, for the year 
ending 31st March 1920, this type of colony has not been the 
most successful. Demand from ex-service men desiring to 
return to the land has been almost exclusively for small hold- 
ings. The Report further states that working on the profit- 
sharing farms has undoubtedly been prejudiced by lack of 
experience on the part of settlers. On this account the 
Governmemt has been compelled to hire civilians as workers 
with agricultural training and had to use Government funds 
for the stocking of farms, a result clearly not contemplated 
by the Parliament and the Small Holdings Colonies Act as 
passed. 

The Director-General of th?Land and Supplies Department 
in charge of these colonies recommends, in the Report in ques- 
tion, that the small holdings colonics with a central farm b 
divided into small holdings on which settlers should be estab- 
lished ; that the management of such estates should be trans- 
ferred to the County Councils, and that the profit-sharing 
farm settlements be cut either into small holdings or sold 
completely. Only one or two specially favourable estates 
should be retained, on which men disturbed on account of 
the estates disposed of may be placed. 

On the whole, however, the report indicates that the small 
holdings settlements were a real achievement in eloser sett- 
lement of the land, and will remain examples to be followed 
in future when a reduction in the cost of equipment may once 
more make it feasible to group settlers on large estates. 

The following table indicates some facts concerning the 
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries small Holdings 
Colonies. 



12: 



OPERATIONS OF COI.ONV LAND SETTLEMENT SCHEME FOR SOLDIERS 
AND SAILORS IN GREAT BRITAIN, AS OF 31 MARCH, 1920. 



SfttlfllUMll 



•l> |)^ 



Patrington I'rolit-Sharing . 

Holbrach Sinall-Holdings 

Heath Hill Snia/11-HoMinos 

Pcmbrey Profit-Sharing . 

Holleston Profit-Sharing . 

Aniesburv Profit-Sharing . 

Berwick St. James Profit-Sharing , 

Fitchfield Small-Holdings 

Wantage Profit-Sharing . 

Kilmington Small-Holdings 

Kinson Small-Holdings 

Sutton Bridge Small-Holdings 

^Yainfleet Small-Holdings 



Total 



2.cS66 
1.002 



259 
34S 
Hi: 
,481 
,520 
.40:? 
.065 



552 

78 

6.542 

1.775 



Total i 24.706 



llstimatfil 

luimbi'i' of 

Miiall llolfltTS 

wlu-n all land 

lot- small 

holdings has 

hfi'n 

sul)<li\ idfd 

and t'(|uippt'd 



80 
40 
12 
30 
30 

(") 

200 

[a: 

8 

20 

450 
50 



920 



a) Not reported. 



Small Holdings of County Councils. 



Under the extended power of the Land Settlements Faci- 
lities Act 1919, which amended the Small Holdings Allotments 
Act 1918, the County Councils continued to acquire land for 
small holdings. According to the Board of Agriculture, the 
County Councils had received by 5th February 1920 2,"),905 
applications from ex-service men for small holdings, having 
a total area of 450,605 acres. Of these applications, there 
have, been approved 16,017 ; to satisfy which, there was requir- 
ed an area of 269,025 acres. The County Councils, however,, 
agreed to acquire only 162,217 acres. By 5 February 1920. 
4,250 men had been actually provided with small holdings, 
comprising an area of 59,136 acres. 

Among the more popular holdings were the so-called « Cot- 
tage Holdings » with a small area of not less than 1 acre in 
extent in connection with a cottage. This form of holding 
has been specially adai)lable to men employed for wages, 
who were in a position to give part time cultivation to their 
hoi din a. 



126 — 



Training of Settlers. 

Settlers intending to take up small holdings on the State 
Colonies are encouraged to secure agricultural experienoe by 
a preliminary period of work for wages. Special provision 
has been made for training ex-offioers who desire to obtain 
salaried posts in agricultural work. Special training has also 
been established for disabled ex-service men. In 1918 the 
Board of Agriculture drew up a scheme of allowances to 
permit of training for officers. Scholarships were also pro- 
vided. It is reported that advantage was freely taken of the 
scheme. By August 1919 over a thousand ex-offioers had 
been actually in training. For agricultural labourers the pe- 
riod of training ranges from 6 to 8 weeks, during which time 
a subsistence allowance is paid. Training centres for disa- 
bled men have been established by County Agricultural 
Executive Committees under the direction of the Board of 
Agriculture. There has been considerable demand for this 
training. 



New Zealand (1) 

The characteristic features of the New Zealand system of 
land settlement are the following : 

(1) Administration of Crown lands under a single 
Ministry with subordinate district land boards. 

(2) Disposal of land with a view to preventing specu- 

lation by a system of long-term leases, or leases 
with carefully drawn restrictions ; and by sale on 
long-time credit. 

(3) Selection of the areas suitable for individual 
settlement, or large enough for the creation of 
colony groups. 

(4) Advances to settlers and workers for the purchase 

of allotments, with loans made at low rates of 
interest and repayable over a long term of years, 
usually on the amortisation plan. 

(5) Selection of suitable settlers by the land boards and 

provision for advice and assistance in undertaking 
settlement; organisation of co-operative groups for 
undertaking the various phases of agricultural 
activities. 



(1) Source : The Sew Zealand Official Year-Book, Wellington 1919 and 1920. 



127 



Land Administration and Sijslrni of Tenure 

The public lands, of New Zealand or Crown land, as they 
are termed, are administered under the Land Act, 1908, the 
Land Laws Amendment Acts 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, the Dis- 
charged Soldiers Settlement Acts of 1915 and 1917, together 
with regulations made under these various Acts. The disting- 
uishing feature of the system is the right of tenants to recur- 
rent terms of lease, and in inost cases the right to acquire the 
freehold. Between 1892 and 1907 a very large proportion of 
public lands were disposed of by a system of lease in perpet- 
uity for a j)eriod of 999 years, but this system has since been 
terminated. 

Also underlying the whole of the New Zealand land system 
is the principle of « the land for the people », which involves 
a restriction of the area which any single person may hold. 

Ordinary public land thrown open for optional selection 
is offered under four different forms of tenure : (1) Cash 
piu-chase by payment of one-fifth of the value down ; (2) 
Lease, with a purchasing elause at 5 per cent rental on the 
value of the land, running twenty-five years, with the right 
to purchase at the original price at any time after the first 
six years and within twenty-five years, or to convert into a 
renewable lease ; (3) Renewable lease, at a rental of 4 per 
cent., the lease running for sixty-six years with perpetual 
right of renewal, but no right of purchase ; (4) Renewable 
lease at rental of 4 1/2 per cent, on capital value of the land, 
for term of 33 years, with perpetual right of renewal and 
right to purchase at anj^ time during pendency of lease. 
There are other special forms of tenures which are in use in 
connection with minning land, grazing areas, or townsite and 
village areas. 



Colony Settlements 

The village settlement system of New Zealand provides for 
the setting apart and offering for optional selection of allot- 
ments of one acre in area or under, and for the opening under 
the renewable-lease tenure (formerly lease in perpetuity) of 
small farms between one acre and 100 acres in area. These 
settlements were designed to enable labourers to obtain 
homes for themselves and their families in the immediate 
vicinity of their work, and give bushmen, workers on the 
roads and railways, etc., an opportunity to secure a holding 
upon which they could live, and which they could improve 
in their spare time. There has not been any great extension 
of this system in recent years. 

The improved-farm settlement system was first begun in 
oi'der to find work for the unemployed. Considerable areas 



— 128 — 

of forest Crown lands were set aside, and small contracts for 
the clearing, burning, and sowing of these were let to the men 
to whom it was intended to allot them. In most cases the 
farms are selected or balloted for in their primitive state, and 
the settler is for a time paid for the improvements he makes, 
or, in other words, the cost of converting forest lands into 
grass lands is advanced for a time by the Government. In 
other cases a piece of forest land is taken in hand, and men 
are employed at fixed rates in felling, burning, and grassing. 
When so \nuch grass is laid dow^n as will give a good start, 
the land is opened for selection in sections of 50 to 200 acres 
and balloted for among the applicants. The farms are let on 
lease with a purchasing clause or on renewable lease (for- 
merly lease in perpetuity) at a rental sufficient to cover the 
cost of clearing, etc., together with a fair rental of the land. 



Land for Discharged Soldiers (1) 

Under the provisions of the Discharged Soldiers Settle- 
ment Act, 1915, and amendments, any person is entitled to the 
benefits of that Act who has been a member of the New 
Zealand Naval or Expeditionary Force, has served outside 
New Zealand during the recent War, has returned to 
New Zealand and has received an honourable discharge 
together with any person who, prior to the recent War, was 
a bona-fide resident of New Zealand and has also served in 
the naval or military forces and has received an honourable 
discharge therefrom. Others who were classified as medically 
fit for service beyond the seas and were still in camp for mil- 
itary training on 12th 1918 November, may also apply for 
land under certain sections of the Discharged Soldiers Settle- 
ment Amendment Act, 1917. 

Land is disposed of under these laws according to the 
ordinary tenures of the Land Act, 1908, and the Land for 
Settlements Act, 1908, as already described. 

Persons entitled to the benefits of the Soldiers Settlement 
Acts may apply to the Land Board, with a view to the acqui- 
sition by the Crown on their behalf of any private land. If 
the owner is willing to sell the land, the purchase may be 
made by the Land Purchase Board, with the approval of the 
Minister of Lands. 

The Minister may set aside land for the purpose of soldiers' 
dwellings and erect suitable buildings thereon. The land and 
dwellings are then disposed of to discharged soldiers in the 
same manner as in the case of the Workers' Dwellings Act. 
1910, which is described below. 



ill This account has been taken, with slight editorial changes, from the Ncay Zea- 
land Ollicial Year-Book, I'.fiO, pages 191-lt>8. 



129 



Financial Assistance 

Under the Discharged Soldiers Settlement Amendment 
Act, 1917, financial assistance may be given to discharged 
soldiers for the following purposes : (a) the purchase of priv- 
ate or Native land (that is land reserved for the native races 
of New Zealand, Maoris, etc.) ; (b) the acquisition by assign- 
ment or transfer of the lease of any land ; (c) the discharge 
of any mortgage on land owned by a discharged soldier or 
held by him under license or lease from a Land Board. 

The maximum amount advanced to any one person is 
£2,500, with a further advance of i' 750 for improvements, 
stock, etc. 

Repayments may be secured by ordinary mortgage for 
10 years, with interest at 5 per cent., or by instalment mort- 
gage extending over 36 '/„ years, with an annual charge of 

6 per cent., including interest and sinking fund. 

Loans for the purchase of residential sites with dwelling 
thereon must not exceed £ 1,000 in any case, and, if the site is 
owned by the applicant, the advance for the erection of a 
dwelling must not exceed £ 900. Repayment is as in the case 
of a land loan above, except that the instalment mortgage 
is repaid in 25 '/, years, the annual payment amounting to 

7 per cent., including interest and sinking fund. Valuation 
fees are payable with applications. 

Loans are also made to discharged soldiers who own 
freehold land or who are lessees of land administered by 
the Land Board for the purpose of making general agricul- 
tural improvements, drainage, clearing, fencing, etc., purchas- 
ing stock, implements, seed, etc. The maximum loan for all 
such purposes is £500 (not more than £250 of this for a 
dwelling or other buildings). Under special circumstances 
the amount may be increased by Ministerial authority by as 
much as £250. The rate of interest on such loans is 5 per 
cent., and the security consists of a first mortgage on the land, 
together with the right to seize and sell stock and implements 
purchased by such loans. 

Advances for improvements or buildings may be made by 
graduated payments up to 75 per cent, of the value of any 
work done. 

Application for assistance, giving full particulars, must be 
made to the Land Board for the district in which the land 
is situated. The applicant must appear personally before the 
Board, The borrower desiring the purchase of any land nmst 
show that he has an option to purchase the fee-simple, or 
lease or license, as the case may be. 



*« 



— 130 — 



Amount of AssLstance rendered under Soldiers Settlement 
Acts. 

Advances amounting to £ 12,610,254 had been authorised 
on 31st. March, 1920, while the amount actually advanced 
was £8,859,173. The number of settlers assisted was 12,415. 
The amount repaid at the same date was £ 178,398. 

The following table shows the number of applicants for 
land, the number of allotments made, and the area included 
during the year ended 31st. March, 1920. 



Distrid 



North Auckland 

Auckland 

Hawke's Bay 

Taranaki 

Wellington . . . . 

Nelson 

Marlborough 

Westland 

Canterbury 

Otago . . .' 

Southland 

TolALS 



Applica- 


Allolments 


tions 


Number 


Area 






Acres 


200 
440 
740 


113 

226 
80 


27,082 
41,439 

31,730 


132 

575 

17 

43 


33 

227 

11 

10 


11,053 

39,574 

11,136 

2,879 


16 

1,998 

796 

84 


10 

119 

58 

45 


3,611 

187,947 

33,413 

14,027 


5.041 


932 


403,891 



The total area of ordinary Crown and other lands set aside 
for settlements under the Act of 1915 up to 31 March 1920 
Avas 883,301 acres. The amount proclaimed as set aside 
during the year ending 31 st March 1920 was 376,678 acres. 



Advances to Settlers 



Tht- Advances to Settlers Office was established by an Act 
passed in 1894. An administrative officer called the Superin- 
tendent is assisted by a Board set up to advise and co-operate 
with him. Advances can be granted only with the consent 
of the Board. 

This legislation has been amended at different times and is 
now contained in the State Advances Act, 1913. This author- 
ises the borrowing of money by the State for the purpose of 
lending to settlers, workers, and local authorities. Each year 
there mav be borrowed for advances to settlers £ 1,500,000, to 
workers, ^t 750,000 and to local authorities £1,000,000. The 
table below shows the amount of loans to settlers under this 
legislation during each of the past 10 years. 



— 131 



Year 


App 


ic-atious 


1 


oau8 






eu<]ed 


received 


4Ul 


lorised 


Amounl 


AuiDUUl 


31 St 










advanced 


repaid 










Ma ich 


X limber 


Amount 


Number 


Amount 








*^' 




£ 


£ 


£ 


1911 


4,957 


2,122,749 


3,571 


1,282,880 


1,204,310 


726,714 


1912 


5,355 


2,593.084 


4,610 


2,191,300 


2,235,495 


1,018,286 


1913 


3,187 


1,164,225 


2,114 


749,590 


937,435 


698,938 


1914 


3,604 


1,400,248 


2,390 


878,855 


978,395 


710,590 


1915 


3,870 


1,826,265 


2,100 


749,040 


1,136,475 


754,810 


1916 


2,507 


982,800 


2,022 


746,630 


814,555 


713,177 


1917 


1,619 


660,975 


1,412 


515,270 


589,975 


643,751 


1918 


1,228 


511,532 


984 


353,4<55 


367,160 


501,009 


1919 


1,326 


579,022 


986 


363,875 


.350,140 


529,023 


1920 

T..tal 

18!i:> to 

1',I20 


2,841 


1,520.128 


2,219 


1,031,855 


808,180 


1,118,486 


66,492 


27.524.175 


51,143 


19,108,025 


18,765,780 


11,090,809 



The number of borrowers and the amounts actually ad- 
vanced to settlers during the year, classified according to 
amount, were : 



Classiiied aiiiouiils borrowed 


iS'umljer 
of afivauces 


Amount 
advanced 


Not exceeding £ 500 


1.C16 
373 

28 


£ 
362,725 
257,520 

39,900 


Exceeding £ 500 but not exceeding £ 1,000 

Exceeding £1,000 but not ex-ceeding 

£ 2,000 . 


Totals 


1,417 


£660,145 



The average freehold advance is £ 452, the average lease- 
hold advance £257, and the average of advances secured on 
both freehold and leasehold combined £580. 

The gross profits for the year ended 31 March 1920 were 
£61,270, and the cost of management £12,403 or 0.133 per 
cent, on the capital emploved. The net profits amounted to 
e 50,8i)5. 

Advances lo ivoi-kcrs 



The total of the advances to workers up to 31 March 1920 
(including moneys repaid and again advanced) was £ 3.785,895. 

The applications received for loans during the year ended 
the 31 St. March 1920 numbered 1,660. the aggegate amount 
required being £746,586. Advances authorised during 1919-20 



132 



numbered 1,083, representing a total amount of £420,46"). 
The advances actuallj^ paid during the year numbered 604, 
for an aggregate of £225,055. The tenures upon which these 
loans were made were : 



Ten lire 



Freehold 

Leasehold 

Totals 



Ntuiibei 
ot L Otitis 



588 
16 



604 



Aggregate 
amount 



£ 
220,980 
4,075 



£ 225,055 



Te total number of loans and the aggregate amont 
authorised in each provincial district are as follows : 



Provincial district 



Auckland 

Taranaki 

Hawke's Ba} 

Wellin-gton 

Marlborough 

Nelson 

Westlahd 

Canterbury 

Ota.^o — Otago portion 

Southland portion 



Totals 1,08 



Advances 
authorised 1919-20 



1 otal advances 
to 31^1 March 1920 



Numbei 



256 

38 

133 

308 

21 

11 

236 
60 
20 



Amount Numbei 



98,905 

13.420 

54,005 

125,490 

7,885 
3,125 

92,605 

19,010 

6,020 



4,143 
443 

956 
3.624 
424 
238 
194 
3,264 
998 
450 



420,465 i 14,734 



Amount 



£ 

1,233,465 

124,505 

290,355 

1,125,080 

124,015 

59,485 

42,030 

1,013,435 

282,060 

118,655 



4,413,085 



The net amount outstanding at the end of Iht- financial year 
was £2,433,036, secured upon the following tenures : 



Tenure 


Number 

of loans 

oulstandinp 


Aggregale 

amount 
outstanding 


Freehold 


8.718 
514 


2,343,971 
89,065 


Leasehold 


Totals 


£2,433,036 


9,232 





The following table gives particulars of the transactions 
for each of the past ten years, and the total traiiNactions since 
the passing of the Government Advances to Workers Act on 
the 29th October 1906. 



— 133 



AoVAXCnS TO WORKERS 



■o - 

41 "Z 


Ann 


icalion^ 


L 


oans 
















Amount 


Amount 


f S 


received 


authorised 


advanced 


repaid 


s 1 


Number 


Amount 


Number 


Amount 


1911 


2,125 


660,892 


1,521 


473.530 


407,760 


47,925 


1912 


2,223 


750,772 


1,900 


612,910 


543,840 


78,853 


1913 


1,805 


574.493 


1,254 


397,175 


449,260 


84,771 


1914 


1,599 


528,240 


1,200 


339,200 


272,860 


80,933 


1915 


1,492 


462,065 


1,129 


337,690 


313,025 


110,110 


1916 


1,079 


383,365 


953 


297,630 


275 680 


115,535 


1917 


734 


266,740 


658 


210,995 


214,965 


127,450 


1918 


555 


197,738 


411 


129,710 


125,855 


139,485 


1919 


562 


214,415 


372 


119,555 


87,590 


147,791 


1920 

Tol;ils 
r«im in 
cfplion 
til :m 
Mi.n-h 


1,660 


746,586 


1,083 


420,465 


225,055 


368.597 


18,956 


6,160,556 


14,734 


4,413,085 


3,785,895 


1,352,848 



The nature of the security upon which these advances were 
made was as follows : 



Security 



Freeliodd 

Leasehold 

Freehold and leasehold combined 

Totals 



Number 
of advances 



1,154 

259 

4 



i.ir 



Amount 
advanced 



530,310 

127,345 

2,490 



£ 660,145 



The advances outstanding, classified according to amount, 
were as follows : 



Classi 


lied aiiiiuinls outstanding 


Number 

of advances 


AmounI 
oulstauding 


Not exceedi 
Exceeding 

£1,000' . 
Exceeding 

£2,000 . 
Exceeding 

£3,000 . 


ng £ 500 


14,698 

2,645 

1,066 

102 


3,171,191 

2,086,871 

1,498,145 

256,172 


£ 500 but not exceeding 


£ 1,000 but not exceeding 


£ 2,000 but not exceeding 


Totals ... 


18,511 


£7,012,379 



— 134 — 



The nature of the security for the total amounts outstand- 
ing on 31st. March 1920 was as follows : 



Security 


Number 
of advances 


Amount 
oulstandiug 


Freehold 

LeasehoJd 


11,313 

6.992 

206 


5,108,763 

1,784,198 

119,418 


Freehold and leasehold combined 

ToTAiS 


18,511 


£ 7,012,379 





Norway (1) 

The Norwegian Government encourages both individual 
and collective settlement of land. It uses the taxing power 
of the State to encourage the bringing of land into cultiva- 
tion. The principal features of its system are the making of 
loajis at low rates of interest from a specially created land 
cultivation fund; the reduction of interest on loans obtained 
from savings banks and from the Norwegian Credit Society 
for Agriculture and Forestry ; direct contributions or subsid- 
ies ; provision of capital for a bank operated by the State, 
the principal function of which is to provide capital for intend- 
ing settlers on the land. The agricultural authorities and 
colonisation compagnies provide information and instruction 
for settlers and assist them in organising co-operative societies. 
Assistance is provided for the securing of equipment fo-r col- 
ony settlements. 

State Aid to bring Land into Cultivation. 

Special measures were taken during the war to extend 
the area of cultivation. In 1920 Parliament adopted new 
regulations growing out of its wartime experience, with a 
vien to the support of new cultivation of land of colon- 
isation. 

Under these regulations the cultivation of land is supported 
by : (I) loans at a lower rate of interest or from a land cult- 
ivation fund established by the State ; (2) reduction of inter- 
est from loans obtained from savings banks and from the 
Norwegian Credit Society for Agriculture and Forestry (Nor- 



(T) Sources : Norwegian Government's reply to Questionnaire II, 1921 ; Norwe- 
giaa Act concerning loans for smallholdings and d'weWings, 13th July 1915, and late-r 
anieirdnients; Statistisk Aarbok for Kongeriket Norge 1916-1920, Christiania, 1917- 
1921. 



— 135 — 

ges Creditforening for Jord-og-Skogbruk) ; iind (3) direct con- 
tributions or subsidies. 

From the Land Cultivation Fund loans are granted for 
work planned though not yet carried out. Loans do not 
exceed Kr. 5,000, and the individuals to whom they are 
granted must not have property assessed at a value in excess 
of Kr. 50,000. Loans are exempt from repayment of capital 
for the first five years ; repayment is by equal annual instal- 
ments over a period of 15 years ; the interest is 2 V, per cent. 
per annum. Loans must not exceed Kr. 5(K) per decare of 
land. 

To persons having private loan bearing interest rates in 
excess of those obtainable on loans from the Land Cultiva- 
tion Fund the State contributes an amount corresponding to 
the difference between the two rates of interest. This covers 
interest only on first mortgage loans placed with ordinary 
public funds. This difference in interest rate is at present 
3 per cent. For these loans to assist in the payment of inter- 
est the same conditions apply as for loans from the Land 
Cultivation Fund, except that the limit of capital owned by 
the borrower in this case is raised from Kr. 50,000 to 
Kr. 100,000. 

For farm work which has been planned but not yet 
executed the State furnishes one-fourth of the estimated cost 
of the work, but not exceeding Kr. 125 per declare. The con- 
tributions are allowed only to persons not assessed at more 
than Kr. 25,000 or having an income of more than Kr. 4,000. 
A loan and a contribution cannot be granted for the same 
piece of work. The local authorities may add to the contri- 
bution of the State. 

Collective Colonisation. — Collective colonisation with a 
view to establishing new holdings is supported by the State 
by means of grants to colonisation companies. The grant 
amounts to three times the amount the companies have been 
able to procure by private means. In special instances the 
grant from the State may exceed this limit. 

Local authorities may act as colonisation societies. 

The colonisation companies in practice usually buy up 
uncultivated areas, and construct roads and drainage 
trenches. 

Land is divided up into farms, and these are transferred 
to individuals either by sale or lease. The colonists must have 
a capital of from Kr. 1,500 to Kr. 15,000. The size of the hold- 
ing is not limited in area, but must be so large that it requires 
the use of at least one horse for proper cultivation. 

The colonists themselves perform the work of bringing the 
laud under cultivation as well as the erection of buildings on 
the farms. 

Loans. Settlers on these colonies may obtain loans from the 
Small Holdings and Dwellings Bank and from the Norwegian 



— 136 — 

Credit Society for Agriculture and Forestry, but in any case 
the State pays their interest for the first five years of the 
period of the loan. For the erection of outbuildings the 
State allows a grant amounting to one-third of the cost. The 
contribution from the State cannot exceed Kr. 1,000 per 10 
decares of land suitable for cultivation, and the total grant 
to one holding cannot exceed Kr. 5,000. 

The minimum size of holding, for which a grant is made 
for the erection of buildings, shall not exceed 20 decares. 

To bring the land under cultivation the colonist receives 
a loan or grant according to the rules prevailing in that res- 
pect. It is intended that the Small Holdings and Dwellings 
Bank shall extend its activities so as to become a bank for 
the new settlers. 

Other Agricultural Grants. — To the Norwegian Farmers' 
and Small Holders' Associations (Norsk Bonde-og-Smaabru- 
kerlag) and to various societies for the promotion of crop 
and cattle raising, State grants are made. These grants are 
to aid the educational work of these associations and to assist 
in putting into execution some of the preliminary work on 
small holdings under the Colonisation Act. 

State grants are made to small holders' associations for the 
purchase of agricultural implements. The implements pur- 
chased must be used in common by the members of the 
association which must comprise at least three members. No 
member may have a larger capital than Kr. 10,000 or a larger 
income than Kr. 3,000 yearly, nor have a farm exceeding a 
certain limited size. The grant is conditioned on a coresp- 
onding contribution from the local authorities, savings banks, 
or others. It may be equivalent to one-sixth of the original 
purchase price of the machines or implements. 

Loans can be secured from the State for the purchase of 
larger agricultural machinery, motors, threshing machines, 
motor ploughs, self-binders, etc. The loans bear interest at 
the rate of 3 per cent, and are repayable in five years. They 
are .obtained from a special fund established by the State. 

Compulsory Acquirement of Land for Small Holdings and 
Building Sites. ■ — A commission appointed in 1917 to revise 
the Cottars' Act of 1851 recommended that the cottar be given 
the right of pre-emption to the ground rented and its appurt- 
enances. It also recommended expropriation of ground for 
those who desire land and prove themselves fitted to work it. 
A special commission has been appointed by the Government 
to examine the land problem as a whole, but the commission 
has not yet reported. 

Small Holdings. — The Norwegian State Bank for Small 
Holdings and Dwellings operates w4th a basic capital provi- 
ded by the State; the State also guarantees the loans the 
Bank makes for the carrying on of all its operations. 



— 137 — 

The Bank makes four difterent classes of loans : 

Class A. To individuals for the purchase of small 
holdings, the erection of buildings thereon, or for 
the payment of debt on such farms; 

Class B. To parish Councils for the acquisition and 
erection of buildings on land to be sub-divided 
into small holdings; 

Class C. — To individuals for the erection of dwellings 
or the payment of a debt thereon; 

Class D. To communal authorities for the erection of 
dwellings and the acquisition of estates with a view 
~- to dividing them up into building sites. 

Loans of Class A are available to Norwegian citizens passes- 
sing not more than Kr. 3,000 value of property (Act of 25 
February 1921 changed this to Kr. 6,000 but not yet effect- 
ive), and who have not previously held land beyond a cert- 
ain fixed quantity ; the holding to be purchased must not be 
less than 5 decares. and its value with buildings must not ex- 
ceed Kr. 15,000, of which not more than Kr. 8,000 may be for 
the land. The loan is granted up to nine-tenths of the value 
of the holding, but it must not exceed Kr. 10,000. 

Loans for the purchase of small holdings or for the 
erection of buildings bear interest at 4 per cent. Interest on 
loans for the acquisition of existing small holdings and 
buildings is 4 V^ per cent. The rate of interest on loans for 
the payment of debt on small holdings is variable, but must 
be so high that tlie public authorities will not suffer loss in 
the transaction. \o payments of capital are made for the 
first five years and loans are to be repaid within 42 years. 

On Class B loans the interest rate is variable but must be 
sufficiently high to guarantee against loss to the public 
authority. Small holdings are sold or leased only to persons 
who fulfil the conditions necessary for obtaining a loan in 
Class A. The selling price is low and in proportion to what 
the holding costs the Parish Council. 

Class C loans are available to persons with the same qualifi- 
cations as Class A, namely to Norwegian citizens possessing 
not more than Kr. 3,000, who live in the towns or in semi- 
urban places in the country districts ; or more than Kr. 2,000 
in the country districts (Act of 25 February 1921 raised the 
limit to Kr. 6.000 and Kr. 4.000 respectively, but not yet 
etfective. The dwelling lo which the loan applies must be 
intended for at most two families and the ground must exceed 
5 decares. The loan must not exceed nine-tenths of the 
value of the dwelling in cases where a communal guarantee 
is given (Class D.) Without such guarantee it must not 
exceed five-tenths of the value. No loan may exceed Kr. 



— 138 — 

6,000 in towns or some urban places in the country, or Kr. 
4,500 in the country districts (Act of 25 February 1921 increases 
the amount to Kr. 7,5€0 and Kr. 5,600 respectively). The 
loan limit may be raised, in the case of houses built of brick, 
by special application to the communal authority. 

On building loans of this Class the rate of interest is 
variable, but must be sufficient to guarantee against loss. 
Loans for the erection of buildings or acquisition of dwell- 
ings must not carry interest in exces of 4 V2, per cent. No 
repayments of capital are made for the first two years and 
loans are run for a period of 28 5 ears. 

Building companies are granted loans on the same condi- 
tions as private individuals. 

Loans in Class D require that the dwellings erected by the 
municipalities shall not accomodate more than two families 
each and the ground area must not exceed five decares 
Plans, form of sale or lease, method of sub-division of 
ground, must all be sanctioned by the King before being 
carried out. The loans bear the same rate of interest as those 
in Class C. 

The total loans made under this legislation in Norway from 
1903 to June 30, 1920 has been approximately 77,000,000 Kro- 
ner, and the nomber of borrowers probably over 40,000. 

RELATION OF CAPITAL INVESTED TO ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES 

OF THE NORWEGIAN STATE BANK 

FOR SMALL HOLDING DWELLINGS 1904-5 TO 1919-20 









Per cent 








Administrative 


ad minis trativo 




Year 


Capital invested 


expenses 


expenses bear 










to cap.ital invest 


ed 


1904-1905(1) 


3,000,000 


9,600 


0,32 




(1 1/2 years) 










1905-1906 


3,000,000 


34,500 


1,15 




1906-1907 


3,000,000 


21,300 


0,71 




1907-1908 


3,000,000 


21,900 


0,73 




1908-1909 


3,000,000 


33,300 


1.11 




1 1/4 years)(2) 










1909-1910 


5,000,000 


46,000 


0,92 




1910-1911 


5,000,000 


52,500 


1,05 




1911-1912 


10,000,000 


123,000 


1,23 




1912-1913 


10,000,000 


41.500 


0,41 




1913-1914 


10,000,000 


42,100 


0,42 




1914-1915 


10,000,000 


44,400 


0,44 




1915-1916 


10,000,000 


59,000 


0,59 




1916-19i7 


10,000,000 


68,300 


0,68 




1917-1918 


13,200,000 


70,900 


1,13 




1918-1919 


13,200,000 


81,600 


1,19 




1919-1920 


13,200,000 


84,900 


1,29 





<1) Covers one and oii;'-lialf years. 
(2) Covers one and one-fouth years. 



139 



SUMMARY OF .\DV.\NCES AND REPAYMENTS OF LOANS MADE BY THE 
NORWEGIAN STATE BANK FOR SMALL HOLDINGSAND DWELLINGS 

1903-5 TO 1911-12. 



Year 


ADVANXES FOR 


ON PRLNGll'AL 


Land 
purchase 


House 
imrcliaso 


Total 


Lanit pur- 
chase loins 


House pur- 
fljase loao.s 


Total 
loans 


Kroner 


Krooer 


Kfonor 


Kroner 


Kroner 


Kroner 


190C3-05' 

1905-06 
. 1906-07 
1907-08 
1908-09^ 
1909-10 
1910-11 
1911-12 
1912-13 
1913-14 
1914-15 
1915-16 
1916-17 
1917-18 
1918-19 
1919-20 


1.431.750 
1.900.250 
1.835.480 
1.849.500 
2.079.100 
1.906.050 
2.482.550 
2.613.750 
2.548.300 
2.812.400 
1.751.150 
2.6^32.100 
2.501.650 
5.192.000 
4.798-527 
7.159.400 


1.333.850 
1.146.250 
996.620 
1.021.187 
1.363.600 
1.363.000 
1.899.800 
2.034.750 
2.045.250 
2.557.250 
1.201.700 
2.043.650 
1.960.800 
2.868.500 
2.604.450 
4.664.150 


2.765.600 
3.0i6.500 
2.8:32.100 
2.870.687 
3.444.100 
3.269.650 
4.:382.:350 
4.648.500 
4.593.550 
5.369.650 
2.952.850 
4.675.750 
4.462.450 
8.060.500 
7.402.977 
11.823.550 


1.077 

3.227 

11.230 

27.:321 

55.891 

53.2:37 

124.249 

170.587 

179.314 

201.292 

215.297 

303.066 

468.295 

637.678 

648.674 

631.072 


1.175 
22.658 
48.791 
76.586 
128.938 
147.027 
215.497 
:W4.866 
:i26.983 
391.827 
385.913 
5:^.203 
790.610 
920.192 
954.527 
870.886 


2 . 252 

25.885 

60.021 

103.907 

184.829 

200.264 

:3:39.747 

475.459 

505.697 

593.120 

601.210 

8:39.268 

1.258.905 

1.557,870 

1.603.201 

1.501.957 



South Africa (3) 



Land settlement in South Africa rests on an individual 
basis rather than on a collective colonisation idea. Land is 
alienated either by lease for a term of years or by sale of the 
freehold. To facilitate Settlement the Government makes 
advances to the settlers for for the purchase of land and for 
the purchase of equipment and farming necessaries. For 
the provision of credit a special Land and Agricultural Bank 
has been established. The legislation under which land 
settlement proceeds is now largely in the hands of the Union 
Government. Before 1912 it was a matter dealt with by the 
Provinces composing the Union. 



(1) Covers one and on<>-half years. 
f2) Covers one and one-fourth years. 

(2) Source : Offlcial Year Book of the Union Nos. 1-3, 1917-1919, puhlishfd under 
authority of the Minister of the Interior. Pretoria, Tiovernment Printing and Sta- 
tionary Office, 1918-1920. 



140 



Legislation in Force 

The laws under which active land settlement in the Union 
of South Africa is conducted are the Land Settlement Act, 
1912, the Land Settlement Amendment Act, 1917, and the 
Land Settlement Further Amendment Act, 1921, together 
with the Land and Agricultural Bank Act, 1912. There are 
besides numerous Provincial laws under which Crown lands 
and Provincial lands were disposed of prior to the enactment 
of the Union Act of 1912. 

The administration of the land laws is in the hands of the 
Minister of Lands assisted by a Land Board of five mem- 
bers in each Province. All matters touching land questions 
are referred to this Board for consideration, advice, report, 
or recommendation. 

The main provisions of these land laws give authority to 
the Minister of Lands : 

(1) To lease lands for a term of five years with ru op- 

tion to purchase extended over 20 years. Such 
land may consist of private land purchased or 
acquired by exchange or Crown lands. 

(2) To sell to applicants upon payment of one-fifth of 

the total cost in cash such land as may be selected 
by the applicant. 

(3) To make advances not exceeding £ 250 in amount to 

lessees for the purpose of developing their hold- 
ings. 

(4) To make improvements of a substantial nature, 
and to add the cost thereof to the purchase price 
of holdings. 

An applicant who either purchases or leases land must be 
at least eighteen years of age, possess qualifications which 
indicate that he is capable of undertaking farming, and show 
that he intends to occupy, develop and work the holding. 

Terms of Lease. — For lands leased the principal con- 
ditions attached are as follows : 

(a) The lease shall be for five years. 

(b) The rentals charged on the purchase prices shall be. 

for the first year, nil: for the second and third years, 

2 per cent, per annum ; for the fourth and fifth years. 

3 \/, per cent, per annum, payable half-yearly in 
advance. 

(r) The lease may, with the Minister's consent, be extended 
for a further period not exceeding five years at a rental 
of not less than 4 per cent, per annum on the purchase 
price. 



— 141 — 

(d) The option to purchase a holding by paying the purchase 

price over a period of twenty years can he exercised 
a^t any time with the Minister's consent, subject to the 
lease conditions being fullilled and improvements to 
the value of 10 per cent, of the purchase price being 
constructed on the holding. 

(e) Instalment payments on every £ 100 of purchase j)rice 

amount to approximately 7 Vj per cent, per annum, 
which includes interest at 4 per cent., and the residue 
is apportioned to capital, the interest payment dimin- 
ishing and the capital payment increasing after each 
instalment, which remains the same throughout, is 
paid. The payments must be made half-yearly in 
advance. 

Terms of Purchase. — For farms specially purchased for 
applicants the principal terms are that 

(a) There must be a lease on which the option to purchase 

is exercised from the date of transfer of the land to the 
Government. 

(b) For the first two years the payments are nil; for the 
subsequent eighteen years the purchase price is paid 
in half-yearly instalments in advance, plus interest at 
4 per cent. 

(c) On every £ 100 of purchase price appearing in the lease, 

the yearly payment would amount to £ 7.17s., i. e. 7.85 
per cent., of which 4 per cent, is apportioned to inter- 
est and the residue to capital payments. 

(d) One-fifth of the total price at which the land was sold 

must be paid by the lessee before allotment. 

(e) The purchase price of the holding payable as in (b) 

above is made up of (1) the purchase price paid by the 
Minister ; (2) the cost of transfer and the survey fees ; 

(3) other expenditure by the Minister in connection 
with the purchase, transfer, and allotment of the land; 

(4) interest for a period of two years at the rate of 4 per 
cent, per annum on the aggregate of the amounts men- 
tioned in (1), (2), and (3), but the contribution made 
t^)wards the purchase price by the lessee is excluded 
from that aggregate. 

The one-fifth contribution is excluded from tlv^ 
above amount in arriving at the purchase price to be payable 
over eighteen years by a lessee. 

Certain conditions must be complied with by both lessees 
and purchasers of Crow^n land. The lessee and purchaser 
must personally occupy his holding, make improvements on 
it, and utilise it for agricultural or pastoral purposes. He 
may not sublet or mortgage or transfer it without authority. 



— 142 — 

and reservation is made of all minerals, except that in the case 
of lands specially purchased mineral rights may be granted. 
Failure^to comply with the conditions of purchase or of lease 
renders the contract liable to cancellation. No compensa- 
tion for improvements is allowed on cancellation of the lease, 
but, if on re-allotment of the land the incoming tenant pays 
for improvements, the outgoing tenant will be paid such 
amount, less any debts owing to the Government. 

General Provisions. — There are certain general provi- 
sions in the Act dealing with (a) the addition to the purchase 
price of the cost of improvements which may be made by the 
Minister for boring and the like, and the consequent increase 
of the annual payments; (b) the cancellation of the interests 
of joint holders in land, if all the lessees do not comply with 
the terms of the lease; (c) the transfer of a lessee's interests 
to another qualified person; (d) the allotment of land to per- 
sons oversea, who must apply through the. High Commis- 
sioner in London; as well as other provisions governing par- 
ticular circumstances. 

Advances to Lessees. — The Act provides for advan-ces 
being made to lessees up to an amount of £250 for the pur- 
chase of stock, implements, seeds, and other things necessary 
for the development of the holding. The Minister may also 
effect certain improvements on any holding out of public 
moneys and add the cost thereof to the purchase price of 
the land, or treat the amount as an advance. The advances 
are repayable over five years from the date on which they 
are made, and interest is at the rate of 4 V, per cent, per 
annum. 

Advances to Persons other than Government Lessees. — 
An amendment to the Act now admits of advances being 
made for the purchase of cattle to assist persons who have 
leases of lots within any area or settlement laid out for farm- 
ing or agricultural purposes by any local authority on town 
lands or commonages, provided that the Land Board within 
whose area the land is located recommends the application. 



Purchase Operations under the Land Settlement Act. 

Section 11 of the Act provides for land being purchased 
specially for applicants who are prepared to contribute one- 
fifth of the purchase price. This Section was suspended 
during the War, and no transactions were effected thereunder 
subse([iient to August 1914. During the session of Parliament 
in 1917, however, further funds were voted to enable pur- 
chases of land to be made in terms of Section 11. A table, 
showing particulars of the operations under this Section from 



— 143 — 

the passing of the Act at the end of 1912 to 31 March 1919 is 
given hereunder : 



LAND PURCHASKD IN THE VARIOUS PROVINCES, 
1912 TO MARCH 1919 



Province 


Area 


Valuation 


Niimbei- of 
Holdings 


Kumber ot 
Lessees 


Cape of Good Hope 
Natal 


."Vcre.s 

61.326 

16.594 

247.581 

50.752 


£ 

19.252 

34.909 

339.918 

90.368 

484.447 


13 

20 

261 

48 


20 

22 

326 

54 


Transvaal 

Orange Free Stale 

Toi AL. . . 


376 253 


342 


422 



Contributions by the Grovernment in respect of the pur- 
cliasc price, including transfer cost and other incidental 
expenditure, amounted to £370,259, and contributions by the 
persons assisted to £97,842, representing a total of £468,101. 



Purchase for Sub-division under the Act. 

Section 10 of the Act, providing for the purchase of 
land for sub-division into suitable farms for allotment to the 
public, was put into operation to a limited extent during 1916, 
an-d an area of 9,872 acres was acquired at a purchase price 
of £ 15,262. The total amount expended from the year 1912 
to 31 March 1919 in acquiring land under this Section amoun- 
ted to £ 715,398. 



Laws of the Union Provinces 

Each of the Provinces of the Union has separate legislation 
dealing with land settlement, e.g. the Transvaal and Orange 
Free State Land Settlements Amendment Act, 1912, and the 
Transvaal and Orange Free State Land Settlements Act, 
Further Amendment Act, 1916. The Cape of Good Hope 
Province also has several Acts extending over the years 1882- 
1912. These Acts deal with settlements on Crown lands 
in these Provinces, and enable settlers to secure a freehold 
of their holdings on giving a mortgage bond in favour 
of the Government for tlic amount of the purchase 
price of the land plus the amount owdng for advances. In 
the Transvaal the total sum is repayable over 30 years, with 
interest at 4 per cent., by equal half-yearly instalments in 
advance; in the Orange Free State it is repayable before the 



— 144 — 

expiration of 30 years, with interest at 4 per cent, in half- 
yearly instalments in advance. 

Vacant Crown Lands within the Union 

Applications may be made at any time for any portion of 
unsurveved vacant Crown lands, from areas sufficiently large 
to be utilised as cattle ranches down to areas small enough 
for market gardens. This applies to previously unadvertised 
Crown lands. Such lands are also advertised from time to 
time. They may be either vacant Crown land surveyed into 
farins or land procured by purchase by the Government, 
or by exchange for land settlement purposes. 

Method of Land Purchase 

As already stated, the Land Settlement Act. 1912, amended 
1917, provides for the purchase for an applicant of any land 
suitable for settlement within the Union. The following 
conditions are imposed : 

(a) The farm must not cost more than approximately 
£ 1,500, and the Government will contribute a sum not 
exceeding £ 1,200, i.e. four-fifths of the price. 

(b) The applicant must be prepared to pay a deposit in 
cash of one-fifth of the cost to the Government. 

(c) The Minister of Lands retains an option to purchase 

the farm with the mineral rights within a period of 
about six weeks. 

(d) Land with burdensome servitudes or land consisting 

of undivided portions will not be considered. 

(e) Application must be in writing, giving a description of 

the land and stating the price to be paid. 
(/) The applicant must be at least 18 years of age, possess 
qualifications sufficient for utilising the land, in- 
tend to occupy, develop, and work the holding, and be 
of good character. 

The land will be allotted to the applicant on kasc, the lessee 
having an option to purchase from the Government by pay- 
ment over a period of 18 years of half-yearly instalments in 
advance; the first instalment falls due two years after the 
date of transfer to the Government. The payments are thus 
approximately at the rate of 7.85 per cent., of which 4 per cent, 
is to be applied to interest. Instalments over 18 years are of 
a uniform amount. 

Advances 

The Government will consider applications for loans 
not exceeding £ 250, to assist in the purchase of stock. 



— 145 



seeds, and other farming necessaries. It may also assist 
by making permanent improvements on the farm. 



Finance 

The collection of all funds under the Act is carried out by 
the Department of Lands. 

On 31 March 1919 there were over 10,000 persons on the 
books of the Department. The amounts owing to the 
Government for land sold, advances to settlers, etc. amounted 
to £ 3,199,620. The collections during the year were as 
follows : — Rent £ 44,185; interest £ 101,239. The arrears owing 
were as follows : — Rent £29,557; interest £31,979. 

The following table summarises the allotments of agri- 
cultural holdings made during the twelve months ended 
31 March 1919, under the several statutes governing the dis- 
posal of land for settlement purposes. 



ALLOTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS 1 APRIL 1918 
TO 31 MARCH 1919 



Statutes governins;. Allot nicnl 



Land Settlement Act, 1912, 
Section 11 ! 124 

Land Settlennent Act, 1912, 
Section 16 ! ^32 

Crown Land Disposal Ordin- 
ance (Transvaal) : Leases 
with option of purchase.. 

Crown Land Disposal Ordin- 
ance, 1903 (Transvaal) : 
Leases without option of 
purchase 

Act No. 15 of 1887 (Cape) : 
Sales 

Act No. 26 of 1891 (Cape) : 

Lenses 

Sales 

Natal Proclamations 

Irrigation Settlement Act, No. 
31 of 1909 (0. F. S.), Kopjes 
Settlement 

Act No 41 of 1902 (Cape)... . 



Total of land alienated 



Number 

of 

Hold- 


Number 

of 
Settl- 


ings 


ors 


124 


156 


432 


491 


84 


86 


15 


17 


13 


15 


6 


6 


20 


19 


9 


8 


5 


6 


780 


804 



Area 



Acres 

144.951 
901.020 



328.502 

34.274 

27.624 

14.258 

144.127 

4.293 

30.116 



1.629.165 



Valuation 


Rent 


£ 


£ 


155.657 


" 


295.177 


--- 


44.153 




6.. 545 


-- 


6.760 


~ 





203 


4.285 


_ 


4.424 


— 


2.455 


— 


519.456 


203 



10 



146 — 



Establishment 



The Land and Agricultural Bank of South Africa was 
established on 1 October 1912 by Act No. 18 of 1912. Prior 
to that date a land bank existed in the Transvaal under 
the name of the Transvaal Land and Agricultural Bank 
(Act No. 26 of 1907); in the Orange Free State as the Land 
and Agricultural Loan Fund (Act No. 33 of 1909) ; and in 
Natal under the name of the Land and Agricultural Loan 
Fund (Act. No 27 of 1907). In the Cape of Good Hope the 
Agricultural Credit Bank Act, No. 25 of 1907, was passed, 
but remained inoperative. On October 1912 the three 
Provincial banks ceased to exist, and their assets and 
liabilities were transferred to and vested in the Land and 
Agricultural Bank of South Africa, referred to for conven- 
ience as The Union Land Bank. 

The Union Land Bank took over the assets and liabilities, 
of the three provincial banks at a valuation « as may be mu- 
tually agreed upon between the Minister of Finance and the 
central board of the bank ». 



Functions of the Bank 

The main objects of the bank are to make advances : 

(a) To farmers against the security of first mortgage of 
agricultural or pastoral land. The maximum advance 
is £ 2,000 to any one farmer, and the advance cannot 
exceed 60 per cent, of the value placed by the Central 
Board on the land; 

(b) To agricultural co-operative societies against the secur- 

ity o fthe joint and several liability of the members 
for the society's debts. 

(c) To farmers to construct dipping-tanks and to erect 

boundary fences. 

(d) To settlers who hold land from the Crown under lease 

or license. Repayment of these loans is guaranteed 
by the Minister of Lands. 

The bank was empowered in 1916 temporarily to make 
advances against the security of second mortgage. This was 
one of the measures adopted by Parliament to relieve dis- 
tress caused by drought and flood in certain districts of the 
Cape Midlands. The power in question expired on 15 October 
1916. The bank also has power to guarantee the fulfilment 
of contracts undertaken by co-operative societies individually 



— 147 — 

or by some organisation acting for a group of co-operative 
societies. 



Capital 

The Union Land Bank commenced business on 1 October 
1912 with a capital of £2,735,000. The capital of the 
bank consists of this amount together with such additional 
money as Parliament may appropriate from time to time, 
and such money as the bank recovers by repayment of 
advances may by it. The amounts authorised by Parliament 
have been : 1912-1913, £400,000; 1913-1914, £1,225.000: 1914_ 
1915, £750,000; 1917-1918, £225,000; 1918-1919, £400,000; or a 
total of £ 3,000,000. 

The capital of the bank on 31 December 1918 amounted to 
£4,936,010. 

The Act provides that the bank shall pay interest on its 
capital at the rate of 3 V, per cent, per annum. This amount 
was increased to 4 per cent, on 1 April 1914 The pre- 
sent position is that the bank's capital returns to the State 
about £ 1,400 yearly in excess of the cost to the State. 



Management and Control 

The bank is a body corporate, and its operations and policy 
are controlled by a central board consisting of a general 
manager (who is chairman) and four ordinary members, each 
of whom is nominated by the Governor-General. The central 
board meets in Pretoria, where the bank's head office is 
situated. 

In addition to the central board, there are local boards 
consisting of three members, who are also nominated by the 
Governor-General. These local boards are purely advisory, 
and have been established (1) at Cape Town for the Cape 
Western area, (2) at Port Elizabeth for the Cape Eastern 
area, (3) at Bloemfontein for the Orange Free State area, 
and (4) at Pietermaritzburg for the Natal area. In fixing 
the four areas mentioned the Provincial boundaries were 
deliberately ignored. Thus for the bank's purposes the 
Orange Free State and Transvaal areas include certain 
districts which geographically fall in the Cape Province. 
Similarly the Natal area extends beyond the geographical 
boundaries of that Province. 

Every magistrate, field-cornet, and police officer and the 
Postmaster-General and any officer under him are by law 
appointed agents of the bank, when required bv the central 
board to assist in any matter. 

The bank is not a department of State, and its officers 



— 148 — 

are not members of the Public Service, although its officers 
may include seconded members of the Public Service. 

At 31 December 1918 the bank's staff consisted of 
seventy-one officers, of whom twelve were seconded from 
the Public Service. Whilst the seconded officers contribute 
to the various pension funds of the Public Service, the bank 
established on 1 May 1916 a superannuation fund for 
its own officers, to which it contributes on the £ 1 for £ 1 prin- 
ciple. The contributions by officers are limited to 4 per cent, 
per annum of their respective salaries. 



Cost of Administration 

The following figures represent the cost administering the 
bank for the calendar j'^ears 1913 to 1918, relative to the 
value of the funds administered in each year : For 1913, 
.662 per cent.; for 1914, .714 per cent.; for 1915, ,573 per cent.; 
for 1916, .634 per cent.; for 1917, .617 per cent.; for 1918, 
.664 per cent. 

Operations of the Bank 

The loans made by the bank to farmers and agricultural 
co-operative societies earn 5 per cent, per annum, with certain 
exceptions. 

Up to the present time there has been no loss or deficiency 
in the operations of the bank. The total earnings from 
January 1913 to 31 December 1918 were £220,153. These 
earnings have ranged from 4.97 to 5.20 per cent, on the capi- 
tal. The amount thus far earned has been placed in a reserve 
fund. 

The bank's income now leaves about £400,000 available 
each year for re-investment; but owing to the growth of the 
agricultural industry throughout the Union and the con- 
sequent increase in capital requirements, it is still necess.ary 
for Parliament to add to the bank's resources frorii time to 
time. 

The following tables give for a period of four years details 
as to the operations of the Land and Agricultural Bank. 
There is shown the number of applicants for ordinary ad- 
vances, the amount involved, and the particulars as to the 
applications granted and refused. 



— 149 — 

APPLICATIONS FOR ADVANCES 1913-1918 
NUMBER AND AMOUNT OF ADVANCES, AND VALUE OF SECURITY 

1913-1918 



Year 


Applications 
received 


Applications 
granted 


Applications 
refused 




Amount 


0) 

a 


Amount 


g 

a 


Amount 


1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 


3.874 
1.268 
401 
2.022 
2.299 
2.200 


£ 
2.706.994 
451.329 
176.354 
1.039.496 
1.467.758 
1.524.739 


3.091 
1 025 
322 
1.715 
1.997 
1.953 


£ 

1.749.130 

293.084 

131.655 

713.030 

1.069.590 

1.167.470 


446 
115 

25 
119 
105 

56 


409.728 
49.200 
12. .514 
97.049 
91.920 
39.759 







Avcr-age 




Total value 


Year 


Number 


amounl per 
advance 


iota! amount 


of 
security 






£ 


£ 


£ 


1913 


2.636 


584 


1.530.060 


3.418.670 


1914 


1.097 


323 


354.364 


818.561 


1915 


291 


403 


117.365 


262.412 


1916 


1.254 


378 


474.377 


970.484 


1917 


1.795 


2.717 


932.220 


1.896.706 


1918 


1.699 


558 


948 345 


1.856.900 



NUMBER OF ADVANCES BY CLASSIFIED AMOUNTS 1913 TO 1918 

AMOUNT OF ADVANCES FOR EACH SPECIFIED PURPOSE 

1913 TO 1918 



Year 


CLASSIFIED AMOUNT OF LOAN 


'total 

Ndnib'er 

of 




Over £ 100 


Over £ 250 


Over £ 500 


Over£lOiO 






£ too and 


and not 


and not 


and not 


and not 


Over 




Under 


oxcoedinj;- 


exceeding- 
X TiOU 


exceeding 

£ 1000 


exceeding 
£ 1500 


£ 1500 


Advances 


1913 


349 


63k 


608 


590 


259 


198 


2.636 


1914 


238 


353 


363 


110 


94 


11 


1.097 


1915 


56 


67 


95 


55 


22 


4 


291 


1916 


261 


379 


329 


207 


57 


21 


1.254 


1917 


261 


454 


461 


393 


144 


99 


1.795 


1918 


234 


395 


415 


378 


151 


126 


1.699 



150 





K 










_^ 








a 








c 












Pui-f 


liasc 


h-$-z 


'1 "g 


II =T 


Purcliase 




■S ear 


> 






-c-nn; 




'^ ;, 2h X 




Tolal 




o 


of s 


lock 


tj y.x> 


"3 ^ 


■^ i" -Cr 


of land 






a. 






Q-o^ 


3 ° 

t/5 


2< i s 






1913 


216.270 


125 


335 


662.118 


215 


150 


525.972 


1.530.060 


1914 


46.831 


41 


564 


107.057 


952 


— 


157.960 


354.364 


1915 


5.110 


7 


.250 


20.282 


60 


— 


84.663 


117.365 


1916 


53.920 


47 


.044 


128.228 


265 


600 


244.320 


474.377 


1917 


88.063 


71 


.487 


259.117 


690 


— 


512.863 


932.220 


1918 


51.574 


62 


.832 


420.805 


390 


— 


412.744 


948.345 



Spain (1) 

According to the reply of the Spanish Government to the 
questionnaire of the International Labour Office « home colo- 
nisation in Spain was initiated by the law of 30 August 1907. 
So far it has only reached the proportions of a modest exper- 
iment, which it is intended to amplify in conformity with 
Government schemes which will be shortly carried out for 
extending compulsory colonisation. » 

Colonisation up to the present time has been confined to 
land belonging to the States, the Provinces and the Municipali- 
ties, and to uncultivated or insufficiently cultivated lands of 
private owners. The problem of home colonisation in Spain 
is one of importance, as less than one-half of the soil of the 
country is now under cultivation. 

The administration of the Acts is in the hands of the Cen- 
tral Commission for Home Colonisation and Repopulation, 
consisting of an ex-Crown M'^iister as Chairman, two Sena- 
tors two Deputies, a directo? xcral of agriculture, the direc- 
tor'-general of taxation ana> venue, two forestry engineers, 
two Crown Ministers and tw« persons of recognised compe- 
tence nominated by the Instiute of Social Reform. 

The Commission decides which lands are suitable for set- 
tlement, divides and assigns them, draws up plans for settle- 
ments, studies the needs of cultivation and drainage, makes 
proposals to the Government for improvements in the law. 

The purpose of the law on home colonisation, enacted 
August 30 1907, was to place unemployed families upon the 
land, arrest immigration, repeople the country, and to culti- 
vate the uncultivated or poorly cultivated land. Both the 
State and Municipalities are authorised to found home settle- 



(1) Sources: Reply of Spanish Government to Questionnaire II, 1921; Interna- 
tional Institute of \*griculture. Monthly Bulletin of Economic and Social Intelli- 
gence, Rome, Vol. 21 CJrd year. No. 7). July 1912, pages 175-194, also its Interna- 
tional Review of Agricultural Economics, Year 11, No. 6. June 1920, pages 442-452. 
I.yey de Colonizacion y Repoblacion Interior, y Reglamento Provisional para la eje- 
cucion de la misma. (Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid, 1908). 



— 151 — 

ments by granting land either to individuals or to groups of 
persons. The State, even after the grant of complete owner- 
ship, reserves the right of re-purchasing land which has not 
been cultivated or has been badly cultivated. The land grant- 
ed is in size adapted to the needs of the person or group of 
persons desiring it, and according to its own character as 
regards productivity. Donation, exchange, or sale of par- 
cels granted are void if negotiated within the first six years 
of dale of award. The State prevents the division of the par- 
cels of land and provides for favourable terms of mortgage 
credit. 

The law of 27 December 1910 amending the principal Act 
authorised the sub-division of Crown lands which had 
already been offered for sale by the Minister of Finance. 
Lands owned by the Communes or held by them in trust may 
be used for settlements, and lands described in the Land Re- 
gister of the Minister of Agriculture as set aside for public 
use may also be given to settlers when considered advisable 
by the Central Commission. 

In practice, the size of the holding is strictly regulated. 
Special provisions are made for labourers' holdings. Each 
Settlement has to be provided with necessary farm buildings, 
a home for the family, community buildings such as church, 
school, and meeting room, postal and telegraph and tele- 
phone services, community pharmacist's shop, house for the 
doctor, stores for the Co-operative Associations, warehouse, 
mill, etc. When the required number of settlers has been 
found, lots are drawn to determine which families are to se- 
lect holdings. A settlement must be inhabited by not less 
than 20 families to be entitled to all the privileges provided 
by the law. The law requires the members of a settlement 
to form co-operative associations, the capital of w^hich con- 
sists mainly of subsidies, grant^iund loans of the government. 
All settlers and heads of fam. .-s, owners of holdings, must 
be members of the co-operati';>5 dissociation. 



Results of Legislation 

In the province of Cadiz near the capital is the La Algaida 
settlement, comprising 461 hectares. Of this number 53 hec- 
tares remain uncultivated, and 250 have been divided into 
holdings; 126 hectares are assigned to the co-operative asso- 
ciation; 18 devoted to roads and buildings, and the remainder 
to an experimental farm and nursery. The total cost of in- 
stalling settlers amounted to 1,096,756 pesetas ; the value of 
the lands approximated to 2,000,000 pesetas. There has been 
loaned to the settlers on this estate 70,000 pesetas, to be paid 
in equal annual instalments in 10 years. 

Among other settlements established are the following : 
El Plans, set up in 1910; Sierra de Salinas, set up in 1911; 



— 152 — 

La Alquiera, within 10 kilometres of Madrid ; Mongo ; and 
Gandaras de Prado in the south of Galicia. 

The Central Commission charged with the administration 
of the law in July 1919 proposed to the Government the esta- 
blishment of a settlement in Andalusia on a tract of 10,000 
acres of irrigable land. Of this area 2,000 hectares, divided 
up into 650 holdings, it is understood, have already been set 
aside for settlers. A Commission estimated the cost of put- 
ting the land into working order at over half a million pese- 
tas. The Government, it is reported, will loan this amount, 
with repayment to be made in 25 years, at an interest rate 
of 5 per cent. 



Sweden C) 

The Swedish Government encourages the formation of both 
individual and collective land settlement. Both private and 
Crown lands are made available to agriculturalists and per- 
sons of small means who may desire to settle upon the land. 
The most important feature of the system is the extension 
of State credit for the purpose in view, and supervision by the 
State of the colonies established. Assistance in the way of 
advice as to problems of agricultural technique, business 
organisation, and co-operation is provided by various State 
agencies. A feature of the system of loans is the provision of 
low rates of interest and long terms of payment. The land 
becomes the freehold of the settler upon the final payment of 
the loan advanced for its purchase. The reply of the Swedish 
Government to the questionnaire of the International Labour 
Office calls attention to « the marked predilection of the 
rural population for ownership ». 

During the years 1904-1920 the State advanced over 
80,000,000 kronor in the form of Government loans, bearing 
a low rate of interest, to persons applying for land for settle- 
ment. 

Swedish legislation has also kept in view the desirability 
of improving the position of the tenant farmers and crofters, 
both on Government and private estates. 

Legislation in Aid of Individual Farm Ownership 

The earliest measures taken by the State consisted in sales 
of ground from State agricultural lands to small holders. In 



(1) Sources : Reply of the Swedish Government to the Dlctionnaire of the Inter- 
national Labour Ollice; The Swedish Agricultural Labourer, published by order 
of the Swedish Government's Delegation for international collaboration in special 
politics; Stockholm, 1921; Sweden: Historical and Statistical Handbook, by order 
of the Swedisli Government, second edition (English issue) flrst part. Stockhoilm, 
1914, pages 682-691 and special information from the Swedish Ministry of Agricul- 
ture. 



— 153 — 

1894 a law was passed permitting the Crown to dispose of 
small holding on favourable terms to persons of small 
means. These sales assumed no great proportions. Between 

1895 and 1909 only 1,500 holdings had been disposed of by the 
State under the provisions of this Act. 

At first these measures applied only to a limited portion 
of the country, and no provision was made for assistance 
through State loans. In 1904 a separate system of State 
credits was introduced. This provided for an appropriation 
of 10,000,000 kronor for the purpose of making loans to 
individual settlers, both for the purchase and improvement 
of small holdings. In 1909 the scope of legislation was greatly 
extended, and measures were adopted to check speculation 
in holdings sold by the State and at the same time to facili- 
tate the acquisition of holdings by offering easier rates of 
payment. 



Conditions for Loans 

Loans are made through the medium of (1) the provincial 
agricultural societies, and (2) privately organised companies 
and societies for the special purpose, subject to State 
supervision. The principles on which the companies are 
based are limited divdends and the control of the companies 
by the settlers themselves as far as possible. 

The State supplies loan capital at low rates of interest. 



Amounts Provided 

A fund of 10,000,000 kronor, expected to last five years, 
was contributed at the start, but a further gi'ant of 
800.000 kronor was voted for the last year of the term. A sum 
of 5,000,000 kronor was voted for each of the years 1909 to 
1913, but these sums proved inadequate. In 1912 the Govern- 
ment increased the fund for 1913 by a further two and a 
half million kronor, so that the total grant was seven and a 
half million kronor. The same sum was voted for 1914. 
From 1904 to 1920 the total amount advanced has been over 
SO million kronor. 



Land Purchase Fund for Collective Settlements 

This fund was established in 1907. Loans are granted pre- 
ferably to companies and societies which limit dividends and 
profits, and have for their purpose the purchase and parcel- 
ling of large estates into small holdings and plots of ground. 



— 154 — 

The National Association against Emigration has been con- 
cerned in the formation of such companies. 

Loans are granted to the extent of four-fifths of the value 
of the property at 4 per cent, interest. 

Preliminary schemes of sub-division for settlement pur- 
poses are drafted. A judicious combination of small and large 
allotments has been aimed at. The colonisation companies 
have done irrigation work, superintended building opera- 
tions in the settlements, co-ordinated purchase of material, 
standardised building operations, and have aimed, on the 
whole, to get the advantage of large-scale operations. After 
the establishment of settlements the companies have endeav- 
oured to follow up their success and development. Organised 
co-operative associations give technical agricultural in- 
struction. 

The results of the so-called own-your-own home movement 
from 1905 to 1920 are set forth in the following summary 
table : 



Number of small holdings established and loans 
granted in aid the reof, 1905-1921 

A. Loans granted through Provincial Agricultural Societies 





Loans in aid 


l.oa 


us in aid 


All 


Ogelhor 




of farms 


of d 


vvellino^s 








" .^^ ~^— -^ 


- — — . 


^-.-— - — - 




^- — - 


Year 


■- 


Tolal 


■- 


Tolal 


r 


Tibial 




-5 


aniouoL of 


o 


anionnt o\ 


-I 


amotinl of 




E 


loans 


3 


loans 


= 


loans 




y. 


ill kronor 


Vt 


in kronor 


a 


in kronor 


1905 


664 


1.421.880 


245 


371.380 


909 


1.793.260 


1906 


441 


1.032.989 


196 


337.702 


637 


1.370.691 


1907 


645 


1.673.475 


366 


736.220 


1011 


2.409.695 


1908 


900 


2.473.235 


446 


888.830 


1346 


3.362.065 


1909 


987 


2.698.3.55 


365 


697 600 


1352 


3.-395.955 


1910 


1236 


3.552.060 


346 


660.301 


1.582 


4.212.361 


1911 


1036 


3.019.160 


307 


.589.200 


1343 


3.608.534 


1912 


1113 


3.019.334 


359 


692.050 


1472 


3.711.584 


191H 


1303 


3.909.475 


523 


1.019.600 


1826 


4.929.075 


1911 


1225 


3.797.825 


549 


1.083.075 


1774 


4.880.900 


19ir, 


1024 


3.154.110 


413 


822.450 


1437 


3.076.560 


19] (J 


965 


3.002.820 


407 


817.130 


1372 


3.819.950 


1917(1 


866 


3.212.800 


372 


930.050 


1238 


4.142.850 


1918(1) 


728 


2.700.800 


351 


903.550 


1079 


3.604.350 


1919(1 


857 


3.743.360 


419 


1.387.250 


1276 


5.130.610 


1920 il) 


1101 


5.635.425 


598 


2.520.375 


1699 


8.155.800 



( 1) Pri-lil)iiii.irv lij;in 



,•1 iiiii.li-h.'.l. 



155 — 



B. Loans granted through Companies and Societies 





Loans in aid 


Loans in aid 




1 


;>•. ,.' 


(> 


■ larms 


of dwellings 


Altogether 1 


Grantod ihroiigh 





— 





■ 




-^ 


companies 


:- 


Tolal 


CJ 


Total 


'r 


Total 




-C 


amount ol 




amOLinl ol 


— 


amount of 


and societies 


5 


loans 


= 


loans 


:; 


loans 




k: 


in kronor 


a 


in kronor 


S^ 


in kronor 


1905 






48 


128.500 


48 


128.500 


1906 


— 


— 


13 


25.300 


■ 13 


25.300 


1907 


— 




52 


153.000 


52 


153.000 


1908 


56 


238.429 


250 


693.900 


306 


932.327 


1909 


136 


542.700 


314 


850.815 


450 


1.393.515 


1910 


76 


316.150 


195 


537.010 


271 


853.160 


1911 


60 


262.500 


140 


379.275 


200 


641.775 


1912 


70 


301.800 


84 


223.340 


154 


525.140 


191:5 


122 


542.100 


330 


901.384 


452 


1.443.484 


1914 


115 


511.500 


227 


770.230 


342 


1.281.730 


1915 


66 


323.400 


138 


377.654 


204 


701.054 


1916 


123 


542.650 


197 


544.450 


320 


1.087.100 


1917 ;1 


117 


450.000 


148 


667.150 


265 


1.117.150 


1918 ;1: 


74 


895.000 


173 


1.220.000 


247 


2.115.000 


1919 I'i 


130 


956.300 


268 


1.184.625 


398 


2.140.925 


1920 ;1) 


,113 


799.026 


214 


1.282.850 


327 


2.081.876 



C. Total Loans Granted 





Loans in aid 


Loans in aid 




1 


Year 


ol 


farms 


of c 


wellings 


.Altogether 1 




^— 


1^ -^.^ 


— i 


-^'-— — 




^■■^^-^ 




-_ 


'I'olal 


i. 


Total 


:_ 


Total 


Uotli combined 


_2 


amount of 


^ 


amount of 


_= 


amount of 




5 


loan 


z 


loan 


3 


loan 




<8 


in kronor 


K 


in kronoi' 


;< 


in kronor 


1905 


664 


1.421.880 


293 


499 . 880 


957 


1.921.760 


1906 


441 


1.032.989 


209 


363.002 


650 


1.395.991 


1907 


645 


1.673.475 


418 


889.220 


1063 


2.562.695 


1908 


956 


2.711.664 


696 


1.582.730 


1652 


4.294.394 


1909 


1123 


3.241.055 


279 


1.548.415 


1802 


4.789.470 


1910 


1312 


3.868.210 


541 


1.197.311 


1853 


5.065.521 


1911 


1096 


3.281.660 


447 


968.475 


1543 


4.250.135 


1912 


1183 


3.321.134 


443 


915.390 


1626 


4.236.524 


1913 


1425 


4.451.575 


853 


1.920.984 


2278- 


6.372.559 


1914 


1340 


4.309.325 


776 


1.853.305 


2116 


6.162.630 


1915 


1090 


3.477.510 


551 


1.200.104 


1641 


4.677.614 


1916 


1088 


3.545.470 


604 


1.361.580 


1692 


4.907.050 


1917 (1) 


983 


3.662.800 


520 


1.597.200 


1503 


5.260.000 


1918 a) 


802 


3.595.800 


524 


2.123.550 


1326 


5.719.350 


1919 fl) 


987 


4.699.660 


687 


2.571.875 


1674 


7.271 .535 


1920 r 


1214 


6.434.451 


812 


3.803.225 


2026 


10.237.676 



(1) Proliminarv fifjurcs not vol pul)lislic(l. 



— 156 — 

Settlement in the Crown Forests of Norrland, 1918 

Experimental settlements were created in 1918, which were 
of two distinct types : 

(1) larger holdings, which comprise about 3 hectares 

of cultivable ground, 12 hectares of cultivable 
moorland, and 15 hectares of forest land; 

(2) smaller holdings which comprise about one hectare 

of cultivable ground, 4 hectares of cultivable peat 
ground, and 3 hectares of forest land. 

Each holding is granted for a term of 15 years, the settler 
having the right, when at least 10 years have elapsed, and 
provided he has carried out his contract, to secure the 
holding in full ownership, in return for a certain payment. 

Thus far, 17 different settlement districts, comprising alto- 
gether 389 holdings, have been assigned — 145 larger 
holdings and 244 of the smaller size. Only 247 holdings have 
been taken up. 



United States C) 

The public lands of the United States have been open to 
« individual settlement under homestead legislation since 
1862. Prior thereto various forms of disposal had been tried, 
such as sale by contract, by auction, on credit, and in amounts 
to suit individual purchasers ; to a limited extent, public 
land is still being disposed of by these methods. Large 
free grants of land have also been made to the railroads, to 
schools, and to other public institutions. But the bulk of 
the public lands of the United States have been alienated to 
individuals, and, particularly under homesteading laws, 
enlarged and modified from time to time. The land already 



Sources : 

(1) United States Department of the Interior; Annual Report of the Secretary 
of the Interior for the Fiscal Year ended. June 1920, Washington, 1920. 

(2) United States Department of Labour : Disposition of the Public Lands of 
the United States, will Particular Reference to Wage Earning Labour. Washington, 
1919. 

(3) United States Department of Labour : Employment and Natural Resources; 
Possibilities of Making New Opportunities for Employment, for the Settlement and 
Development of Agricultural and Forest Lands and other Resources. Washington, 
1919. 

(4) United States Department of Agriculture; Year Book, 1920, Washington, 
1921, pages 271-288. 

(5) Mead, Elwood. Helping Men Own Farms; a Practical Discussion of Govern- 
ment Aid in Land Settlement. New York, Harpers, 1921. 

(6) Speck, Peter., A Stake in the Land. New Yorli, Harpers, 1921. 

(7) Wiprud, A. C, The Federal Farm Loan System in Operation. New York, 
Hari>ers 1921. 

(8) Putnam, George E., A Federal Farm Loan System (The American Economic 
Review, Princeton, New Jersey, Vol. IX, No. 1.; March 1919; pages 57-78. 



— 157 — 

disposed of under the homestead law of 1862 on June 30, 
1920, was over 193,000,000 acres, or about 13 per cent, of the 
1,442,200,000 acres of public land at one lime belonging to the 
United States. The land still vacant and in the hands of the 
Government comprises about 14 per cent, of the one-tim^ 
public domain of the United States ; this remaining land, 
however, is quite unsuitable for ordinary agricultural pur- 
poses, and consists entirely of grazing and arid land. 

Practically the only land disposed of now by the Federal 
Government is that which is made available through its re- 
clamation and irrigation projects, which have been fostered 
under the Act of 1902. However, to a slight extent the 
government co-operates through the State governments, and 
through specially organised irrigation companies for the open- 
ing up and reclamation of arid lands under legislation 
enacted in 1891 and 1894. On June 30, 1920, the net cost of 
construction of the various reclamation projects completed 
and under way by the United States Government amounted 
to a little less than $125,000,000. The irrigated acreacre had 
increased from 694,000 acres in 1913 to approximately 1,187,000 
in 1919. The projects that have been undertaken are estim- 
ated to provide for an area of 3,300,000 acres. The value 
of the crops raised on reclamation projects in 1919 was 
a 88,974,000, as compared with $ 15,676,000 in 1913. 

Collective land settlement in the United States is confined 
almost wholly to private colonisation companies. Only one 
State has undertaken it as a governmental function. The 
State of California, as a result of investigations bv a Com- 
mission on Land Settlement and Rural Credits in 1916, pass- 
ed the Land Settlement Act on June It 1917. This Act 
appropriated $250,000 for a demonstration in State land co- 
lonisation, and fixed 10,000 acres as the maximum which 
should be purchased for the purpose. During the war nu- 
merous Bills were introduced in the Federal Congress to 
promote land settlement for soldiers. The various States of 
the Union also introduced Bills designed to co-operate with 
the work to be undertaken by the Federal Government. Thus 
far, however, no definite legislation has been passed by the 
Federal Government and the practical value of legislation, 
by the States waits upon action by the central Government in 
some instances. 

Land credit legislation was undertaken by the Federal Gov- 
ernment in 1916. The Federal Farm Loan Act in 1916 es- 
tablished entirely new land credit institutions and inaugurnted 
new methods of making farm loans. Briefly stated, a system 
of Federal farm loan banks, organised among farmers who 
are at the same time borrowers, was established ; appropria- 
tions of capital are made from time to time by the Federal 
Congress and bonds are issued on the security of the 
mortgages. While this legislation has undoubtedly reduced 
interest rates on farm loans in the United States, it does not 
appear to have been greatly effective in encouraging land 



— 158 — 

ownership, nor has it assisted land settlement to any great 
f^xtent. A study by the Department of Agriculture states that 
« only about 13 per cent, of the total loans made by the farm 
loans bank were for the purpose of buying land, although the 
percentage appears to have increased to some extent ». Fur- 
thermore, « about two-thirds of those who borrow money to 
buy land are already owners of other farm lands ». The 
system has been carefully managed, as indicated by the fact 
that the average loan is only about 37 per cent, of the total 
value of the land and improvements conservatively 
appraised. 



Land Settlement by the State of California (1) 

The California Land Settlement Act declares its purpose 
to be that of « promoting closer agricultural settlement, assist- 
ing deserving and qualified persons to acquire small improv- 
ed farms, providing homes for farm labourers, increasing 
opportunities under the Federal Farm Loan Act, and demons- 
trating ^he value of adequate capital and organised direction 
in subdividing and preparing agricultural land for settle- 
ment )). 

The Act created the Land Settlement Board and appropria- 
ted $ 260,000, including $ 10,000 for preliminary expenses and 
not to be repaid. The $250,000 is a loan to be repaid in 50 
years with 4 per cent, interest. With this money the Board 
bought 6,300 acres of land, which is now know^ as the 
Durham Settlement, situated in Butte county, California. 
The land purchased had to be irrigated. Surveyors carefully 
mapped out the land, soil experts analysed it thoroucfhly, 
while the Board engaged in leveling and seeding some of the 
land, and ploughing and plantig other land for grain. By 
May 1918 the Board had spent nearly $30,000 in prenaring 
land and putting in crops. It was then ready to offer ready- 
made land to settlers. The first lands taken were those that 
had been improved and settlers gladly paid for the leveling 
and planting. 

The terms of the sale are as follows : settlers paid 5 per 
cent, of the cost of the land and 40 per cent, of the cost of the 
improvements at the time of purchasing. The remainder 
of the purchase price was to be paid over a period of 20 
years for improvments and 36 V, years for the land, with 
interest at 5 per cent, per annum. Payments of principal 
and interest are made semi-annually in equal instalments. 

All applicants for land were carefullv selected by the Board 



(1) The account here given is taken from tliat given by Mr. Mead, chairman 
of the CaHfornia l.and Settlement Commisson, in his volume, Helpim/ Men Own 
Farms, New York, Macmillan, 1920, pages 106-127; and by Mr. Speek ; Investigator 
for the Carnegie Corporation of New York in its Studies and Methods of Ameri- 
canlsation and contained in his report entitled A Stake in the Land, Harpers. 
1921, pages 86-91. 



— 159 — 

to ensure their fitness for farming. The minimum amount 
of capital was fixed at $1,500 or a working equipment of 
equal value. A farm labourer was not required to have any 
capital, but had only to pay the initial deposit of $20 and 
semi-annual payments of about $15. The Board took the 
view that no one should attempt to buy a farm unless he has 
both money and experience. Further than that, the Board 
has constant supervision of each settler, observes th^ state 
of repair of his buildings, and in a general way follows the 
progress of his farm. 

Part of the work undertaken by the Board was that of 
building farm houses according to plans selected by the sett- 
lers themselves. An engineer was employed to supervise the 
direction of building and to help settlers plan the group of 
buildings, orchard, gardens and fields. Every advantage was 
taken in buying materials and supplies wholesale. The Boar J. 
likewise assisted with the organisation of co-operative asso- 
ciations, established a training school in agriculture and has 
now under way the erection of a social hall owned by the 
settlers themselves. The health of the community has been 
carefully supervised. There maj'^ be noted such a detail as 
the taking of a blood of every person in the colon^'^ to ascer- 
tain wheter there were among the settlers any carriers of 
malaria or typhus germs. 

Small allotments have been made available to farm labour- 
ers, and special provisions made for the extension of loans 
and the erection of a moderate-priced cottage for the worker. 
« Durham farm labourers are living in better homes than 
most of them ever expected to have », according to Mr. Mead, 
Chairman of the Commission. « The net income of some of 
these labourers is larger than the net income of the majority 
of the farmers. Those who want to be farm owners see that 
their present position is a stepping stone to the attainment of 
their desire not far in the future » (1). 

State Provision for Soldier Settlements 

During the latter years of the war numerous proposals 
were made on the subject of land settlement for returning 
soldiers. Over half the States have passed some legislation 
on the subject. Most of this legislation contemplates coope- 
ration with the Federal Government should legislation be 
enacted by the Congress on the subject. Thus far no legisla- 
tion has been undertaken by Congress. The following tab- 
ular statement gives the principal facts as to land settlement 
forsoldiers, as reflected in the State legislation of the United 
States up to 30 June, 1919 (1). 



(1) Mead, Hi-.lping Men 0\\ii Farms, New York, Harpers, 1920; p. 139. 

(2) Speck Peter A. .v Stake in the 1-anil, New York, Harpers, 1921, pages 
92-9"i. 



— 160 — 

STATE LEGISLATION TO PROMOTE LAND SETTLEMENT FOR SOLDIERS 

UP TO JUNE 1919. 



State 



Arizona 



California 

Colorado . 
Delaware 

Florida .. . 



Idaho 



Maine 



Legislation 
(Date approved) 



March 26, 1919 



Amount of 
Appropria- 



100.000 



A ., 1Q1Q" 10.000.000 

April 1919, 1.000.000 



April 9. 1919 
April 2, 1919 

Decern. 7, 1918 
March 7, 1919 



April 4, 1919 



Missouri 
Montana 



Nevada 

New Jersey . . 

New Mexico. 

North Caro- 
lina 



25.000 



100.000 



Special Note 



April 
March 



10.000 
1919 1.000.000 
50.000 



1919 



March 28, 1919 
March 26, 1919 



March 



1919 



North Dako- 
ta 



Oklahoma . . 

Oregon 

South Dakota. 



Tennessee . 
Texas 



Utah 



March 10, 1919 
March 6, 1919 



March 28, 1919 
March 4, 1919 
March 1919, 



April 16, 1919 
May 21, 1519 

March 17,1919) 



200.000 



1.000.000 



30.000 



250.000 

50.000 

100.000 

1.000.000 



25.000 
1.000.000 



To aid Federal Recla- 
tmation Service in this 
state. 

Referendum on bond 
issue. 

No appropriation in- 
dicated. 

Appropriating state 
lands. 

Conditional upon sim- 
ilar Federal legislation, 
tion. 

Necessary amount out 
of remainder of reserve 
land fund. 

Revolving fund sub- 
mitted to popular vote. 

To be drawn upon if 
necessary. 

By bond sale. 
Appropriation for- 
placement work. 

Plus half of certain 
state rentals and sales. 

Commission appoint- 
ed to report. 

Twenty - five dollar's 
per soldier per month 
in service. 

For loans to land sel- 
lers. 

Bond issue. 

No appropriation in- 
dicated. 

State credit for land 
settlers. 

Bond issue. 



IGl 



state 


Lcgislalion 
(Date approved) 


Aniouni of 

Ai>propria- 

tioii 


Special No!e 


Vermont .... 


March 28,1919 






Washington ., 


March 18, 1919 


1.050.000 


Revolvin'^ fund for 
state Reclamation Act. 




March 20,1919 


160.000 


For land settlement. 


Wisconsin . . 


Feb. 23, 1919 


— 


Commission appoinlt- 
ed to report. 


Wyoming . . . 


Feb. 28. 1919 


5.000 
200.000 


For 'loans to land set- 
tlers. 



Demand for Land by Soldiers 

The Secretary of Ihc Department of the Interior states that 
for every farm available for homestead under the reclama- 
tion laws of the United States, there are one hundred appli- 
cations from ex-service men. At least 40,000 veterans of the 
world war have attempted to get the 469 farms open to settl- 
ement on Government irrigation projects since 14 Fe- 
bruary 1920. The Department has over 187,136 enquiries 
from Ex-Service men with reference to opportunities to settle 
on Government land, and is unable to satisfy in any degree 
the (( back to the farm » craving of the Ex-Service men 
without additional legislation. 



2. — CO-OPERATIVE HOLDING OF LAXD BY 
AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 

Introduction. 

The forms of co-operation which concern rural populations 
in general and agricultural workers in particular may be di- 
vided into three classes. Each of these classes has its allotted 
work : one is concerned with the individual needs of the con- 
sumer, another with the improvement of conditions in the 
working of quite small farms, the third with the develop- 
ment of large scale farming. 

We have therefore : 

1. Consumers' Co-operative Societies in rural districts. 

2. Co-operative Societies to facilitate the working of a num- 
ber of small farms for : 



11 



— 162 — 

(a) Financing as such, undertakings on a co-operative basis 
(credit banks as on the RailTeisen system) ; 

b) The co-operative iDurchase of raw materials (manures, 
seeds, etc.) or equipment (agricultural implements and ma- 
chinery) ; 

c) The co-operative sale of i^roduce when this has been 
graded and packed, as also for the development of subsidiary 
agricultural industries such as dairies, etc. ; 

d) The co-operative use of agricultural machinery or mo- 
tive power; (threshing machines, tractors, and electric ferti- 
lisers would come under this head.) ; 

3. Co-operative Societies for large scale farming. 

In this study it is proposed to deal solely with the partic- 
ular form of co-operation, wliich directly concerns the agri- 
cultural worker as distinguished from the rural population 
as a whole, yet it may not be amiss to note that often the dif- 
ferent forms of co-operation enumerated are more or less 
closely connected. 

On the one hand, more particularly in countries where 
urban life remains undeveloped, the societies for co-operative 
purchase undertake work which is generally confined to con- 
sumers' societies — providing their members not only with 
raw materials and farm implements but also with articles of 
consumption for household use. On the other hand in sever- 
al countries co-operative credit has supplied the means of 
development of the varying forms of co-operation. 

This complexity in the activities of co-operation must be 
kept in view in attempting a study of the scope and evolution 
of large areas. 

The ^movement had its origin in Italy and has attained 
considerable importance in that country. It is known as af- 
fittanze collective (collective leasing of land). This term 
gives the impression that the system only includes the leasing 
of a piece of land by a cooperative society w*hich farms it 
as a unit. This is, however, not the case. The name «. col- 
lective leasing » is currently used to cover the whole move- 
ment irrespective of whether the land is really leased or 
whether it is bought, and whether the cooperative society 
farms it as a unit or whether it is divided into plots worked 
independently by the members. 



History of the Movement. 

The movement is now about 20 years old. The first co- 
operative farms with the exception of a few unsuccessful at- 
tempts in Lombardy were set up in the Province of Emi- 
lia. Their origin was due to the so-called « Leagues of Re- 
sistance '' which were formed in order to prevent competi- 
tion between agricultural workers, and the consequent reduc- 
tion of wages. The movement resulted in so great a rise 



_ 103 — 

in wages that it became difficult to farm land at a profit, and 
the owners preferred to lease it out to the workers for an an- 
nual rent. The workers then formed special local coope- 
rative societies which conformed with the legislation on co- 
operation, in order to farm these estates. They continued, 
however, to carry on political agitation by means of the 
« Leagues of Resistance ». 

The example of the Province of Emilia was soon followed 
in other districts. There were two circumstances which fav- 
oured the movement. In the first place, the agricultural 
workers began to realise the advantages of organised action, 
and in the second place the land owners became more and 
more disposed to support the system. The movement spread 
first to the Provinces of Ravenna, Bologna, Mantua and Mo- 
dena and later extended to all parts of Italy in wdiich large 
estates were -numerous and there was a superfluity of agricul- 
tural labour. 

As the movement spread, it also began to develop new 
forms of organisation. Not only were estates farmed as a 
unit by the co-operative societies but in some cases they were 
let out in plots to the members of the society who worked 
them independently. In this case, the aim of the w^orkers' 
co-operatives was to take the place of the middlemen who 
came between the land owner and the small farmers who 
rented plots of land, thus raising the rent without performing 
any kind of productive work. The whole movement has 
greatly developed in the last three years. This is to a large 
extent due to two decrees issued by the Government in view 
of war conditions. These were the Decree of 14 Febru- 
ary 1918 concerning agricultural mobilisation, and the Decree 
of 2 September 1919 concerning the requisitioning of unculti- 
vated or insufficiently cultivated land. They give the 
Government powders to lease out estates to workers' associa- 
tions, against rent, wdthout consent of the owners if they are 
insufficiently cultivated and consequently do not produce a 
satisfactory quantity of foodstuffs. 

As a natural consequence of this decree a large number 
of workers co-operative societies were set up to work estates 
of this kind, especially in the Provinces of Latium, Apulia, 
Calabria and Sicily. 



Various forms of co-operative farming of land in Italy. 

Estates farmed as a unit. In order to form an exact idea 
of this system of farming, it is necessary to recall the methods 
of large-scale farming in North Italy. The large estates in 
this part of the country employ two classes of workers, per- 
manent workers lodged in dwellings belonging to the estate 
and generally receiving an annual wage in cash and in 
kind, and day labourers paid by the hour who are only en- 



— 164 — 

gaged for the busy season. It must also be mentioned that 
in certain provinces a system of produce sharing by the work- 
ers is emplo3'ed for those crops which require a large amount 
of hand labour (maize, sugar-beet and tomatoes). The em- 
ployer hands over plots of land to families of workers for 
cultivation. He decides on the crop which is to be grown 
and supplies the necessary draft animals, seeds, artificial 
manures, etc. The worker and his family provide the neces- 
sary hand labour and receive in return a certain percentage 
in kind of the crojj (generally one-tliird to one-half). Except 
in the case of this particular form of contract however, the 
main characteristic of large scale farming in North Italy is 
that the land owner farms the land entirely according to 
his own idea and at his own risk. 

If an estate of this kind comes into the hands of a wor- 
kers' co-operative society, the society, generally speaking as- 
sumes the part previously played by the private employer. 
It takes over the land for a fixed rent, provides the floating 
capital, engages the necessary workers and administers the 
estate. The permanent workers and generally also the tem- 
porary workers are of course members of the co-operative 
society. The w^orkers thus receive in the first place the wage 
for whioh they contracted, and in the second place a share 
of the net profits of the undertaking. 

The manager of the co-operative society does most of the 
executive work of administration. Frequently, however, he 
appoints an expert as superintendent of the estate. This 
procedure is generally adopted when a cooperative society 
has taken over several estates. Each of these is then admin- 
istered by a specialist appointed for the purpose. The 
amount of labour required on the land depends to so great 
an extent on the season and other external circumstances 
that cooperative societies are never able to employ the same 
number of workers throughout the year. It is, therefore, re- 
garded as particularly important that the employment given 
to the individual members of the society, should be distri- 
buted as evenly as possible and in rotation. The members 
of the co-operative society are therefore generally also mem- 
bers of the above-mentioned « Leagues of Resistance ». 

If a co-operative farm has an excessive supply of labour, the 
league tries to find posts for the unemployed workers in pri- 
vate undertakings. It also obtains workers for any coope- 
rative farms which may happen to suffer from a shortage of 
labour. 

Co-operative societies generally pay their workers at the 
rates fixed by the league. Often, however, the co-operative 
society demands certain pecuniary sacrifices from its mem- 
bers. In order to place themselves on a sound financial ba- 
sis, they often make deductions of 10 to 25 per cent, from the 
wages. The employed members of the society have to allow 
this proportion of their pay to the society as a long term loan, 



— 165 — 

In other districts it has become customary for each mem- 
ber to work without pay for several days. Again, an agree- 
ment is sometimes made with tlie League that lower wages 
shall be paid on co-operative farms than in private undertak- 
ings. 

If the inembers are willing to agree to these wage reduc- 
tions, this is not only due to cooperative discipline, but also 
to the fact that, as experience has shown them, they receive 
other compensation for the lower wages in successful coope- 
rative undertakings. One of the most important considera- 
tions is that they are more regularly employed. 



Estates let out in plots. 

This form of co-operative management of land, like that 
which is described above, is largely dependent on the condi- 
tions which prevailed when the estate was taken over by the 
society. This form of organisation is most common in those 
parts of Italy where the so-called system of produce sharing 
tenancies prevails. According to this system estates are di- 
vided into a number of small plots which are handed over 
to families of agricultural workers for cultivation by a pro- 
duce sharing agreement (patto colonico). Each plot is large 
enough to keep a whole family completely employed. The 
necessary farm buildings are provided as well as a dwelling 
house. The owner thus provides the worker with the whole 
of the business capital (land and buildings) and generally 
also with animals and machinery and sometimes ever^ part 
of the floating capital. The worker on his side, gives his la- 
bour and that of his family. The produce of the farm is di- 
vided every year between the owner and the worker in a 
proportion which differs according to the district and to the 
kind of crop. In the produce-sharing system, the owner thus 
merely undertakes the administrative management of the 
estate while the technical work is carried out independently 
by the worker. If a workers' co-operative society leases or 
purchases an estate of this kind, the owner receives an an- 
nual rent for the whole of the estate, or the total purchase 
price, while the co-operative society concludes lease or pro- 
duce sharing contracts with individual families of workers. 

Co-operative farming offers particular advantages to both 
parties in districts where the produce-sharing system pre- 
vails. The land owner has to deal with a single large society 
instead of with a number of fainilies of workers. He is thus 
in a much more secure position and his calculations are 
greatly simplified. He can therefore give more favourable 
lease conditions to the organised workers. This is not, how- 
ever, the only advantage which the latter obtain. The society 
can always act as the representative of the members in cases 
where collective action appears advantgeous. It can thus un- 



— 166 — 

dertake the collective purchase of seed, artificial fertilisers, 
etc., etc., and can obtain lower prices than the individual 
workers who would only be buying small quantities. In the 
second place it can undertake the collective sale of agricul- 
tural produce, and can therefore select the most favourable 
opportunities, which the individual worker is generally un- 
able to do. Finally the cooperative societies can undertake 
the working up of produce (butter manufacture, working up 
of potatoes, etc.) and can introduce improved methods 
(threshing machines, steam power, etc.) which can onlj^ be 
applied in large scale farming. 



CO-OPERATn^ FARMING OF LATIFUNDIA. 

The term « latifundia » is not used in the present article in 
its etymological meaning only, i. e., it does not refer merely 
to large estates, but to the type of cultivation which is usual 
in this district. These estates are characterised by the most 
extreme forin of extensive cultivation. The arable lands is 
used for one or two years for corn-growing and is then left 
fallow for several years and used as natural meadow-land. 
Estates of this kind are principally to be found in South Italy 
and Sicily. In these districts the landowner hardly ever 
manages his own estate. The whole property is managed by 
an agent (gabbellotto) who generally sub-lets all the land 
which is left fallow^ each year to a cattle-owner. The part 
which is to be planted with corn is let out to workers in small 
plots of one to six hectares. Sometimes the workers pay a 
fixed rent and sometiines a proportion of the produce. They 
do all the manual work, and sometimes provide their own or 
hired draught animals. If the enormous number of workers 
who lease small plots in these districts is taken into conside- 
ration it is easy to imagine the wretched conditions under 
Avhich they live. Each worker tries to outbid the others so as 
not to remain entirely unemploj'^ed. The numerous middle- 
men, especially the gabbellotto, make enormous profits, 
while the method of cultivation is contrary to the most ele- 
mentary principles of agricultural science. The land-owner, 
the middlemen and the actual cultivator, i. e., the workman, 
all try to obtain as much as possible from the land without 
expending any money upon it. 

It is quite clear what part workers' co-operatives arc called 
upon to play in districts of this kind. It is their business to 
eliminate the middlemen. The co-operative makes contracts 
directly with the landowner or (since the Decrees of 1918 and 
1919) takes the estate on a compulsory lease in virtue of the 
decision of the prefect. In letting plots of land to its mem 
bers, it generally sees that each worker receives corn-land as 
well as meadow and gives him directions as to the crops 
which he should grow. 



— 1G7 — 

The cooperative administration of « latifundia » is thus in 
many respects similar to that of estates worked on the sys- 
tem of produce-sharing tenancy. In botli cases the middle- 
man is excluded, and in both cases the cooperative provides 
its members with plots of ground which they work for them- 
selves. These similarities are, hovewer, only superficial. In 
reality, there is considerable difference betAveen the two 
cases. In the produce-sharing system each plot is a self-con- 
tained undertaking. The worker and his family live for years 
and often for decades in one of the houses belonging to the 
estate. The whole family has a permanent residence and a 
permanent occupation. One the « latifundia » the conditions 
are quite different. In this case the plots of land only remain 
in the same hands for one year. The supply of labour is so 
excessive that even when the land is worked by a cooperative 
the members do not obtain enough land to keep the family 
entirely employed. The latter is therefore obliged to look 
for some other source of income. The worker never lives on 
his own plot, for he generally has a small piece of property 
of his own. In the produce-sharing system, the members of 
the cooperative are in reality practically independent pea- 
sant proprietors. On the « latifundia » they are a proletariat. 

In cannot be denied that even when the « latifundia » are 
managed on the co-operative system they are cultivated with- 
out regard to scientific principles of agriculture. The co- 
operatives theinselves appear to be aware of this, and a 
movement has consequently been inaugurated to allow the 
workers to continue to cultivate the same plots, to give them 
a free hand in managing the land, and thus to make a gradual 
transition to a satisfactory system of small undertakings. 



Unions of cooperatives. 

It is obvious that in producers', as in all other forms of 
cooperation, some collaboration between the various co- 
operative societies is necessary. This is particularly 
desirable in view of technical considerations. The indivi- 
dual cooperative undertakings have not sufficient funds at 
their disposal to pay managing officials with the necessary 
expert knowledge. Moreover, the sphere of action for staff 
of this kind would be too small if they only had to manage 
individual undertakings. On the other hand, it is extremely 
important that the undertakings should be managed by ex- 
perts. This is not only demanded by the workers themselves, 
but also by the creditors of the cooperative societies, espe- 
cially the landowners and the various credit institutions. 
Unions of cooperatives have therefore been established in 
the various provinces in order to take combined action in 
this matter. Unions for this purpose have been founded in 
Reggio d'Emilia, Bologno, Milan, Modena and Trapani. In 



— 168 — 

other cases a different solution has been adopted. Already- 
existing unions of cooperatives (e. g., of consumers' coope- 
ratives), have established special sections for agricultural 
coo[)eration. Examples are to be found in Ravenna, Palma, 
Ferrara, Cremona, Venice, etc. These unions and sections 
undertake various activities. In addition to providing qual- 
ified staft' for the societies which form part of the union, 
they carry out a large amount of work in auditing accounts 
and bookkeeping. Frequently they lease new estates for 
the union as a whole. In some cases, in Ravenna, Bologna, 
Reggio, Cremona and Milan, the unions even rent estates in 
their own names and then sub-let them to local cooperatives. 
This procedure obviously gives more reliable guarant.^es to 
the landowners, who therefore prefer to deal with unions. 
The unions also attempt to obtain credit for the societies 
which belong to them and support them in all operations of 
purchase and sale. The most far-reaching action in this re- 
spect has been taken by the Union of Reggio d'Emilia. This 
union is attempting to forin a single cooperative for the 
whole province. The local cooperatives which exist at pre- 
sent are to be transformed into subordinate branches of the 
provincial cooperative society and are to be inanaged on a 
uniform system. It cannot be denied that this system would 
be particularly efficacious in securing the advantages of co- 
operative action, particularly as regards the employment of 
expert staff. 

The provincial unions, on their part, are of course anxious 
to cooperate with one another. For this purpose a « Natio- 
nal Federation of Agricultural Co-operative Societies » was 
founded at Bologna in 1918 in the form of a cooperative 
joint stock company with unlimited capital. This federa- 
tion is one of the three branches of the « National League of 
Cooperatives » of Milan, the other two being the « National 
Federation of Labour Cooperatives » and the « National Con- 
sortium of Consumers' Co-operatives ». As far as economic 
action is concerned, the object of this organisation is the 
encouragement of co-operative leasing by agricultural work- 
ers throughout Italy. It intervenes in particular where the 
local co-operatives are not strong enough to start a move- 
ment of this kind. The National Federation also attempts 
to facilitate the supply of credit to co-operative* and in gene- 
ral supports the individual societies in every possible way. 
It also deals with agricultural insurance. The National 
Federation, however, undertakes political as well as econo- 
mic action. It therefore maintains close relations with the 
« National Federation of Land Workers » and only accepts 
co-operatives as members which also belong to the latter 
Federation. In 1919, the « National Federation of Agricultu- 
ral Cooperative Societies » included 114 cooperatives. It 
also maintained more or less close relations with numerous 
co-operatives which were still in the stages of development 



— 169 — 

The societies which belong to the « National Federation » 
administered 27,071 hectares in 1919. Of this area 3,670 hec- 
tares belonged to the societies and 23,401 were leased. 



Credit. 

The extension of the co-operative farming of land by agri- 
cultural workers is to a large extent a question of credit. 
The funds at the disposal of members are in almost all cases 
much too small for the financing of the undertaking. The 
business capital of the co-operative is therefore necessarily 
very small. The accumulation of a reserve fund out of 
profits is not in normal circumstances a slow^ business and 
cannot produce any important effect for some years. If an 
undertaking which is still in its early stages is not to be liable 
to bankruptcy in the case of a bad harvest, the co-operative 
society must be able to obtain large credits. This naturally 
depends on the degree of security which the undertakings 
can offer to their creditors. Several Acts and Decrees have 
been passed with a view to facilitating the obtaining of credit 
by farmers. The Act of 23 January, 1887 provides for the 
granting of special credit to farmers on the security of the 
already harvested crops, etc., in the possession of the farmer. 
The credit obtainable from this source was, however, not 
sufficient for the increasing needs of the farmers. On 8 Octo- 
ber, 1916 a Decree of the Lieutenant-General of the kingdom 
was therefore issued according to which agricultural produ- 
cers' co-operative societies could raise loans on the security 
of crops which were still in the ground. Special provisions 
are laid down to bring this Act into harmony with Article 
1958 of the Italian Civil Code which lays down that the pro- 
duce of land wdiich has been leased out by the owner shall 
serve as security for the rent. This source of credit was 
further developed by the Order of 8 May, 1917 which pro- 
vides special credit facilities for the cultivation of cereals. 

In order to regulate the question of credit for co-opera- 
tives in a uniform manner for all branches of the co-opera- 
tive movement, the « National Co-operative Credit Institu- 
tion )), with its headquarters in Rome, has been set up in 
accordance with the Royal Decree of 15 August, 1913 with the 
collaboration of several co-operative credit organisations C). 

This Institute is the principal source from which the agri- 
cultural workers' co-operatives obtain credit. In 1919 the 
Institute granted 37,228,880 lire as credit to agricultural co- 
operative societies and in 1920 56,605,045 lire. The latter 
sum included in round figures 5,000,000 lire for guarantees, 



(1) The following information is taken fi"om the Business Report submitted to tlie 
members by the Management of the National Credit Institute on 30 Marcli, 1921 
(published in Rome, 11121). 



— 170 — 

7,000,000 for the purchase of dead stock, 29,000,000 for the 
purchase of live-stock, 5,500,000 for the purchase of seed, etc., 
and 10,000,000 for wages. This credit was used by about 
820 co-operatives with about 137,000 members and by about 
22 Universita agrarie with 185,000 members. The area of 
land involved was roughly 100,000 hectares, of which 
15,000 were the property of the co-operatives, while the rest 
was rented. If the Universita agrarie del Lazio is included, 
the above figure must be increased by 121,000 hectares. The 
total figures for 1920 are therefore 221,000 hectares as com- 
pared with 147,000 in 1919, of which 117,000 were managed 
by the Universita agrarie. 



Estates administered by co-operative societies. 

The co-oiDcrative management of estates by agricultural 
workers is still in process of development. It is therefore 
difficult to give exact statistics concerning the movement, 
which is growing so rapidly that the published figures soon 
become out of date. It has, for example, already been stated 
that the amount of land managed by co-operative societies 
and obtaining credit from the National Credit Institute in 
1921 rose in the course of the year 1920 from 30,000 to 
100,000 hectares, an increase of more than 200 per cent. It 
is therefore impossible to say exactly how much land is at 
present farmed in this way in Italy. In order to form a 
rough estimate, it may, however, be mentioned that Mr. Ver- 
gani, in an article entitled « General Survey of the Co-opera- 
tive Movement in Italy » (Bulletin Co-operatif National, 
June, 1921, p. 14), reckons the total area at 200,000 hectares. 
It is of the greatest importance for the growth of the move- 
ment that the co-operative societies should be able to obtain 
sufficient land at a suitable price or rent. Most of the land 
wiiich is at present farmed by the co-operatives has been 
obtained by free contracts with private individuals. The 
co-operatives are, however, attempting- to obtain as much 
public land as possible. In many cases they have taken over 
the property of public welfare institutions. This, however 
involves certain difficulties. The welfare institutions natur- 
ally try to obtain a high rent in order to devote the proceeds 
to the charitable purposes which they serve, while the labour 
co-operatives are obliged to press for low rents. The Decree 
of 4 August, 1918, « laying down regulations for the renting 
of arable land belonging to public bodies by legally consti- 
tuted co-operative societies was of great importance as 
regards the obtaining of land. According to this Decree, 
public estates may be leased to labour co-operative societies 
which must receive preference if they make the same offers 
as other intending purchasers in public auction. The maxi- 
mum period for the lease is 9 years, but it may be renewed 



— 171 — 

if the society manages the estate in a satisfactory way. Ano- 
ther measure of great importance to the co-operatives was 
the Decree of 2 September, 1919, which was referred to 
above. This is the Decree providing for the coinpulsory 
leasing of uncultivated or insufficiently cultivated land to 
co-operative societies. It was originally provided that this 
measure should only remain in force until 31 December, 1920. 
This period was, however, prolonged on 20 April, 1920 until 
30 September, 1921. 

The legislation which has hitherto been mentioned wa? 
intended to facilitate tlie leasing of land by co-operative 
societies. The Decrees of 14 July 1918, 22 April 1920 and 
7 June 1920 on the other hand facilitate the purchase of land 
by co-operatives, P'or this purpose, agricultural credit sec- 
tions are to be formed in the Istitiito Nazionale di Credito 
per la cooperazione and the Banco di Sicilia. The State 
encourages the purchase of land by co-operatives by remit- 
ting various dues and taxes and also by allowing credit to 
the extent of 80 per cent, of the value (*). 

The question of security for the purchase of land is connect- 
ed with the manner in which it is to be administered by the 
co-operatives. It is, of course, not yet possible to give an 
exhaustive answ^er to this question. In theory, the co-opera- 
tives can introduce intensive forms of cultivation. Intensive 
cultivation involves the employment of more labour, and as 
one of the aims of the co-operative system is to combat agri- 
cultural unemployment, it is doubly desirable that it should 
farm its land on the most intensive system possible. Certain 
figures concerning methods of cultivation are to be found 
in the above-mentioned report of the Istitiito di Credito for 
1920, though these figures are only of a general character. 
The report states that in the year in question the following 
crops Avere grown on the 100,000 hectares fanned by the co- 
operatives which received credit from the Institution : 
cereals, 31,500 hectares ; rice and maize, 14,300 hectares ; 
industrial plants, such as sugar, beet, potatoes, tomatoes, etc., 
fodder and wine, about 54,200 hectares. The use of an indef- 
inite term such as « fodder » (forraggere) side by side with 
intensive crops such as sugar-beet and tomatoes, makes it 
impossible to form any reliable estimate from the above 
figures of the amount of land which was cultivated on the 
intensive system. The statistics show, however, that at least 
two-thirds of the land must have been cultivated on the inten- 
sive system. The comparatively small proportion devoted 
to cereals (31.5 per cent.) is perhaps due to the fact that rela- 
tively low maximum prices for these products were fixed in 
the year in question. 



(1) M. Saniogio : " La proijrieta terriera delle cooperative " in Uie rivlsta della 
cooperazione. i'-ebruary, 1921, p. 58. 



Conclusion. 

It is too soon to form a final estimate of the value of co- 
operative farming in Italy. It has already been pointed out 
that the movement is still in process of development. It is 
only since the war that the co-operatives have been in pos- 
session of sufficient land to form a basis for generalisations. 
It will, however, be several years before any general idea of 
the effects of the movement can be formed, particularly from 
the economic point of view. A few years' normal work will 
show whether the estates are sufficiently profitable from the 
point of view of their owners and whether they produce a 
sufficient yield from the point of view of public economy. 
From the social point of view, however, it is already possible 
to recognise the beneficial effect of this form of co-operation. 
There is no doubt that it has eliminated the unproductive 
profits of a large number of middlemen, that it involves 
increased employment of labour per unit of area, thus com- 
batting agricultural unemployment, and that it provides the 
agricultural proletariat with an object for their work which 
cannot fail to have an excellent moral effect. Again, it is 
the only method by which large masses of the population can 
be placed in possession of land without the loss of the tech- 
nical advantages of large scale farming. 

It would be interesting to know how far this movement, 
which grew up in Italy under peculiar conditions, could be 
applied in other countries. The only place where serious 
attempts of this kind were made before the war was Rou- 
mania. The circumstances which led to the movement were 
in many respects similar to those in Italy. In 1912 about 
56.4 per cent., of the large estates of Roumania were leased 
out. The land was in most cases leased by small peasant 
proprietors who, however, obtained land through middlemen. 
One of the chief objects of the action of the co-operatives was 
to eliminate these middlemen. With the assistance of the 
State and other public bodies the movement achieved con- 
siderable success. As, however, the new agrarian legislation 
of Roumania to a large extend automatically abolishes the 
activity of middlemen in the renting of land, it will be pos- 
sible to see whether the co-operative movement was merely 
the means of defence against exploitation or whether it really 
corresponds to the character of the rural population and 
therefore whether the movement will continue to develop 
without external stimulus. 

The advantages of this form of co-operation are, however, 
so great from the theoretical point of view that they have 
been adopted in the agrarian programme of many States 
which are considering the modification of their social struc- 
ture. Mention may here be made of the Czecho-Slovak Act 
of 30 January, 1920 concerning the partitioning of large 



— 173 — 

estates which have been expropriated. Paragraph 1 ot this 
Act expressly states that the Land Office may hand over land 
to associations of small farmers or of agricultural and fores- 
try workers as well as to agricultural and consumers' co- 
operative societies. Paragraph IV lays down that the above- 
mentioned associations shall only receive land if their solo 
object is « the collective farming of land », and further if « all 
the members are employed in agricultural work, handicraft 
or work of maintenance on the land in question ». Para- 
graph XV of the Act provides for the leasing of expropriated 
land by co-operatives, while the Act concerning credit of 
11 March, 1920 provides for the necessary assistance for the 
purchase of land. 

In the same way the Esthonian Agrarian Act of 10 Octo- 
ber 1919, provides in Section IV, paragraph XVj that the State 
shall grant land to workers' co-operatives for collective culti- 
vation. The Polish Land Office has also taken action in this 
respect. It thus cannot be doubted that the co-operative 
farming of land by agricultural workers is at the present 
time regarded in many countries as one of the principal solu- 
tions for the problem of the agricultural worker. The 
coming years will show to what extent this hope is well 
founded. 



Sources. 

Le Affitanze coUettive in Italia, published by the Federazione 
Nazionale Delle Cooperative Agricole, Bologna, 1920. 

// Movimento Cooperativo in Italia, published by Uffico Sta- 
tistico Delle Lega Nazionale Delle Cooperative. 

Dr. Pio Benassi, Affittanze CoUettive, Turin. 

Dr. Pio Benassi, Affittanze CoUettive, Turin. 

Dr. Serpieri and Dr. Mami, Les Fermages Collectifs en Italie, 
et en particulier les fermages collectifs de braccianti. 
Bulletin des Institutions Economiques et Sociales, Sep- 
tember, 1913, p. 17. 

Les organisations ouvrieres catholiques en Italie, Bull. d. Inst. 
Ec. et Soc, August, 1912. 

Les fermages collectifs, Bull. d. Inlst. Ec. et Soc, May, 1918, 
p. 384. 

Istituto Nazionale di Credito, Compte rendu par la Coopera- 
zione, 1919 and 1920. 

Les fermages collectifs en Roumanie, Bull. d. Inst. Ec. et Soc, 
1914, July, p. 40. 

International Year Book of Agricultural Legislation, 1915, 
1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, published by the International Agri- 
cultural Institute, Rome. 



174 — 



8. — INTENSIFIED AND DIVERSIFIED AGRICULTURE 



The type of farming practised in any given area, whether 
extensive or intensive, diversilicd or specialised, determines 
very largely the amount of labour required and the regularity 
of its employment and so has an important bearing ou employ- 
ment in agriculture. Many factors, however, enter into what 
type or types of farming shall be undertaken in any country, 
or section of a country. Climate, soil and topography, trans- 
portation, markets, land values, supply and character of 
labour, availability of capital, fertilisers, the presence or ab- 
sence of weeds, insects and diseases, personal factors includ- 
ing technical knowledge, standard of intelligence, etc., all 
to a greater or lesser extent are responsible for the nature of 
the crops produced on a given area, whether they are abun- 
dant or poor, whether one or many. 

Systems of farming that imply intensive working of the 
land call for the use of more labour and from the stand point 
of agricultural employment therefore may be considered to 
have advantages over extensive agriculture for those coun- 
tries which have a surplus of labour, while diversified farm- 
ing, which very frequently involves the keeping of stock, 
by increasing the number of crops, is generally thought to 
be preferable to specialised farming as it makes for a wider 
distribution of work throughout the year and by reducing 
the seasonable demand for labour tends to regularise em- 
ployment. 

Government have generally recognised the value of inten- 
sifying and diversifying agriculture, althrough more frequent- 
ly from the standpoint of production tham of employment. 
Even in the more sparsely settled countries stock raisers have 
been encouraged to become grain growers and grain growers 
also to become stock raisers in order to make for the greater 
stabilisation of agriculture. Government action, however, has 
very largely taken the form of providing financial assistance 
to farmers and diffusing scientific agricultural knowledge. 

In England under the Corn Production Act of 1917, and 
in a more modified form, under the Agriculture Act of 1920, 
to some extent provision was made for more intensive agri- 
culture and indirectly for increased employment by provid- 
ing that « the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, if in any 
case they are of opinion : 

a) that any land is not being cultivated according to 

the rules of good husbandry ; or 

b) that for the purpose of increasing in the national 

interest the production of food, the mode of culti- 
vating any land or the use to which any land is 
being put should be changed ; 



— 175 — 

may serve notice on the occupier of llie land requiring him 
to cultivate the land in accordance with such directions as 
the Board may give for securing that the cultivation shall 
be according to the rules of good husbandry or for securing 
the necessary change in the mode of cultivating or in the use 
of the land. » 

In Italy the Landworkers' Unions under the claim of in- 
tensifying agriculture have attempted though collective agree- 
ments to stabilize and regularise employment by inserting 
clauses in their agreements to ensure a fixed ration between 
the area of a farm and the number of men employed on it. 

Thus an agreement concluded in February 1920 in the pro- 
vince of Reggio Emilia stipulates that the employers must 
ensure to each of the organised labourers a maximum of 
250 and a minimum of 140 days of work in a year, and that 
every farmer must, on an average, employ one person on 
from five to ten hiolche (1) of cultivated land, the members of 
his own family wdio are over fourteen years of age counting as 
employed persons. An amended form of the Milanese agree- 
ment contains the clause that every farmer must engage to 
employ during the current year one male labourer over four- 
teen years of age, paid by the day or year, for every culti- 
vated area of from 40 to 50 Milanese pertiche (2) which he 
holds. The local Commissioni di Avviamento (Committees 
for facilitating employment) are responsible for seeing to 
the enforcement of the clause. The small produce-sharing 
tenants (coloni) of the Upper Milanese may retain one able 
man for every 30 pertiche they hold, but the other members 
of their family are regarded as casual labourers having a 
right to employment. There is a similar agreement as to a 
ratio between area and the labour employed in the province 
of Ferrara. In that of Parma a perfect's decree of 14 July 
1919 allows mayors to make, on the advice of a special com- 
mission, a compulsory order for the increase of cultivation 
and for the hiring of labour. Advantage has been taken of tliis 
to employ one man for every 12 hiolche, those of second-class 
farms one man for every 15 hiolche, those of third-class farms 
one man for 18 hiolche (3). 



4. _ SUPPLEMENTARY EMPLOYMENT 
FOR AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 

Among the remedies for agricultural unemployment which 
are best known and most frequently recommended is the pro- 
curing of suppleinentary employment. This may take various 

(1) One biolca of Reggio Emilia equals approximately 3/4 acre. 

(2) One Milanese perlica equals approximately 1/5 aero. 

(3) The Eight Hour l)av in Italian Agriculture — Studies and Reports, Series K. 
No. 4., December 1920, International Labour Office, Geneva. 



— 176 — 

forms, among which the following are the most conspicuous : 

(1) Industrial work. 

(2) Agricultural work. 

(3) Public works. 

(4) Home work. 

(5) Rural industries. 

Nothing is more natural in times of crisis than to endea- 
vour to transport agricultural workers temporarily without 
employment to the neighbouring town or factory where 
certain tasks are to be found which require no special quali- 
fication, such as work in gas-works, the manufacture of 
sugar; and certain carting operations, all of which are avail- 
able just at the time when work in the fields is suspended. 

Nothing is more legitimate than to consider the undertak- 
ing of public works, especially land improvements such as 
draining, clearing and irrigation which will increase the area 
of cultivatable land, at the moment when so many hands are 
more or less regularly unemployed. 

Nothing would appear to be more economic than to bring 
agricultural products nearer to the establishments in which 
they are adapted for the market, and by that means to give 
work to the agricultural labourer who is so often unem- 
ployed. 

Finally, mothing could be inore desirable than to furnish 
the small peasant proprietor and his wife during the long 
winter months of idleness wdth home employement in the 
clothing or weaving industry, or in one of the thousand other 
small handicrafts which do not require a costly plant, the 
acquisition and renewal of which necessitates a permanent 
and sustained industrial activity. 

Public administrations, legislators, philanthropists, and 
manufacturers, therefore, in various parts of the world have 
endeavoured to introduce such supplementary employments. 

Thousands of experiments which it is impossible to des- 
cribe in detail have been made in all countries, and it may 
almost be said that there is no country or region in which 
attempts have not been made to create or re-establish indus- 
trial activity in rural districts. 

In some places these attempts have met with real success, 
and public attention has been strongly attracted to these 
questions. 

This discussion, however, has not resulted in a unanimous 
conviction as to the desirability of home-work in the country. 
Its practicability and utility are still sharply debated both 
in philanthropic circles and among the persons interested. 

Congresses on home work and on the rural exodus, Agricul- 
tural Workers' and Employers' Conferences, Conservative 
and Socialist gatherings, have examined the question in all 
its bearings without coming to an agreement or a really satis- 



— 177 



factory solution of all these questions which appear to be so 
simple, as well as so urgent, but which in reality raise social 
problems of the utmost gravity. 



The agricultural worker who enters a factory established 
in his village almost inevitably becomes transformed into an 
industrial worker. The shorter hours of work, the compara- 
tively high wages, and the greater liberty which he enjoj^s, 
the hostility of employers to arbitrary absences, and their 
desire to maintain a regular production, almost always pre- 
vent the effective combination of agricultural and industrial 
occupations. The worker in the village factory, formerly em- 
ployed on the land, is almost always satisfied after a few 
years with the cultivation of a few square metres of land by 
his own labour, and increasingly neglects the work of agri- 
cultural production properlj' so callrod. He may, however, 
return to such work in case of need, and the separation 
between the land and its inhabitant is not complete. 

Still more certainly does the countryman who leaves the 
village to engage in an industrial occupation in a town aban- 
don agricultural life, Fron the moment that he departs and is 
separated from his own people and their life, he quickly 
becomes accustomed to the wages, the companions, the inde- 
pendence and the pleasures of the town, and it is very diffi- 
cult to lead him back to the country which he has left. 

If it is desired to secure that the agricultural worker 
employed in the town shall eventually return to the country, 
and successively engage in industrial and agricultural work, 
the important thing is not to uproot him, but to enable him 
to remain settled on the land while working in the town. For 
this purpose he must continue to live on his farm, and the 
return to agricultural work is thus intimately connected with 
the effective organisation of transport. Is this possible ? 

It would appear that it is, and the Belgian experiments in 
this direction are very interesting. Among the elements which 
facilitate the solution of the problem of unemployment in 
that country, particular importance must be attached to the 
numerous bonds wdiich exist between industry and agricul- 
ture as regards the employment of labour. A great many 
industrial workers are employed in Awards, factories, and 
mines during the winter months, and on the land in the 
summer. A still greater number, whilst almost permanently 
employed in industry, continue to live in the country, and are 
thus enabled to cultivate a piece of land attached to their 
house, and occasionally to engage in more regular agricul- 
tural work in case of unemployment in industry. 

This organisation is facilitated on the one hand by the 
smallness of the territory in proportion to the number of its 
inhabitants, and on the other by the institution of special 
workers' season tickets on the railways at extremely reduced 

12 



— 178 — 

rates (1). A weekly season ticket often costs less than an ordi- 
nary ticket for a single journey. 

The number of these season tickets issued had increased 
before the war with remarkable rapidity, 14,223 in 1870, 
355.556 in 1880, 1,882,415 in 1890, 4,590,980 in 1900, and more 
than six millions in 1910. The tickets being renewable every 
week, it is impossible to deduce from these figures the exact 
number of workers who use them. In 1908, however, the 
number was estimated at 325,000, or one-fifth of the working 
population in Belgium. After the war, workers' season 
tickets were resumed. 

It has been proved that this system maintains between rural 
workers attracted by industry and their place of origin the 
powerful bond of home which facilitates the alternative em- 
ployment of the same werker in a factory and on the land. 
But for the workers' season tickets in fact, the rural exodus 
by completely uprooting the rural worker, might have had 
serious consequences for agriculture. 

The growth of this system of workmen's trains was gene- 
rally considered in Belgium as one of the elements which had 
made it possible for agriculture to remain so much alive in 
an industrial country, and which furnished the Belgian 
industrial population with the means of resisting industrial 
crises better perhaps than in any other country, In times of 
unemployment, thousands of masons, miners, dockers, wea- 
vers and labourers of all kinds, who go to work in the towns 
during periods of activity, remain in the villages where unem- 
ployment is less rigorous and there is always some work to be 
done, leaving the diminished industrial occupation which 
remains available for the town workers. 

The comparative mildness of crises of industrial unem- 
ployment in Belgium, and the elasticity with which the popu- 
lation resumes productive work when industry once more 
becomes active, has often been attributed to this cause. 



In spite of all the precautions which may be taken the 
development of industrial employment among agricultural 
workers has nevertheless very often the effect of producing 
a rural exodus. 

The same danger does not exist with the employment of 
agricultural workers in supplementary work in connection 
with agriculture itself, particularly in forests in which many 
tasks may be carried on at times when other agricultural 
work is suspended. The countries in which forests are suffi- 
ciently extensive for this purpose are not, however, nume- 
rous. Nevertheless it is possible in many regions to develop 



(I) lirnest Maiiaim. Les abonnemi'nts d'ouvriers sur les lignes de cheinins de 
fer beiges et leurs effets .sociaiix. Brussels 1910. 



— 179 — 

lliciii at the expense of uncultivated lands, and the policy of 
af forestation, whether regarded as temporary relief work or 
as regular and permanent work, appears to be one of the 
means least open to criticism for ensuring supplementary 
work to agricultural workers. 

Certain countries have also adopted on a considerable 
scale a policy of public works as a remedy for unemployment 
in agriculture. 

This is the classic remedy for unemployment in Italy. 

In the agricultural districts in which unemployment is par- 
ticularly prevalent, the Government or the Local Authorities 
veiy often organise or subsidise public works, either for the 
improvement of uncultivated land, and the consequent per- 
manent increase of the quantity of w'ork available in the 
district, or at least for giving emplojanent to labour which 
is for the moment idle. 

The frequency with which such public works have been 
ordered has l>een alleged to constitute a certain danger. Their 
effect is said to be that in some cases superabundance of agri- 
cultural workers are enabled to maintain themselves in over- 
populated country districts by supplementing their scanty 
agricultural earnings with the higher wages which they earn 
on the public works. 

•Some agricultural labourers, preferring the public works 
to agricultural labour, have even developed a tendency to 
abandon their habitual employment and to adopt as their 
trade the chance work which may be decreed by the Govern- 
ment. In order to remedy this abuse, the Italian Minister of 
Public works issued instructions at the beginning of 1921 by 
virtue of which the unskilled labour required for the execu- 
tion of public relief works may onh^ be recruited among 
persons who have been unemployed for a certain period, and 
the wages must not be higher than those of the lowest paid 
agricultural labourers. 

In spite of these and other similar criticisms, the policy 
of public works continues to be recommended in Italy. The 
new Prime Minister, Mr. Bonomi, in his inaugural speech on 
the 17 July 1921 indicated the importance which he attached 
to the organisation, as a means of remedjdng unemployment, 
of public works on a large scale, in the front rank of which 
he placed irrigation, canalisation, and other work connected 
with agriculture. The Federation of Land Workers also 
continues to demand the development of public works which 
it regards as the most efficacious practical means for reme- 
dying unemployment. It reaffirmed this principle on the 
26 and 27 July 1921 at its special Congress relating to unem- 
plo^Tuent. It attributed the recent growth of unemployment 
lo the delaj'^ in carrying out public works, and it recom- 
mended the following programme in connection with such 
works : adoption of an extensive scheme for the organisation 
of i)ublic works of economic advantage to the countiw and 
capable of employing a large number of persons, provision 



— 180 — 

of the credits necessary for this object, the 500 millions 
actually provided being considered altogether insufficient, 
the constitution of a coordinating Commission in which the 
Trade Unions should be represented, the assignment of 
works to be executed preferentially to Workers' Coopera- 
tive Societies. 



Finally as regards supplementary home work, its social 
value is the subject of controversy, and it certainly seems 
that on the whole industrial progress has so far tended rather 
to its elimination than to its development. Spinning, the great 
rural industry of former times, has, together with many other 
local industries once successfully carried on at home, com- 
pletely disappeared. Lace-making and hand-weaving appear 
to be in full decline, and the new handicrafts which it has 
been attempted to substitute for them, such as basket-weav- 
ing, and certain other special industries, do not appear to 
be of a nature to restore the situation which existed in the 
country when almost every house possessed its spinning 
wheels, distaffs, or other instruments by which the peasant 
and his family, were able to supplement the meagre product of 
their fields. At the present time the forms of home work wdiit^h 
are still in active operation in country districts are rather an 
extension of the clothing industries of the town, and in them 
it is very often by reductions on the town scale of wages and a 
competition which the town workers consider unfair, that 
the countryman endeavours to attract to his home, which is 
not subject to regulation and inspection, work which has hi- 
therto been carried on in town factories to which such regu- 
lation and inspection apply. 

These abuses against which Workiers' Congresses have 
strongly protested, are, however, far from being general, and 
in many cases home work constitutes a genuine remedy for 
unemployment in agriculture. 

But the sphere of action of such work appears in any case 
to be very limited. 



A measure which has also been recommended in recent 
times is the establishment of rural industries which would 
bring the agricultural worker into touch with industrial un- 
dertakings in which he might find employment during periods 
of slackness in agriculture, while still remaining an agricul- 
tural worker during the period of active work in the fields. 

In some countries schemes of this kind have been received 
with approval, both by employers and workers. 

This is the case particulary in France. On the employers' 
side the Directive Committee of the French Society for the 
protection of agricultural labour (Societe Francaise de pro- 



— 181 — 

tection de la main-d'ceuvre agricole), in considering the Ques- 
tionnaire preparatory to the Conference, dechircd that there 
was good reason for « recommending the development and 
establishment of large and small rural industries for the 
transformation of agricultural products, while opposing the 
establishment of industries likely to absorb the agricultural 
labour which should be available for work on the land (1) ». 

On the workers' side the report presented to the 1920 Con- 
gress of the National Federation of Agricultural Workers 
(Federation nationale des travailleurs agricolcs) contained 
the following lines : 

« We also see in the restoration of certain rural industries 
and the creation of certain others a powerful means for uti- 
lising at certain periods of the year the labour which cannot 
be employed in the work of cultivation. Starch-making, dis- 
tilling, the transformation on the spot of certain products 
of the soil, such as potatoes and beetroot, maj^ be considered 
as types of industries which would ensure the greatest advan- 
tages both to the worker and the owner. The former, incur- 
ring no expense in reaching his place of work, while the 
work itself offers greater security, would be placed in a con- 
dition approximating that of the town worker. The latter, 
having to incur only very small expense in the transport of 
the products to be elaborated, would be able to produce more 
cheaply, while the vast products of the industry could 
be utilised with advantage on the surrounding farms. In cer- 
tain districts the establishment of workshops for the making 
of baskets and other basket-work objects might employ a 
considerable number of persons during the periods of agri- 
cultural unemployment. In the neighbourhood of forests, a 
variety of industries might be established, saw-mills, work- 
shops for the making of wooden shoes, carved wood and 
turned wood articles, toys of all kinds, industries which were 
formerly fairly prosperous, and the disappearance of which 
has made us dependent on foreigners for a great number of 
articles ». 

The Congress consequently passed a Resolution declaring 
that « in order to obviate the long periods of unemployment 
to which workers on the land are subject, it is absolutely 
necessary to create and develop small rural industries ». 

But here also the importance of the remedy must not be 
exaggerated. If rural industries offer indubitable advantages, 
they also have their disadvantages. The agricultural worker, 
if he is to maintain his interest in agriculture, will never be 
anything but an intermittent worker in industry, difficult to 
train to the same degree of efficiency as the town worker. 
Moreover, the principal consideration which has induced 
manufacturers to establish their works in country districts 
has often been the desire to obtain rough labour which will 



(1) La Main-d'CEiivre Aijrirole. May 1!»21. 



— 182 — 

make up by its cheapness and docility for its lack of skill and 
the slowness and irregularity of its work. 

Finally it must be remembered that in this case also the 
success of rural industries generally leads to the rapid trans- 
formation of the agricultural worker into an industrial wor- 
ker, and that the supplemental industry quickly becomes a 
principal industry. 



Under these conditions, while the measures taken for devel- 
oping supplementary industrial work among agricultural 
workers are of great interest, and the real success of certain 
efforts must be recognised, it is difficult to adopt uniform 
conclusions for all countries in a matter in which private ini- 
tiative has already done so much that there is no urgent 
necessity for Government action the prohable results of which 
do not appear very certain. Most of the Governments ques- 
tioned have, moreover, expressed similar opinions. 

A statement as follows from the government of Norway is 
of interest in this connection. 

« Domestic handicrafts and home industries, which form- 
erly were ver\' generally pursued in the rural districts, 
have of late decreased very much, as a result of the increasing 
supply of cheap factory goods. The great rise in prices dur- 
ing the war has, however, had the effect of stimulating the 
interest in domestic handicrafts and organised efforts have 
also been begun for promoting the home industries properly 
so-called, for which our country with its abundance of elec- 
trical power is well suited. 

In recognition of the fact that domestic handicrafts and 
home industries will be of great importance in procuring for 
the smallholders occupation in their homes at a time when 
they cannot work on the land, the State affords support to 
these industries, partly by means of cheap loans for the pro- 
curing of machines, and partly by the training of teachers 
and holding of courses in the rural districts. There have 
lately been established two state schools, partly for general 
instruction in domestic handicrafts and partly for the trai- 
ning of teachers in domestic handicrafts and home indus- 
tries. 

The movement, as far as regards the State support of home 
industries, is of quite recent date, but its is hoped that the 
development in this sphere of activity will proceed rapidly 
and will contribute to the improvement of the economic situa- 
tion of the smallholders. » 



CHAPTER III 

PKOTECTION OF WOMEN AND CHILDKEN 



A. — PROTECTION OF WOMEN BEFORE AND AFTER 
CHILDBIRTH 



The fact that a Dumber of countries have already made 
legislative provision for the protection of women before and 
after childbirth by generaJ health insurance laws etc. has a 
necessary effect upon their attitude toward the extension to 
agricultural employees of the Washington Convention which 
applies only to women in industry. 

How far such legislation is already in operation may be 
judged by the following table : 



— 184 



Outline of system by 

^\lli(■h benefits are 

secured 


This grant is ma- 
de from Common- 
weath funds to eve- 


42 
^« 



G -^ 


Compulsory sick- 
ness insurance con- 
tributions paid part- 
ly by einployer,part- 
ly by worker and 
partly by the State. 




The funds are 
raised by charity, 
communal rates 
and subv e nt i n s 
from the Depart- 
ments and the Sta- 
te. The relief is ad- 
mi nistr altered chie- 
fly by the commu- 
nal authorities. The 
nursing bonus un- 
der the Act of 1919 
is paid entirely by 
the State. 








If a woman 
is unfit for 
work before 

confinement 
or more than 
4 weeks after, 
she can claim 
sickness l)ene- 
fit at the rate 
of 7 sh. 6 d. 


3- 


Before con- 
fi n e m ent on 
production of 
medical certi- 
ficate of unfit- 
ness for work. 
After confine- 
ment for 4 
weeks. Not 
more than 8 
weeks altoge- 
ther. 


X. 






Married women receive 
40sh. from their hus- 
band's insurance and 
40sh. from their own, or 
2 benefits of 40sh. each 
from their own insuran- 
ce if the husband is not 
insured. Unmarried mo- 
thers receive 40sh. from 
their own insurance. 




(1-4). Fixed in each 
commune by the commu- 
nal council but must not 
be less than fr. 50 a day 
or more than fr. 1.50 un- 
less the commune pays 
the extra itself exclusi- 
vely. 

(5) A woman nursing 
her child is entitled to a 
nursing bonus of an ad- 
ditional 15 fr. during the 
12 months after the birth. 
Paid by the State. 


X 

■3 


during which 

Knijiloymeut is 

pidliibited before 

or after 

confincuienl 


No restric- 
tion for agri- 
cultural woik. 




No restric 
lion for agri- 
cultural work 




No restric 
lion for agri- 
cultural work. 


5" 
■L 


-3 "2 

« 2 

BO 3 

? >. 
" 

3-7; 

S 




All employments 
with a few specified 
exceptions. 




Frenchwomen wi 
thout means habi- 
tually employed by 
others at a wage 
either as workers, 
employees or domes- 
tic servants. 


a 
1 « 


Australia. 

Act of 10 October 
1912 (/?). 




Great Britain. 

{!) National Insu- 
ranee Acts 
1911-18. 

<2) Maternity and 
Child Welfare 
Act 1918. 

(3) National 
Health Insu- 
rance Act 20 
May 1920 (a). 


France. 

(1) Act of 17 June 

1913 (c). 

(2) Finance Act of 

30 July 1913 
id). 

(3) Circular of 15 
Aug. 1913. 

(4) Decree of 17 
D e" c le m b e r 
1913 (c). 

(5) Act of 26th 
October 1919 



185 — 






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— 186 — 



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1 i? «i 5 es 3 
^Wj3fflMP3 



187 — 



B. — NIGHT WORK OF WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE 



Among the govcrnnieiits replying to the questionnaire there 
is general agreement that night work for women is in practice 
limited to the necessary care of animals, milking and such 
arduous work as it b&tter performed during cool nights than 
in the trying heat of the day. The prohibition of the work 
of women during a fixed night period is therefore not ser- 
iously considered, through the principle that a minimum 
number of hours of rest should be assured is frequently ap- 
proved. 

Very little legislation relative to the subject has been attemp- 
ted. 

The government of Italy replies : « The question of the 
night work of women in agricultm^e has no importance for 
Italy, since it only occurs in rare instances. Among the most 
important of such cases is that of cleaning rice; a special law 
concerning rice culture provides for the prohibition of night 
work )) (1). 

The government of Germcuiij cites the Order relating to a 
provisional Agricultural Labour Act, dated 24th January 
1919. This Order regulates the number of hours of work 
for all agricultural labourers but does not prohibit night 
w^ork. 

In Czechoslovakia, the Act respecting the Eight-Hour 
Working Day includes agriculture in its provisions that the ac- 
tual hours of work shall, in principle, not exceed 8 hours w^i- 
thin 24 hours or 48 hoiu-s in the week. The regulations regar- 
ding night work also state specifically that women shall not be 
so employed. It is not clear, however, that this prohibition 
applies excepting to « continuous industries in which the 
manufacture cannot be interrupted for technical reasons )>. 
The order of 11th January 1919, appears also to make an 
exception of agricultural undertakings. 

La Switzerland (Basle), the Act re«pecting Hours of Work, 
dafted 8th April, 1920, section 8, reads : « An uninterrupted 
rest period of not less than 10 hours shall be allowed between 
every two working days, except in case of emergency, to per- 
sons employed in hospitals, nursing institutions and homes; 
and a period of not less than nine hours to domestic and 
agricultural workers^ 

In cas^e of necessity the minimum rest period of an agricul- 
tural worker may be reduced to seven hours ». 



(Ij Att of 17th June, 1907. 



188 



C. — ADMISSION OF CHILDREN TO EMPLOYMENT 
IN AGRICULTURE 

1. — Canada and the United States 

The eniploynicnt of children in agriculture as compared 
with other branches of industry offers a field for investiga- 
tion distinctly unique. It is frequently claimed that within 
limits such einplpyment is not open to criticism, and affords 
indeed, a wholesome physical and moral training. It is n 
the open countr^^ and for the most part in the fresh air. 
There is seldom any temptation to engage children in night 
work and the hazards for them are less than in indus- 
trial occupations. The majority of children enga.cjed in agri- 
culture are working either for their parents or with them, 
and parental influence and protection, accordingly, are 
usually present. Perhaps it may be universally granted that 
the child on the farm is in general more fortunate in every 
way than the child employed in manufacturing, mining, or 
trade. 

But while in agriculture, if we omit the case of children 
employed in gangs, there has not been the same glaring need 
of intervention as has impelled governments to enact factory 
legislation, still standards of judgment as to legitimate hours, 
wages, and working conditions vary so widely in different 
parts of the world and as between different employers, that 
abuses are of constant occurrence here as elsewhere, and the 
limitation of children's work in agriculture makes claim for 
serious consideration. 

Approach to the problem has hitherto been made almost 
wholly through indirect channels. The administration of 
child labour legislation in industry is made possible by the 
organisation and extension of factory inspecton departments 
in the various governments. But the administration of a child 
labour law which regulates the employment of children in 
agriculture presents more serious difficulties. Agricultural 
employment of necessity must be spread over vast areas, and 
employees, even on one farm, may frequently be found work- 
ing in widely separated fields. Such conditions make detec- 
tion and enforcement difficult and costly and are not conduc- 
ive to efficient inspection. The natural result is that, for 
the most part, direct legislation regarding the agricultural 
employment of children has been avoided and reliance for 
their protection has been placed on the indirect application of 
other laws. 

Such direct legislation, however, is not entirely unknown, 
and may be cited, for example, in certain of the States of 
America. In twenty-seven of the forty-eight States the em- 
ployment of children in any gainful occupation is definitely 
forbidden during school hours. The age of compulsory 
school attendance varies, and also the minimum compulsory 



— 189 — 

period for that attendance, and the result of this legishition 
is that all gainful employment during school hours is for- 
hidden for children under 14 years in one State for one hun- 
dred days in the year; in two States for four months; in one 
State for five months; in five States for six months; in six 
States for seven months; in two Slates for eight months; in 
four States for nine months; and in one other State during the 
entire school session. It is forbidden for children under 
15 years in two States for six months; in one State for seven 
months; and in one Stale for seven-and-a-half months. In 
Oregon gainful employment during school hours is forbidden 
for children under 16 years for eight months in the year, 
unless they have completed the eighth grade of the elemen- 
tary schools. 

This general limitation of gainful occupation presents a 
type of direct legislation for the control of the employment 
of children; but being dependent upon the terms of the edu- 
cation Acts of the individual States, it must rely for its enfor- 
cement partly at least upon them. 

Also — a fact of primary importance, and one which is 
typical of the advantage in protection w^hich is given to chil- 
dren of urban, as compared with those of rural, districts — 
in eighteen States (including nine of those legislating against 
gainful employment in general as above) modifications are 
made in the child labour Acts such that, in their application 
to agriculture, the employment of children at farm labour is 
wholly or partially exempted from the prohibition. 

The following quotation from the Statutes of Indiana is 
typical of such exemptions : 

« Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana 
that no child under the age of fourteen (14) years shall be employed 
or permitted to work in any .gainful occi)uation other than farm 
work )> (1). 

The general position in the States as regards the exemption 
of agriculture from child labour restrictions is indicated 
below. 

Table I 



Nature of Exemplioii 



Effect 



Alabama 

Exempts agriculture from prohibition of 
children under 14 working in any gainful 
occupation. 



No restriction outside 
school hours for any 
age. 



(1) Laws, Industrial Boaril of Indiana, p. IL H.3.), Section I. 



— 190 — 



Nature of Exemption 



California 

Exempts employment of minors at agri- 
cultural, horticultural, or viticultural labour 
during time public schools are not in ses- 
sion. 

Colorado 

Exempts employment of children in any 
fruit orchard, garden, field, or farm; but 
children under 14 working for other than 
parents must receive permit from the Super- 
intendent of Schools. 



Delaware 

Exempts farm work from prohiljited em- 
ployment under 14, 

Indiana 

Exempts agriculture from prohibition of 
any gainful occupation under 14. 

Louisiana 

Exempts agricultural pursuits from occu- 
pations prohibited under 14. 

Missouri 

Exempts ag'riculture from prohibition of 
any gainful occupation under 14. 



Nevada 

Exempts agriculture from iprohibition of 
enipioynient for boys under 14 and girls un- 
der 16. 

New Jersey 

Exempts agricultural pursuits from indus- 
tries forbidden to children under 14. 



New-York 

Peiinits bovs of 12 to gather i)roduce for 
six liours a day outside school hours. Per- 
mits children whose i)arents are engaged in 
farming to work for ])arents outside school 
hours. 



Effect 



No restriction outside 
school hours for any 
age. 



No restriction in or 
outside school hours; 
this exemption appa- 
rentlv applies to prohi- 
bition of employment 
of children under 14 in 
gainful occupations du- 
ring school hours. 



No restriction 
any age. 



for 



No restriction for 
any age outside school 
hours. 



No restriction 
any age. 



for 



No restriction for 
any age. 



No rcsftriction outside 
school hours. 



No restriction. 



No restriction outside 
school hours. 



191 — 



Nature of Exemption 



Effect 



North Cauolina 

Exempts farming from child labour 
law (1). 

Pennsyia'ania 

Exempts « children employed on the 
farm » from 14 year prohibition. 



Rhode Isi-and 

Exempts a-gricullure from occupations 
prohibited over 14. 



Tennesse 

Exempts agriculture even from provision 
forbidding employment of children « which 
interferes with attendance at school ». 



Texas 

Exempts agriculture from occupations 
prohibited under 15. 

Washington 

Exempts farm work from prohibition for 
males under 14 and females under 16 
without permit. 

West Vuuiinia 

Exempts agriculture from prohibition of 
any gainful occupation under 14. 



Wisconsin 

Exempts agriculture from prohibition of 
any gainful occupation under 14. . 



No restriction. 



No restriction outside 
school hours. 



No restriction. 



No regulation in or 
outside school hours. 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



No restriction outside 
school hours. 



No restriction. 



Similarl}^ the child hihoiir Act of the United States, which 
imposes an excise tax on the products of mines, quarries, 
mills, canneries, workshops, factories, and manufacturing 
establishments where children are employed, has no bearing 
on their employment in agriculture (1). 



(ll Ruling of State (".hild Welfare Commission. Also State Board of Education may 
prescribe rules under which teachers, principals, and superintendents may excuse 
non-attendance due to immediate demands of farm in certain seasons of tlie year. 

(1) Title Xn of the Revenue Act of 1!)18, Section 1200. 



— 192 — 

One other way in which the control of children in agri- 
culture may be effected by direct legislation is in the regula- 
tion of hours. But while always an oustanding feature of fac- 
tory legislation, this method of regulating child labour on 
farms has to a perhaps surprising extent been disregarded, 
whilst in some States we find a definite exemption for child 
farm workers from the legal limitations as to hours of other 
occupations. The situation is shown in the following an- 
alysis. 

Table II 



No. of Hours Children may be emploijed 
in Aqriculture 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



Alabama 



Arizona 



Arkansas 



S^hour day and 48-hour week under 
years of a.^e. 

California 

8-hour day and 48-hour w^ek under 
years of age. 

From 16 to 18 no restriction. 

Connecticut 
No restriction. 



16 



Delaware 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



Florida 



Georgia 



Idaho 



Remarks 



Definite exemption 
from 8-hour day and 
48-hour week. 



Definite exemption 
from 8-hour day and 
48 hour week. 



Same for all remune- 
1 ative occupations. 



Same for all gainful 
occupation. 

Definite exemption. 



Definite exemption 
from 10-hour day and 
54-hour week. 



9-hoiir day and 54-hour week under 
years of age. 



16 



Same for any gainful 
occupation. 



193 — 



\(). of Hours Children iinuj be einploi/ed 
in Af/ricnltnre 



Illinois 

8-hour (lay and 6-clay week under 14 years 
of age. 

8-hour day and -18-hour w -ek iind;!r Ki 
years of O'ge. 

Tmhaxa 
No restriction. 



Hrniarks 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



I()\VA 



Kansas 



Kentucky 



LOUISLVNA 



No restriction. 



Maink 



No restriction. 



Mauyland 



No restriction. 



Massachlsktts 
No restriction. 



Michigan 



No restriction. 



Same for any occupa- 
tion. 

Same for any gainful 
occupation. 



Delinile exemjition 
from 8-hour day and 
48-hour week for chil- 
dren under 16; and 
even from 9-houir day 
and 54-hour week for 
children under 16 wliose 
jjarents consent. 



Definite exemption 
from lU-hour day and 
6U-hour week. 



^Minnesota 

8-hour day and 48-hour week under 16 
\ ears of ivge. 



MississiPi 



No restriction. 



Same for any 'gainful 
occupation. 



l:! 



— 194 



A'o. of Hours Children inaif be einploijed 
in Agriculture 


Henmrks 


Missouri 




8-hour day and 48-hoiir week under 10 


Same for any .gainful 


years of a-g'e. 


occupation. 


Montana 




No restriction. 




Nebraska 




8-hour day and 48-hour week under Ifi 
in beet-fields. 


No res^ulation for 
oiher a.tfricultural work. 


Nevada 




No restriction. 


Delinite exemption 
from 8-hour day and 


New Hampshire 


48-liour week. 


No restriction. 


Delinite exemption 




from 11 -hour day and 



New Jersey 



No restriction. 



New Mexico 



No restriction. 



New York 

(i-hour (lay for boys over 12 .<ratherin« 
produce outside school hours. 



58-hour week. 



Definite exemption 
from 7 p.m. to 6 a.m. 
IJrohibition clause. 



No restriction for 
other work. 



North Carolina 
No restriction. 

North Dakota 
8-hour da\ and 48-hour veek. 



No restriction. 



Ohio 



Oklahoma 



No restriction. 

Oregon 
8-hf)ur (l;iv under K! vears of a.^e. 



Same for any gainful 
occupation. 



Definite exemption 
from 8-hour day and 
48-hour week. 



Saine for any occupa- 
tion. 



— 195 — 



A'o. of Hours Children man l>^ employed 

in Af/ricnlturc 



ficiiKirks 



Pennsylvania 

9-lioiir (la\ and 51-hour week, 
1() years of age. 

Hhodk Island 
No restriction. 

S ( I iTH Caroli na 
No restriction. 

South Dakota 
No restriction. 



under 



Tennessee 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 



Texas 



Utah 



Vermont 



Virginia 



No restriction. 



No restriction. 

Washington 
No restriction. 

West Virginia 
No restriction. 



Wisconsin 



No restriction. 



Wyoming 



No restriction. 



Same for any occupa- 
tion. 



Delinite exemption 
from 10-hour day and 
54-hour week. 



Definite exemption 
from 10-hour day. 



Definite exemption 
from 10-hour day and 
o4-hour week. 



Definite exemption 
from 8-hour day and 
48-hour week. 



Definite exemption 
from 8-hour day and 
48-hour week. 



Definite exemption 
from 9-liour day and 
56-hour week. 



— 196 — 

All example of a Slate where the hours of the employment 
of children in agriculture are legally regulated in a direct way 
is Nebraska. This Slate, while in does not prohibit children 
under the minimum age from working in agriculture, regu- 
late the hours of employment for persons under 16 years of 
age in sugar-beet fields as follows : 

No ])erson under the ai>e of sixteen years shall be employed or 
sufl'ered or permitted to work in any beet field more than forty- 
eight hours in any one week, nor more than eis»lit hours in any one 
day, nor before the liour of six o'clock in the morning, nor after the 
hour of eight o'clock in the evening (1). 

Arkansas is the only State which includes agriculture in its 
child laijour law restrictions on the same basis as industrial 
or commercial employment. It provides that no child under 
14 may be employed in any remunerative occupation. 

Summarising, then, the direct legislation in the United 
States of America which aims at the control of the employ- 
ment of children in agriculture, we find in the forty-eight Sta- 
tes that twenty-seven prohibit the employment of children in 
any gainful occupation during school hours; that in ten of 
these and eight others modifications are made in the child 
labour laws, such that the employment of children at farm 
labour is wholly or partially exempted from restriction; 
that the direct regulation of the hours of children's work 
in agriculture has received little attention and is provided for 
l)y statute in eleven States only; and that one State includes 
agriculture in its child labour laws on the same basis as other 
employment (2). 

In Canada, as in the United States of America, the legal 
regulation of working conditions rests largely with the Pro- 
vincial Governments, as distinct from the Federal. In eight 
out of the nine Canadian Provinces, the minimum age of 
employment in factories and certain other branches of indus- 
try is fixed. In Alberta no eliild under 15 years may be em- 
jiloyed in a factory. In British Columbia the limitation ap- 
plies to boys under 1-1 and girls under 15 years (an exception 
is made here in the case of employment in canning fish, pack- 
ing fruit, and work incidental thereto, but only during the 
time of fish runs and in fruit seasons). In Manitoba, New 
Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Nova Scotia 
the minimum age of industrial employment is 14 years; in 
Nova Scotia an exception is made in the gathering and pre- 
paration prior to cooking of fruits and vegetables for can- 
ning; in such case the work is to be done in a room separate 
from that in which gooking, canning, or dessicating is being 



Ml Xcbraskii I,;il)or Law. p. 27, :i:>,Sl, Section ID. 

(2) For the siimmarv of tlu- legislation of the United States in th;' preceiling pagi\s, 
incluiliiig the two analyses of legislation, we arc indel>ted ilargely to Dr. John B. An- 
drews, Secretary of the American Association for Labor Legislation. 



— 197 — 

carried on, and hours are limited to eight in one day and four 
on Saturday. Th.e IiuUistrial FlstahHshnicnts Act of Quebec 
requires that uo cliild under 16 years of age may be employed 
in any industry, trade, or business, if he is unable to read and 
write readily. Quebec, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan require 
a certificate of age in the case of children under 10 years 
employed in industrial occupations, and in Ontario a home 
])ermit or emi)loyment certificate must be held by any child 
niulcr 16 years of age who is employed by any person during 
the hours between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. This provision of the 
Adolescent School Attendance Act ajiplies to any emplovment 
and evidently includes agriculture. 

These are the Canadian laws which protect children in 
their employment, but, excepting in Ontario, they exercise 
no direct control in the case of agriculture. In Ontario the 
Factory, Shop, and Office Building Act as amended in 1919 
makes some approach to the problem, in that it provides 
for the maintenance of certain standards in farm camps in 
which women and girls are employed. Such camps may 
be open only between the first of May and the first of Novem- 
ber; women and girls may be employed not more than ten 
hours in one day, unless a different arrangement is made for 
the sole purpose of giving a shorter day's work on one day of 
the week; no women or girls may be employed for more than 
sixty hours in any one week. A suitable matron must be 
maintained; the camp must be located on a site providing 
proper drainage; a suitable building for use as a dining-room 
and kitchen must be furnished, but between the first of July 
and the fifteenth of August tents may be used; floors must 
be provided for tents used for sleeping accommodation ex- 
ce])t between the fifteenth of June and the fifteeenth of 
-Vugust, and there must also be a sufficient number of beds 
and mattresses, proper facilities for washing, separate privies 
('which must be kept clean) for every fifteen workers or 
fraction, thereof, a supply of pure drinking water, and suffi- 
cient and suitable food with proper facilities for its prepar- 
ation and serving under sanitary conditions. 

This legislation applies where six or more women or i>irls 
are employed in agricultural work of a seasonal nature and 
live in a camp; its purpose is not specifically the control of 
the em])loyment of children, but girls of all ages benefit by 
its application; it affords no protection whatever to boys. 
It is not intended that this Act should apply to regular farm 
labourers, but only to those who are employed for less than 
seven months. The administration of this Act is in the hands 
of the Department of Labour through its regular factory 
inspectors. It constitutes the only direct legislation found 
in Canada for the control of the employment of children in 
farm work. 

Difficulties in administration, coupled with the absence 
of glaring need, have kept governments in general from in- 



— 198 — 

stituting the same legislative measures for the protection of 
children in agriculture as in industry/, notwithstanding de- 
mands from time to time for equal protection (1). The result 
is that more and more dependence has been placed upon indir- 
ect legislation in order to secure the desired control, and es- 
pecially upon compulsory school attendance laws, which pre- 
sent relatively few administrative difficulties. For the period 
during which children are by law required to attend school, 
their continuous employment in agriculture or any other 
class of work, with its consequent evils, is immediately prev- 
ented, and as the administration of such laws is relatively 
simple and inexpensive, they can show, in proportion to their 
undertaking, considerable success. 

Legislation for compulsory school attendance recognises 
the right of the state, in the interests of the education of the 
child and its future citizenship, to deprive parents or guar- 
dians of the benefit of the labour of their children or wards. 
Such laws set forth the ages between which children shall at- 
tend school, and usually the minimum number of days or 
months of attendance required in each year. Parental re- 
sponsibility is assumed and penalties provided for the parents 
or guardians of absentees. Special administrative machinery 
may be instituted for enforcing the minimum attendance, and 
in the case of habitual truancy the penalties may extend to 
the children themselves, a provision, however, which, in so 
far as it is punitive only, is a last resort and which, in actual 
practice is being interpreted more and more in terms of the 
constructive possibilities of the situation. 

In order to estimate the influence of compulsory school 
attendance laws on the employment of children in agricul- 
ture, it is necessary to note. 

(a) the ages of children included; 

(b) the length of the minimum school year (the number 
of days' attendance required in the year); 

(c) exemptions, full-time or part-time; 

(d) the authorities charged with the enforcement of 

the laws and the efficiency of their work. 

In Canada and the United States compulsory school attend- 
ance ends at ages varying from 12 to 18, according to the 
respective standards of the individual Provinces and States, 
and with corresponding advantage or disadvantage to the 
children concerned. There is evidence of the disadvantage 
of the rural child in that in Canada the maximum age appeal's 
as 12 once only. viz. in New Brunswick, and there applies only 
to rural districts; in the cities and towns of this Province com- 
pulsory education is continued to 16 years. A snnilar dis- 



(It Publications of TAssociation internatioiiale pour la protection legale des tra- 
vail I curs, No. 6. pp. G3-G8 and 207. 



— 199 — 

linclion i."> made in Xova Scotia, where the maxiniuni ayi' in 
rural districts is 1 i and in cities and towns is K). In Ontario 
this distinction is not made explicitly hy law, hut while in 
Section 9 of the Adolescent School Attendance Act urhan 
municipalities with a population of 5,000 or more are requi- 
red to estahlish and maintain part-time courses of instruc- 
tion for adolescents hetween 14 and 18 years of age, rural 
municii)alities, on the other hand, are only allowed to do so 
if they desire. The i)ractical opportunity for continued 
education after 14 years may in this waj-^ be denied the rural 
child. This difference of standard as between tow^n and 
country is found in the United States also, viz. in Louisiana, 
Kentucky. Maryland, and Nebraska. 

The number of days of school attendance re({uired in the 
year varies even more than the maximum age requirements, 
in Canada it varies from 120 days to something over 200 days. 
Britisii Columbia distinguishes city from rural districts and 
requires ten months' school attendance in the former and 
six months' in the latter. In the United States tliis distinc- 
tion in also sometimes made, e.g. in Nebraska, which varies 
from the entire session of at least seven months to a mini- 
mum of twelve weeks, and Tennessee, which varies from 
the entire session to eighty days. In Alabama the minimum 
period of compulsory school attendance each year is one 
hundred days; in Oklahoma it is three months; in Mississippi 
it is eighty days. These are the lower standards. But more 
exacting requirements exist; in fact, the forty-eight States 
and the District of Columbia require school attendance 
during periods varying from three to nine months, and seven 
States have reached the nine months' standard. 

Further modification of the compulsory element in school 
attendance laws is found in the authorised exemptions. In 
general, these exemptions have their basis in the \velfare of 
the child. Sometimes, however, they are economic, and not 
infrequently they give prominence to the demand for agricul- 
tural laJDOur e.g. in Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario in Canada, 
and in Georgia, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota in the Uni- 
ted States. In other States home employment, which indir- 
ectly includes work on the home farm, is also recognised as 
justification for non-attendance; and special part-time 
(exemptions are authorised. 

Finally, the efficacy of compulsory school attendance in 
the establishment of control over the employment of children 
is determined by the authorities charged with the enforce- 
ment of the laws. Whatever the scope of a law, its value is 
minimised unless sufficient machinery is provided to put its 
provisions into etfect. The practical results of the compul- 
sory school attendance laws of Canada and the United States 
may be in some measure judged by the records of illiteracy, 
although too much emphasis must not be put upon these fig- 
ures, in that («) the age standards of the two countries in 



200 — 



Hie illiteracy census were so different; (b) the census in the 
I'nited States, from which the figures are copied, was taken 
in 1910 and that of Canada in 1911, while in the intervening 
decade the enforcement of school attendance has attained 
much higher standards (1). 

Responsihility for the enforcement of school attendance 
laws (1) is generall}'^ centred in the local school board of the 
district, with more or less emphasis jDlaced upon the co-opera- 
tion of the police. In some instances attendance officers, 
even when appointed by school boards, are vested with police 
powers, so far as these are necessary for the execution of their 
duties. On the whole, however, in democratic qoun tries the 
tendency is to resent the interference of the police in matters 
of education, though the juvenile court and its probation 
officers may be excepted from this resentment. 

In Canada and the United States the institution of specially 



Percent, of persons 10 years 
and over illiterate to wliole 
population in 1916 

total percentage 
males only 
females only 


Manitolia 

8,1 

7,7 
8,6 


Saskalcho-\van 

7,7 
6,8 
9,0 


A!l;vila 

6,4 
5,8 
7,4 


Percent, of persons 5 years 
and over illiterate to whole 
population in 1916 

total percentage 


12,9 


12,3 


10,4 



il) More recent statistics of illiteracy in the prairie ])rovinces of Canada ■\verj. 
compiled in 1910 by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, and include the jjercentage 
of illiteracy of the population of 10 years and over as well as those of 5 years and 
over. These figures, as given in the table below, show that when computation is 
made, from 10 years instead of from 5 years, there is an average reduction of 37.29 
per cent, in the percentage of illiteracy. When children between 5 and 9 years of 
age are graded as illiterate, the explanation is usually that their school life' has not 
yet begun, and later school attendance will remedy the defect. 

(1) A typical examjile of the machinery of enforcement provided is found in the 
School Law of Rhode Island 1919, wliich'reads : 

« The machinery of enforcing compulsory attendance centres in the school com- 
mittee, which is required to take an annual census of children of school age, which 
has accessible the record of attendance kept by teachers in public schools, and 
which is required to appoint truant officers to enforce the law under its direction. 
The immediate agent of the school committee is the truant officer, who has autho- 
lity to make complaints for violation of the truancy law and to serve legal process, 
and to visit private schools, to inspect registers, and to require reports of children 
employed in business and manufacturing establishments. Age and employment cer- 
tificates must be returned to the school committee when a ciiiUl leaves employment, 
unless the child demands his certificate. The school committee thus lias available 
a list of children named in the annual school census, and the record of school 
attendance of each child inschool; the difference between the two indicates a field 
lor work by the truant officer, but his duties include also attention to habitual and 
occasional truancy by regularly enrolled pupils. The duties of factory inspectors 
make those state officers auxiliaries in enforcing the school law. Besides enforcing 
the age and employment-certificate law, factory inspectors are authorised, if doubt- 
ing the accuracy of any statement in a certificate concerning the age or other quali- 
fication of a child, to demand the certificate", and order it cancelled if after investi- 
gation it is found that the certificate has b 'on illegally issued. /) 



— 201 - . 

appointed attendance officers to co-o])erate with school 
boards is generally a well-established fact in cities and large 
towns. The tendency, however, lo overlook the appointment 
of such officers in rural districts, and to leave the enforce- 
ment of the attendance laws there largely to public opinion, 
with such help as government inspectors may from time to 
time contribute, has meant that in certain localities serious 
situations have developed, with the result that governments 
are giving the matter their more and more earnest consider- 
ation and delegating specific authoritv to attendance officers 
a])pointcd immediately within their own Departments. This 
tendency is particularly marked in Canada, where several 
Provinces have adopted the plan of provincial attendance 
officers. Such government appointments in no way inter- 
fere with the powers of schools boards, townshi]) councils, 
etc., to make local appointments, which, indeed, are specifi- 
cally allowed, and in urban municipalities are required; but 
they do retain a certain central control for the Provincial 
Department of Education and tend to secure the enforcement 
of attendance laws as well in backward, as in more advanced, 
communities. In Ontario the School Attendance Act 1919 
reads (Sections 7 and 8) : 

Seclion 7. Tlie Lieutenant-Governor in Council may api)oint an offi- 
cer, to be known as the provincial school attendance officer, whose 
duty it shall be, under the direction of the Minister, and subject to the 
re.oulations, to superintend and direct the enforcement of this Act and 
in that behalf to perform such duties and exercise such powers as may 
be prescribed by this Act and the regulations. 

Section 8. Where it appears to the Minister that in any territory 
without municipal organisation or in unsurveyed territory school trus- 
tees are not providing accommodation for the children entitled to 
attend school or have neglected or failed to raise the necessary funds 
^or the establishment and maintenance of a school, or have in other 
respects failed to comply with The Public Schools Act and the regu- 
lations, or that the election of trustees has been neglected, and no 
regular board of trustees is in existence, the Minister may by com- 
mission under his hand authorise and direct the Provincial School 
Attendance Officer to do all things and exercise all powers which may 
be necessary for the establishment and maintenance of a school, the 
erection of school buildings and providing accomodation, the open- 
ing and conducting of a school, the assessing and levying of all 
sums of money required for school purposes, and generally whatever 
may be required for the purpose of establishing, maintaining, and 
conducting a school in accordance with The Public Schools Act and 
the Regulations, and thereupon the Provincial School Attendance Offi- 
cer shall have and may exercise and perform with regard to all mat- 
ters set forth in the commission, all the authority, powers and duties 
vested in, and to be performed by a board of school trustees under 
The Public Schools Act and the Regulations. 

Penalties (1) , for the non-enforcement of compulsory 



(li A typical example of legislation which ])rovl(.U's a penalty, where persons are 
guilty of violating the terms of the school attemlance laws, is found in SouUi Dakota, 
where the Act (Chapter 199, S. L. 1921) reads : « («) Any person having control of 



— 202 ~ 

school attendance laws constitute another method for secu- 
ring results. Tf the government grant for educational pur- 
])Oses in any school district is dei)endent upon the mainten- 
ance of a standard attendance of the children of the district, 
l^ublic opinion as to the value of such attendance may be de- 
veloped, and where the law includes such a clause, the local 
authority is encouraged to put forth every effort to secure a 
high standard; also the desire for profit from the use of child 
labour on the farms it offset by the financial importance to 
the taxpayers that the children should be at school. 

Examples of this plan are found in the United States. Mis- 
souri makes the State grant conditional on the maintenance 
of an average attendance of fifteen pupils in a school, or an 
average attendance of sixty per cent, of the school popula- 
tion (1). Similary the law of Texas reads : « The school 
must maintain each year that it receives State aid an atten- 
dance record of at least seventy-five per cent (2). » In this 
way local interest in the enforcement of compulsory school 
attendance laws is stimulated, with satisfactory results. 

The protection of children employed in agricultural labour 
appears as an item on the agenda of the International Labour 
Conference of 1921, and this brief report has been prepared 
to show how far progress has been made by the Governments 
of Canada and the United States in effecting control of this 
class of employment. The standards established by the 
Provinces and States within these two countries are wddely 
different, but have developed more or less along the same 
lines and indicate particularly what may be accomplished by 
indirect legislation. In the preparation of Draft Conventions 
relative to the employment of children in agriculture, this 
existing legislation may be suggestive of possible lines of 
progress for the future. In general, the administration of^ 



a child of compulsory school age who fails to cause such child to attend school 
as herein required, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof 
shall be punished by a flue of not less than ten dollars (,J 50.00) for the first offense. 
For each subsequent offense he shall be subject to a line of not less than twenty -five 
ilollars (.^ 25.00) nor more than one hundred dollars (.^ 100.00) or imprisonment in 
the county Jail for not less than ten days nor more than thirty days, or both such 
ti-easurer and by him credited to the school fund of the county in which the con- 
such fine and costs are paid. Provided that such fine shall be paid to the county 
line and imprisonment in the discretion of the court, and shall stand committed until 
victed person resides, lb) Any county superintendent who shall wilfulily neglect 
to perform his duties as truancy officer; any teacher who shall fail to make i)rompt 
reports on attendance and non-attendance as required l)y law; any person who shall 
harbour or employ a child of compulsory school age not legally excused during the 
school tenn; the members of any school board of education that shall wilfully 
neglect or refuse to provide school facilities for children of their school district foV 
at least eight months during the school year, or that wilfully neglect to perform any 
other duties enumerated in this .\rticle; any truancy officer who shall wiilfull>- 
neglect to i)erf()rm the duties of his office, or any person who ^hall hamper or hinder 
a child of compulsory school age from attending a school which meets all legal 
re<iuirem,ents or who knowingly or willfully interferes or attempts to interfere with 
such atteiHlance, shall be guilty o-f a misdemeanor and shall be subject to the same 
penalty as parents who violate the requirements of this .Vrticle ». 
Ill Report of the Commissionner of Education, 19i:i, p. 005. 
i2i Reporl of the ('..)mmissionner of Education, lOlfi, j). 80. 



— 203 — 

compulsory school aUeiiciaiice laws can show the i)cst results, 
particularly where the central authority retains lor itself a 
measure of control. This central control is frequently most 
effective when the government grant to the local districts 
for school purposes is contingent upon the enrolment of every 
child in the district and the maintenance of a satisfactory 
attendance record. Its operation is sometimes facilitated by 
the apj)ointment of central attendance officers, to co-operate 
with the local authorities in securing results (1). 



(li The tables which I'ollow give details o!" the Compulsory School Attendance 
Laws upon which the preceding discussion is to a large enteut l>ascd. 



— 204 



<;OMPlTLSORY SCHOOL ATTEXDANC LAWS AND ILLITERACY IN CANADA 
AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

TABLE I 



Age between 
which eve r y 
child must at- 
tend school un- 
less exempted. 



CANADA 

Exemptions, i.e. conditions uuder any one of 
which absence from school may be allowed. 



Minimum per- 
iod of compul- 
sory school at- 
tendance for each 
child each year. 



Full school 
year, i.e. for 
the full term 
or terms dur- 
ing which the 
school of the 
district is open 
each year viz : 
from 40 to 44 
weeks ^. 



Alberta ' 

7-15 (a) Child is under efficient instruction 

at home or elsewhere as certified to in 
writing by the school inspector. 

(b) Sickness of child or other unavoi- 
dable cause. 

(c) Distance from school more than 
2 1/2 miles if child is under 10 years, 
unless a conveyance is provided by the 
school authorities. 

(d) Insufficient school accommodation. 

(e) Child has passed grade VIII exam 
ination or attained equivalent standing, 
if the school of the district does not 
provide more advanced instruction. 

(/) For a period not exceeding six 
weeks in, 8115- school term special 
exemptions may be granted by a justice 
of the peace, police magistrate, commis- 
sioner of the juvenile court, or principal 
of the school, where the services of the 
child are required in husbandry, in 
urgent household duties, or for the ne- 
cessary maintenance of such child or I 
of some person dependent on him. ' 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 years and oner = 12.72 



7-14 



British Columbia (') 

(a) Child is under other instruction sa- 
tisfactory to the magistrate or justice of 
the peace. 



a) In city 
school dis- 
tricts the full 
school year, i.e. 
ten months. 



(1) Th',' School Attendance Act consolidated to and incluilin^ amendments of 
1910. 

(2) In any school tliere shall be not less than seven weeks nor more than ten 
■weeks' vacation in rural districts ami not less than eight weeks nor more than 
twelv.' weeks' vacation in village and town districts. The summer vacation shall 
fall between the fifteenth day of June and the first day of September, and the 
winter vacation shall extend from the 24th day of December to the second day 
of .lanuary, both inclusive (except by special "arrangement of the School Board 
with the Minister, when the dates may be altered, but not the length of the vaca- 
tion periods). The School Ordinance," section 134. 



(*) Census of Canada, 1911, Vol. 11, Table XXVIII, page 462 et seq. (Perce 
of illiteracy is based upon inability either to read oi' to write. 



-entage 
upon inability 

(4) Manual of the School Law and School Regulations, British Columbia, 1919 
(An Act relating to Public Schools, chap. 206). 



2U5 — 



CANADA (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Miniimmi ix-riod 



BuiTisH (Columbia {continued). 

(b) Sickness of the child or other u 
voidable cause. 



(c) Distance 
three miles. 



from school more than 



id) (Ihild has reached standard of edu- 
cation at least ccjiial to that provided by 
the ])ublic school of his district. 



b) In district 
m u n i c ipal- 
ity school dis- 
tricts at least 
six months ; 
and if the 
Board of 
School Trus- 
tees shall so 
decide, the full 

I school year. 

j c) In rural 

1 districts s i x 

i months. 



PercentiKje of illiterates in population of 5 years and over = ll.Ol 



Manitoba ('') 

7-15 (") ' (a) Child is in regular attendance at a i Full school 

private school officially reported to be of j year or such 

I a standard equal to that of the public ' period as the 

school. school is open. 

ib) Child is under efficient instruction 
i at home or elsewhere as certified to in 
■ writing by the school inspector. 

' (c) Sickness of child or other unas'oid-l 
able cause. 

{d) Insufficient school accommodation. \ 

! (e) Distance from school two miles, if 
\ child is under 10, or three 'miles, if child 

is over 10 years, unless conveyance is | 

l)rovided by school authorities. 

(/') Child is over 12 years and his ser- | 
vices are needed in husbandry or urifent 
and necessary household duties, as cer- 
tified to by the school i^rincipal or jus- 
tice of the peace or police magistrate. 
(Exemption not to exceed six weeks in • 
any school term). I 

Percentafie of illiterates in population of ,") years and over = 1.S.31 \ 



(.5t The School Attendance Act. C.onsoMiiatcd Statutes ol' ManitoI)a, 1!)20. 

(6) Tlic compulsory school attendance age is 7-14, excepting that in accortlance 
with tlie 191!) amendiiient any Board of School Trustees employing three teachers 
and having an attendance oliic<'r has power to raise the compulsory age to fifteen 
hy ]jassing a bye-la u to tliat elfeet. Also, any child over the age of fourte en 
enrolled in any ol' tlie pLl>lic schools, whether elementary or secondary, must 
attend regularly while so enrolled and is under the jurisdiction of the" schoi.l 
attendance office)-. 



— 206 



\!'es 



CANADA {Continued} 

Exemptions 



Miniimini jK-riod 



7-12 
(In rural 
districts). 

6-16 

(In cities or 

towns). 



New Brunswick (') 

(u) Child is being properly educated 120 days 
otherwise than in the public school. 

b) Child in delicate health. 

(c) Distance from school more than 
two miles, unless a conveyance is provid- 
ed by the school authorities. 

id) Other sufficient cause. 

(e) Child is over 12 years and has 
passed the examination of grade VII ('). 

(/') Child is over 13 years and has at- 
tended school during fourteen consecu- 
tive weeks in the ipreceding year, pro- 
vided necessity requires him to work 
and he is granted permission for such 
employment hy the school board C*). 

ig) Child is over 14 years and holds an 
official certificate of reasonable profi- 
ciency in the grade of school work suit- 
able to his age and previous opportu- 
nity O. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 i/ears and over = 14.05' 



Nova Scotia ("') 

7-14 {a) Child is prevented from attendance 

(In rural by mental, physical, or other good and 

districts), sufficient reason. 

^~]^. ib) Child is over 12 years of a>g'e and 

(In cities has passed a satisfactory examination in 
and towns), grade VII; or is over 13 years of age 
and required by necessity to work, pro- 
vided he is in possession of an employ- 
ment certificate granted by the Board 
and is actually engaged in remunerative 
employment. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 gears and over — 10.34 



(7) statutes of New Brunswick, 1906, Parts I and II. Tlie compulsory Scliool 
Attendance Law is optional with each district, but its provisions must be submitted 
at oacli annual school ni".'ting until adopted. 

(8) Sections (e), (/) and ly) ;ire applicable only to cities and towns. 

(!)) The scliool law provides i'or a summer vacation ol" eight W('eks, beginning 
on the first day ol' .luly, and a winter vacation of two weelis, beginning on the 
Saturday preceding the week in which Christmas falls. On application of the 
Hoard of Trustees of any district in which special conditions exist, the Inspec- 
tor may permit a part or the whole of the summer vacation to be taken at another 
time. 

(10) An Act to amend and consolidate the Acts relating to Public Instruction, 
Statutes of Xova Scotia, 8-!). Geo IV, Parts II and III. Part III, which applies com- 
])ulsory school attendance to rural districts, Ijeconn.s operative only when adopted 
at an annual school meeting of the section. 



2U7 - 



Ages 



CAXxVDA {Conliniu'd) 

Exemptions 



Minimimi jxTioil 



8-18 n. 



Ontario (") 

I. Children 8-14 iiears of aye. t^yH 

(a) Child is under special Inslruction ! ^^ 
as approved by the school attendance of- 1 
ficer. 

(b) Sickness or other unavoidable 
cause. 

(c) Distance from school more than 
iwo miles if child is under 10 years, and; 
more than three miles if he is over 10 
years. _ I 

(d) Insufiicient school accommodation. 

le) Child has passed University matric- 
ulation in arts, or has completed the 
examination for admission to normal 
school, or has attained equivalent 
standin«. 

(/■) Services of the child required in 
husbandrv or urgent and necessarv house 
hold duties, or for the necessarv main- 
tenance of such child or of some person 
dependent upon him, as certilied to bv 

I the school attendance officer, or justice 
of the peace, or school principal, exenip- 

I lion not to exceed six weeks ni any 
school term). 

II. Adolescents 14-16 //ear.s of wje ("). 
(a) Sickness, infirmitv, or other phy- 
sical defect. 

(/>) Adolescent employed on the autho- 
ritv of a home permit or emplovment cer- 
tificate and in attendance at i)art-time 
courses .of instruction approved by the 
Minister for an aogresate of at least 400 
hours each year. 

(C-) Adolescent has pased Universitv 
matriculation or its equivalent. 

(d) Adolescent in attendance at another 
institution approved by the Minister. 

III. Adolescents 16-18 ijears of aqe C). 

(a) Sickness, infirmity, or other phy- 
sical defect. 

(b) Adolescent has passed University 
matriculation or its equivalent. 



school 



Full 
year. 



school 



.3 2 hours 
each year. 



,11, The School AUen.Iance Act 1'.tl9, nnd The A.lolescent School Attendance 

■^"^lyrChiUh-.^n Iron. :. to S years, if enn)lle.l, nuist atten.l regularly. 
(i;{) EfTective 1 September 1921. 
ni) Effective 1 September 1!»2:V 



208 



As(es 



CANADA {Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum jxn-iod 



OxTAuio {continued) 

(c) Adolescent in full-time attendance 
at a public school, high school, univer- 1 
sity, or other school approved by ther | 
Minister. i 

{d) Adolescent has been up to the age : 
of 16 years under efficient full-time ins- 
truction as approved by the public school \ 
inspector. ! 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 i/au's and over 



6.51 *. 



Prince Edward Island ('") 

M3 C). [ (a) Poyerty. 1 30 weeks in 

{b) Child is otherwise provided with j c i t i e s and 

the means of education for a like period towns and 20 

of time. 

(c) Child has already acquired the 

branches of learning taught in the public 

schools. j 

{d) Bodilv or mental condition of child I 
I prevents attendance at school or appli- j 
I cation to study. 1 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 gears and over = 7.61 * 



weeks e 1-s e- 
where in the 
Province. 



Quebec 
The ])rovince of Quebec has no compulsory school attendance law. 
Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 gears and over = 12.66 *. 



Saskatchewan 

■14 j {a) Child is under efficient instruction | Full school 
I at home or elsewhere. i year which in- 

I {b) Sickness or other unavoidable ' eludes a 'mini- 
cause, where the teacher is kept aclvised. ' nium of 200 
(c) Child, in the opinion of the anagis- teaching days, 
trate or school board, needs to maintain 
I himself or some person dependent ujjon 
' him. j 

i {d) Distance from school 2 1/2 miles j 
if child is under 12 years or 3 1/2 miles j 

I if over 12 vears, unless convevance is i 

provided by school authorities. j 

(e) Insufficient school accommodation. 

if) Child has passed the grade VIII exa- 
mination or has equivalent standing. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 yeas and over = 13.70 *. 



(15) The Public School Act, 1020, Prince Edward Island, Sections it5 and <)S. 

(16) Any child apparently bi-tween tlie ages of 8 and 11 found loitering, A\an- 
dering, or playing in public places in tlie City of f^arlottetown or the Town oi 
Summerside may be arrested by the truant officer and l)rought Ijefor,' the secre- 
tary of the School Board and placed in school. 



209 — 



Ages 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Al.\bama (") 

5-16 (a) Child in attendance at a private 

school. 

(b) Child is 14 or over and has comple- 
ted the elementary course of study or 
its equivalent. 

(c) Child is 14 or over and is legally 
employed, (Excepting for vacations Em- 
ployment Certificate requires completion 
of ■g;rade IV or its equivalent ; and certi- 
ficate of physicald fitness'). 

(d) Distance from school 2 1/2 miles, 
if no free transport. 

(e) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 years and over — 22.9. 



One hundred 
days, which 
shall commen- 
ce at the be- 
ginnin-g of the 
school term, 
unless other- 
w i s e ordered 
by the Board 
of Education. 



Arizona * 
Completion of grammar school 



Eight months. 



8-16 (a) 

course. 

(b) Excused for " satisfactory " reasons 
by Board composed of specified school 
officials and probation officer. 

(c) Physically or mentally incapaci- 
tated. ' 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 22.9 



Three-fourths 
of entire ses- 
sion. 



Arkansas * 

7-15 (a) Cc^mpletion of seventh grade. 

(b) Services necessary for support of 
widowed mother. 

(c) Physically or mentally incapaci- 
tated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 12.6. 



* Information respecting States m.^rked \vith an astersk is quoted verbatim 
from "The States and Child Labor", U. S. Department of Labor, 1919, the 
statutes of such states not being available for this investigation. 

(1) The length of the minimum period of compulsory attendance in the indi- 
visual States was reported by Mr. J.-B. / ndrews, Secretary of the American Asso- 
ciation for Labor Legislation. 

(2) School Code, Department of Education, Alabama, 1919, p. 49. 

(^) Tliroughout th"se tables the percentage of illiteracy is taken from the census 
of the United States of America, 1910. 



— 210 — 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



California (') 

8-16 (") Physical or mental unfitness cer- Six months, 

tified to by a physician. 

(b) Distance from school more than 
two miles, upon the written approval 
of the country superintendent. 

(c) Child in attendance at an approved 
private school or satisfactorily instruc- 
ted by a tutor. 

id) Child holds a permit to work or 
an age and schooling certificate (Per- 
mits {*) legal only if child is 14 or over 
and has completed the elementary school 
course ; age and schooling certificate, 
if minor is 15 years or over, has a phy- 
sician's certificate of fitness, and is ac- 
tually employed.) 

Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 years and over = 3.7. 



8-16 



Colorado C) 

(a) Completion of eight grades if child 
is 14 or over. 

(b) Child is 14 or over and his services 
are necessary for the support of self or 
parent ("). 

(c) Child is 14 or over and exemption 
is for his " best interests " ('). 

id) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 



Erttire school 
year; law ap- 
plies to all 
school dis- 
tricts except 
where seating 
capacity is in- 
sufficient. 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over — 3.7. 



7-16 



Connecticut (*) 

(a) Child is 14 or over and is lawfully 
employed at home or elsewhere, unless 
official coniplainit is ^made that the child 
has not schooling sufficient to warrant 
leaving school. 



Nine months 



(3) The School Law of Ciilifoinia, 1919, p. 138. 

(4) Child of 14 is not granled permit to work except in case of family necessity. 

(5) Tlie School Laws Annotated of the State of Colorado, 1919, p. 140. 

(6) A child subject to tjiis provision of the Act must he given such pwor 
relief as shall enable him to attend, but is not to be required to attend more 
thiaoi three hours per day. 

(7) Thi sexemption would appear to include children over 14 who are regularly 
employed, provided they can read and write the English language. 

(8j Law relating to schools, Connecticut School Document, N" 5. 



211 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum i)erIod 



CoNNECTFCUT (Conl^niu'd) 

ib) Parent or i^uardian unable to pro- 
vide suitable clothing. 

(c) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 ijcars and over = 6.0. 



Delawahe C) 

-16 C"). (a) Child receiving regular instruction 180 days in 

elsewhere to the satisfaction of the super- the year, or, if 

intendent. child is 14 

,,,,,..,,. ,, , .... years or over, 

(o) Child is mentally or physically in- \qq days in the 

capacitated, as certified to by a phy- ygaj.^ ' 

sician. 1 " 

(c) Child is 14 or over and has com- 
pleted the work of grade VIII. 

id) Child is 14 or over and is re.gulary 
and legallv emploved at home or else- 
where. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over — 8.1. 



7-16 



Florida (") 

(a) Child in attendance at private 
school and record kept for inspection. 

(h) Child taught by parent or guardian 
upon written authority of the County 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

(c) Child is mentally or physically in- 
capacitated. 

(d) Completion of grade VIII. 

(e) Services necessary for support of 
widowed mother or other dependent. 

(/") For children of 7-9 years, distance 
from school more than two miles ; of 
10-16 years, distance more than three 
miles ; unless, in either case, free trans- 
port is furnished. j 



Four months. 



(9) Delaware School Cod*. 1920. 

(10) ^Vorking at agricultural pursuits shall be coiisiniered proper and necessary 
reason for absence, but no child under 14 years schall be excused for such 
cause If it will reduce his attendance to less than 120 days in each school year. 



(11) Laws relating to Education, 1917-1919, p. 16. 



212 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Florida {continued) 

ig) Parent or guardian unable to pro- 
vide books and clothing (exemption to 
cease after they have been otherwise 
provided). 

{h) Special exemption granted by at- 
tendance officer or unusual cause. 

Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 years and over = 13. 



Georgia {") 

8-14 {a) Child in attendance at private Six months., 

school for equal period. 

{b) Completion of grade VII. 

(c) Child is excused temporarily " for 
good reasons " by the Board of Educa- 
tion, such boards being authorised " to 
take into consideration the seasons for 
agricultural labour and the need for such 
labour in exercising their discretion as 
to the time for "which children in farm- 
ing districts shall be excused ". 

(d) Child is excused temporarily by 
teacher because of bad weather, sickness, 
death in family or other reasonable 
cause. 

<" Provided that no guardian shall be 
compelled to send such child or children 
to school out of any other than the 
funds belonging to the ward or wards "). 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 ijears and over = 20.7. 



Idaho * 

8-16 {a) Completion of eighth grade if Seven months, 

child is 15 or over. 

{b) Child is 15 or over and his services 
are necessary for support of self or par- 
ent. 

(c) Child is 15 or over and exemption 
would be for his " best interests ". 

{d) Physicallv or mentally incapaci- 
tated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 2.2. 



(12) Georgia School Cotlc. 1920, p. 59. 



Ages 



213 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Miiiinium period 



Illinois {'") 

7-16 (ci) Child is receiving adequate instruc- Seven months, 

tion elsewhere in the English language. 

{b) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated as certified to by a physician. 

(c) Child is excused for cause by the 
principal or teacher. 

id) Child is from 14-16 years, necessa- 
rily and lawfully employed, and offi- 
cially excused by the superintendent of 
schools. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 i;ears and over = 3.7. 



Indiana ('^) 

7-16 (a) Child is 14 or over, has completed Six months, 

grade VIII and is lawfully employed. 

(6) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

(c) Child is exempted by Judge of the 
Court because of delinquency. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 3.1. 



Iowa V) 
7-16 (a) Completion of grade Vlll. 

(b) Child is 14 or over and regularly 
employed. 

<c) Distance from school two miles, if 
no free transport. 

id) Child is excused for " sufficient 
reasons " by Court of Record or Judge 
thereof. 

ie) Child is attending religious service 
or receiving religious instruction. 

/) Child physically or mentally inca- 
pacitated. ! 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 1.7. 



Twenty-four 
weeks in each 
year. In cities 
of the first or 
second class 
entire year 
may be requi- 
red by board 
of school di- 
rectors. 



(13) The School Law of Illinois. Circular N" i:?8, p. ;?. 

(14) School Laws — A supplement to th<» School of Laws Indiana, 1917, 
pdition, p. 71. 

(15) School Laws of Iowa, published by the State of Iowa, 1917, p. 70. 



— 214 



Aaes 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Kansas ('') 

8-16 (fi) Chikl is 14 or more, is able to read Seven months, 

and write English, and is regularly em- 
l)loyed for the support of himself or de- 
pendents ; exceptin-g' for a period of 
eight consecutive weeks in a year. 

b) Com])letion of the work of the 
common schools. 

(c) Child is iphysically or mentally in- 
capacitated; as certiiied to by the school 
])hysician. 

(d) Extreme cases of emergency or do- 
mestic necessity, with the permission of 
the school board. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 2.2. 



Kentucky ("') 

7-1 (J ("). (a) Child is physically or mentally Six months, 

incapacitated. 

(b) Child is 14 vears or over, holds a 
legal employment certificate and is stead- 
ily emploved, provided that if such 
child has not completed grade VIII he 
shall attend a continuation school for 
from four to eight hours a week. This 
provision is applicable in cities only. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 if ears and over = 12.1. 



8-16 

(In Parish 

of Orleans). 



Louisiana <n 

(a) Child is 14 or over and is reg'ularly 
employed at least six hours per day. 

b) Completion of elementary school 
course. 

(c) Public school facilities within 
twenty city blocks of home not adequate 
to accommodate ichild. 

(d) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

(e) Child is under instruction at home. 



Entire 
sion. 



ses- 



(16) Laws relating to tlie Common Schools of Kansas, 1919-20, p. 8."). 

(17) Kentucky School Law, Supplement to, 1920. 

(18) In county school districts, the compulsory school age is 7 to 12 years. 

(19) Public School Laws of Louisiana, 1919, pp. 69 and 122. 



215 — 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 
Exemptions 



Minimum period 



7-14 
(Outside Pa- 
rish of Or- 
leans). 



Louisiana (continued) 

(a) Comi)k'tion of elementary school 
course. 

(b) Services necessary for support of 
■widowed mother. 

(c) No adequate school facilities. 

id) Distance from school 2 1/2 miles 
if no free transport. 

(e) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacited. 



140 days, or 
entire session, 
if that is less 
than 140 days. 
Child is requi- 
red to enter 
school not la- 
ter than two 
weeks after the 
opening of the 
session. 



Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 years and over = 29.0. 



Maine (=") 

7-17 (a) Child is 15 or over and is able to Seven and a 

read and write simple English sentences, half months. 

ib) Child is 14 or over and has work 
permit for which comi)letion of grade VI 
is required. 

(r) Child is excused by local school 
committee, superintendent or teacher for 
necessary absence. 

(d) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

ie) Child is in attendance for a like 
period of time at an approved private 
school. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 if ears and over — 4.1. 



8-16 
(In Balti- 
more). 



7-13 
(In coun- 
ties) ("). 



Maryland (") 

a) Child is 14 or over and is regularly 
and lawfully employed. 

(ft) Child is excused for necessarv ab- 
sence by superintendent or principal of 
school or his deputy. 

(c) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

(a) Child is excused for necessary and 
legal absence by superintendent or prin- 
cipal of school or his deputy. 

{b) Child is phvsicallv or mentally in- 
capacitated. 



Nine months. 



(20) Laws of Maine relating to Public Schools, I'.UO pp. :! and 8.5. 

(21) Maryland Public School Law, 1920, p. 94. 

(22) That is, entire State outside Baltimore City. 



216 — 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 
Exemptions 



Minimum period 



13-17 
(In coun- 
ties). 



Maryland (continued) 

(a) Child is 15 or over and has com- 
pleted elementary school course. 

(b) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 



At least 100 
days, and en- 
tire session if 
not regularly 
and lav;-fully 
employed. 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 7.2. 



Massachusetts (") 

7-16 (a) Child is 14 or over and has com- Eight months, 

pleted fouth grade and is either regular- 
ly employed (on employment certificate) 
at least six hours a day or has permission 
from school superintendent to be employ- 
ed at home. 

(b) Child is excused for necessary ab- 
sence (not exceeding seven days in six 
months). 

(c) Child is physically or ^mentally in- 
capacitated. 

id) Child is in attendance at an approv- 
ed private school. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 5.2. 



7-16 



Michigan (") 

(a) Work of grade VIII completed to 
the satisfaction of the commissioner, and 
labour permit granted. Such permit is 
issued only if child is 15 or over and is 
regularly employed at lawful labour. 

(b) Physical unfitness. 

c) If child is 14 or over, has completed 
grade VI, and his services are essential 
to the support of his parents, he may be 
excused, on the recommendation of the 
Board, by the country commissioner or 
city superintendent. 



Full school 
year excepting 
where school 
is maintained 
for the entire 
year. In such 
case no child 
is compelled to 
attend more 
than three of 
the four quar- 
ters. Minimum 
period : five 
months. 



(23) Educational Legislation, Bulletin No. 7, p. 19, Massachusetts Board of 
Education, 1918. New child labour legislature has come into effect in Massachusetts 
this gear and extends the scope of educational and employment certificates, work 
on farms and in private domestic service is covered by tlie new statute. 

(24) General School Laws, Slate of Michigan, Revision of 1919, p. 173. 



— 2\^ 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Michigan {continued) 

(d) Child is under 9 years and distance 
from school is more than 2 1/2 miles, un- 
less free transport is provided. 

(e) Child 12 to 14 and attending con- 
firmation classes, period not to exceed 
five months in a year. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 i/ears and over = 5.2. 



Minnesota (") 

M6 (a) Child is physically or mentally in- 

capacitated. 

(b) Completion of grade VIII. 

(c) No school within reasonable dis- 
tance. 

(d) Child is 14 or over and help is re- 
quired at home, for the period between 
April 1 and November 1, excepting in 
cities of the first or second class. 

(e) Conditions of weather or travel 
make attendance impossible. 

(/) Child is under instruction accord- 
ing to the ordinances of some church. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and oi>er = 3.0. 



Full scholl 
year up to ten 
months. In dis- 
tricts maint- 
aining terms of 
unequal length 
i n different 
public schools, 
the shorter 
term only is 
required, and 
may be only 
five months. 



MississiPi ("') 
7-14 ("). (a) Common school course completed. 

(&) Distance from school 2 1/2 miles 
unless transport is provided. 

(c) In extreme cases of emergency, ab- 
sence may be officially excused. 

(d) Child is mentally or physically in- 
capacitated as certified to by a physi- 
cian. 



Eighty days 
commencin'g at 
the begining of 
the school year 
unless other- 
wise ordered. 

Entire ses- 
sion. 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 22.4. 



(25) Minnesota, G. S. 1913, as amended by chapter II, Laws, 1919. 

(26) School Law of tlie State of Mississippi, enacted bv tlie Legislature, 1920 
p. 12. 

(27) Any county may release itself from the provisions of this Act bv a 
majority vote at a special election according to law. 



lilcS 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum porio<l 



MiSSOUP.I (-'') 

7-16 (a) Child is 14 or over and for at least I Entire 

six hours each day is actually, regularly ion. 
and lawfully engaged in useiful employ- 
ment or service. 

(b) Completion 
course. 



of common school 



(c) Child is under satisfactory instruc- 
tion at home or in a private school. 

id) Child is physically or mental'ly in- 
capacitated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 j/ears and over — 4.3. 



8-16 



Montana (-'') 

(fl) Child is 14 or over, has completed 
grade VIII, and is regularly' and legally 
employed. 

ih) Child is 14 or over and has age 
and schooling certificate, if wa-ges are 
necessary for the support of child's fam- 
ily. 

(c) Distance from school makes atten- 
dance an undue hardship. 

(rf) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacited. 

e) Child 
satisfactory 
schools. 



is under private instruction 
to the superintendent of 



Sixteen weeks, 
heginning with 
the first week 
of the school 
term, unless ex- 
cused by the 
superintendent 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 4.8. 



7-16 



Nebraska C) 

(a) Child is 14 or over and legally and 
lawfully employed for support of self or 
others dependent on him (In such case 
he may be required to attend evening 
school). 

(b) Distance from school two miles if 
no free transportation. 



(c) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 



Entire session 
of at least se- 
ven months in 
city or metro- 
politan school 
districts;; else- 
where at least 
12 weeks, and 
where terra is 
longer, t w o - 
thirds of term, 
but in no case 
less than 12 
weeks. 



Percentage of illiterates in population of IQ gears and over — 1.9. 



(28) New and Revised School Laws of the State ol' Missouri, Section 1089G. 

(29) School Laws of the State of Montana, 1921. 

(30) School Laws of Nebraska, 1919-20, p. 9;!. 



•J\') — 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued} 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Six months. 



Ni.VADA n 
8-16 ! (o) Comi)lction of cij^hth i*ra(le. 

(b) Child's labour necessary for sup- 
port of self or i)arents ("). ^ 

■ (c) Distance from school makes atten- 
dance impracticable or unsafe. 

(rf) Child is ])hysically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

(e) ChWd in attendance at private 
school or under instruction at home. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 i/ears and over — 6.7. 



New Hampshire * 

8-16 (a) Completion of elementary school Nine months. 

course if child is 14 or over. 

(b) Child is 14 or over and is excused 
by superintendent of public instruction 
or member of school board on ground 
that " educational welfare " will be best 
served by withdrawal from school. 

(c) Physically or mentally incapaci- 
tated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 i/ears and over = 4.6. 



New Jebsev * 

7-16 (a) Child is 14 or over, has age and Entire sess- 

schooling certificate, and is regularly ion. 
and lawfully employed. 

(b) Phvsicallv or mentally incapaci- 
tated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 5.6. 



(31) The School Code, 1!>19, p. 67. Fuitiver legislation in Nevada as approve*.! 
28 March, 1919 (see page i;{0, School (lodei compels tlie attendance of certain 
government wards at scliools wher ■ tuition, lodging, food, anil clothing are 
furnished at the expense of the United States. Tlieage of comijulsory attendance 
is from eight to twenty years and the period ten months in eacli year.' Free trans- 
port nmst be provided unless the children reside less than ten miles from the 
school. 

(32) The minimum age for employment in any business or service is 14. 



220 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 
Exemptions 



Minimum period 



6-16 



New Mexico (") 

(a) Child is between 14 and 16 and" Seven months, 
holds an employment certificate for the 
purpose of definite employment ("). 



(6) Distance from school three miles, 
(c) Childs is physically incapacitated. • 
Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 if ears and over = 20.2. 



New-York * 

7-16 (^). (a) Child is 14 or over, has proper Nine months 

working papers and is reglilarly and law- 
fully employed (''). 

ib) Physically or mentally incapacita- 
ted. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 5.5. 



7-14 



North Caroi.ina (") 

Child is excused by principal, superin- 
tendent, or teacher on account of sick- 
ness, distance from school, or other una- 
voidable cause C). 



Six months. 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 18.5. 



North Dakota O 
7-17 (a) Completion of grade VIII. 

(b) Services necessary for support of 
child's family, as determined by the 
State attorney, subject to appeal. 



Seven months. 



(33) Report of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1918. 

(34) Employment of children under It is also authorised where " it is shown 
to the satisfaction of the court that it is necessary for such child to work" and 
"if it shall further be shown to the satisfaction of the Court that the education, 
physical and moral welfare of such child are fully provided for". House Bill 
No 310, 1921. 

(35) 8 to 16 in places other than cities or school districts having a population 
of 5,000 or over and employing a superintendent. 

(30) Child who has not completed elementary school course cannot obtains 
certificate of employment until he is 15 years of age. 

(37 1 New School Legislation enacted bv the Ceneral Assenxblv of North 
Carolina, 1920 and 1921, p. 13. 

(38) Tho State Board of Education shall prescribe what shall constitute truancy, 
and under what circunstaiiccs teachers, principals, or superintendents may excuse 
pupils for non-attendance due to immediate demands of the home or of the farm 
in certain seasons of th:- year. 

(39) North Dakota, General School Laws, 1919, p. IIL 



221 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



North Dakota (continued) 

c) Physical or mental condition ren- 
ders attendance impracticable, as certi- 
fied to by a physician. 

(d) Distance from school over 2 1/2 
miles, unless free transport is pro- 
vided n. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 3.1. 



Ohio * 

8-16 (a) Boy exempted if he is 15 or over. Seven months, 

has completed sixth .^rade, and is regu- 
larly employed. 

(b) Physically or mentally incapaci- 
tated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 3.2. 



Oklahoma (^') 

8-18 (a) Mental or physical disability cer- 

tified to by a physician. 



(b) Child is between 16 and 18 years, 
and has completed the full course of ins- 
truction provided by the public schools 
of the district. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 5.6. 



Two - thirds 
of entire ses- 
sion, and in no 
case less than 
three months. 



9-16 n ("). 



Oregon * 

(a) Completion of grammar grades if i Eight months 
child is 14 or over. 

(b) Child is 15 or over and is legally | 
employed in lawful work. I 



(40) If free transport is provided, the law ajiplies to children living any distance 
up to six miles from school. 

(41) Oklahoma Session Laws, 1919, Chap. 59. 

(42) Tlie act creating parental schools (Acts of 1917, ch. 242) by defining an 
habitual truant to be "a child between 7 and IC years of who wilfully and 
habitually absiCnts himself from school" apparently lowers tlie compulsory 
school attendance age from 9 to 7 years. 

(43) To discover the actual school-attendance provisions, the child-labour law 
requiring the attcniiancc of all children betwen 9 and 10 except those over 14 who 
are legally employed must be read in connection with the Education law, requi- 
ring attendance of all cliildren b-twen 9 and inclusive, until completion of the 
grammar grades. - 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum per'o'l 



Oregon {continued) 

I (c) Home three miles from school, if 
I no free transport (**). 

I id) Physically incapacitated. 
Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 ijears and over = 1.9. 



Pennsylvania (^) 

8-16 I (o) Mental or physical incapacitatv 

I or other urgent circumstance (strictly 
I construed, and if child is under 14 years, 
not allowing for employment as in {b). 

(b) Child is between 14 and 16 years, 
can read and write intelligently and is 
regularly engaged in useful, lawful em- 
ployment for which he holds an employ- 
ment certificate. 

(c) Child between 14 and 16 years, 
who has completed grade VI as certi- 
fied to by the teacher, may be permitted 
by the school board to leave school for 
engagement in farm or domestic emplov- 
ment (^). 

(d) Distance from school two miles, 
unless free transport is provided. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 5.9. 



Entired sess- 
ion, which may 
be reduced by 
the Board of 
School Direct- 
o r s in any 
district of 
the fourth class 
to a period not 
less than 70 
per cent, of the 
school term be- 
ginning at a 
fixed date. 



7-15 



Rhode IsL.\Nn {") 

(a) Completion of first eight grades T h i r t y-six 
(excluding kindergarten). j weeks. 

(b) Child is 14 or over and lawfully 
employed at labour or engaged in busi- 
ness, being in sound health and able to 
read and write En-glish. 

(c) Child is excluded from attendance 
" by virtue of some law or regulation ". 

id) Parent is unable to provide cloth- 
ing. 



(44) This exemption applies up to 15 years of age ; child between 9 and 10 
years of age is ex mpted if living more than 1 1/2 miles from school. 

(45) A digest of the Attemlance Laws, Dept. oS Public Instruction, 1920. 

(46) Special forms bust he filed permits for farm work or domestic service 
is private homes. 

(47) School Law of Rhode Island, 1914, p. 96. 



223 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

I-'xeniptions 



Miniinuni period 



HiioDK Islan;) iconl luicd) 

(e) Child is physicailv or inentallv in- 
ca]);u'itate(l. 

(/) Child in attendance at an aijproved 
private school. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 ifcars and over = 7.7. 



South (Carolina * 

8-16 ((/) Child is 14 or over, able to read 

(Law optio- and write simple English sentences, and 



nal with lo- 
cality) n. 



Entire s e s- 
sion; but child 
living in agri- 
culturaldistrict 
and engaged in 
work at home 
need attend on- 
ly four months, 
or full term if 
term is less 
than f o u 1' 
months. 



regularly lawfully engaged in useful em- 
ployment or service. 

(b) Services necessary for support of 
self or parent. 

(c) Parent unable to provide books and 
clothing (exemption to cease after they 
have been otherwise provided). 

id) Temporarily excused by board of 
school trustees for " good and sufficient ' 
reasons. » 

(e) Home 2 1/2 miles from school if 
no free transportation. 

(/) Physicailv or mentally incapacita- 
ted. I 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 25.7. 



South Dakota {*'') 

8-17 (a) Completion of grade VIII. 

{b) Presence of child at home necessa- 
ry because of serious illness in family; 
or presence in school a menace to the 
health of other pupils. 



Six months. 



(48) Law applies only school district electing to adopt, either by vote or by 
petition. 

(4<.») The School Laws of South Dakota, Special Session 1020, p. lo. Further 
Legislation : TTi* School Laws of South Dakota, 1919, page 79, r.xid : "Whenever 
the United States erects or causes to he ercctetl an<i maintained a school for 
general education purposes within the State of South Dakota, and the expense 
of the tuition, lodging, food, and clothing of Indian pupils therein is l)orne by 
the United States, it shall be compulsory on tlie part of overy parent, guardian 
or otber person in the. State having control of ony Indian chiUl betwen the ages 
of 6 and 18 years eligible to attend such school to send such child to such school 



— 224 — 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



South Dakota {continued) 

(c) Child is under private instruction 
aoproved by the country superintendent. 

(d) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

(e) Between April 1 and November 1, 
because of extreme need of assistance at 
home, provided he has completed grade 
VI, child may be excused for a period 
not to exceed forty school days. 

Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 years and over — 2.9. 



Entire s e s- 
sion. 



Tennessee C") 
7-16 (o) Completion of eighth grade. 

(b) Parent unable to provide clothing. 

(c) Distance from school more than 
two miles, if no free transportation. 

id) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 13.6. 



Texas (") 

8-14 a) Child is 12 or over, has completed 

fourth grade, and his services are neces- 
sarv for the support of parent of guar- 
dian. 

(b) Distance from school 2 1/2 miles if 
no free transportation. 

(c) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

(d) Child is in attendance at an ap- 
proved private school, or under proper 
instruction by a tutor. 

Percentage of illiterates in populaf'on of 10 gears and over = 9.9. 



One hundred 
d a y s' begin- 
nin-g with the 
opening of the 
school term,un- 
lesso therwise 
authorised by 
the school trus- 
tees. 



for a period of nine montlis, or during thie annual term unless such child 
be excused from attendance by the sup'-rintendent of schools of the county in 
which such child resides, and a certificate be procured showing that the physical 
or mental condition of such child has been or is such as to prevent his attendance 
at school or application to study for the period required, or that such child is 
being taught in a public or other school, in such branches as rare usually taught 
in the public schools ; provided that in case the United States does not make 
provision for tlie free transportation of such child to and from his home to such 
school, such child, if he resides ten or more miles from such school, shall not 
he subject to the provisions of this article. 

(50) Tennessee Compulsory Attendance Laws, Acts, 1919, chap. 143. 

(51) Texas School Laws, Bulletin 122, 1920, p. 27. 



— 225 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 
Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Utah (") 

8-18 (a) Minor is legally excused to enter 

employment (part-time attendance requi- 
red ). 

(b) Minor has completed the work of 
a senior high school. 

(c) Minor is taught at home the recfuir- 
ed numher of hours. 

(d) Because of mental or physical con- 
dition, attendance is inexpedient or im- 
practicable. 

(e) Distance from school 2 1/2 miles, 
unless free transport is provided. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 2.5. 



Thirty weeks; 
and, if minor is 
excused to en- 
l e r employ- 
ment, a period 
of at least 144 
hours per year 
in a part-time 
o r continua- 
tion school. 



8-16 



Vermont * 

(a) Completion of elementary school 
course. 

(b) If child has reached the age of 15 
and has completed the sixth grade, he 
may be excused from attendance if his 
services are needed for support of de- 
pendents of for any other sufficient rea- 
son. 

(c) " Legally excused from attending 
school. " 

id) Physically or mentally incapacita- 
ted. 



Entire sess- 
ion; if session 
is more than 
170 days, child 
shall « conti- 
nue in school 
unless excused 
in writing by 
the superinten- 
dent ». 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 3.7. 



8-12 n. 



Virginia C) 

(a) Child is able to read and write. 

(b) Child is excused " for cause " by 
district school trustees. 

(d) Child is " weak in body or mind ". 

(c) Distance from school two miles, or 
one mile from line of public free wagon 
route. 



Sixteen 
weeks ''fro m 
t h e beginning 
of the school 
term. 



Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 gears and over = 15.2. 



(52) State of Utali, Sctiool I^aws, reprinted from the Session T,aws of Utali, 
1919, p. 14. 

(5.3)Virginia School Laws, Bulletin State of Education, 1920, page .56. 

(54) A proposed amendment to the State constitution, will, if adopted, give 
the General Assembly power to provide for the compulsory education of children 
of " school age " instead of only, as at present, of children 8 to 12 years of age. 

(55) Two weets' attendance at half-time or night-school is considered equi- 
valent to one week's attendance at day school. 



— 226 



Ages 



U. S. A. {Continued) 
Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Washington ('") 

8-16 ia) Child is 15 or over and regularly Six months, 

and lawfully engaged in remunerative 
employment. 

(b) Child has attained " reasonable 
proficiency in branches taught in first 
eight grades ". 

(c) Child is excused by school superin- 
tendent for " other sufficient reason ". 

(d) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population o/ 10 ijears and over = 2.0. 



7-15 ("). 
Williams 
and Spen- 
cer dis- 
tricts). 



8-15 
Entire state 
except Will, 
and Sp. dist. 



West Virginia * 

(a) Completion of grammar school 
branches. 

{b) Excused on account of sickness, 
etc., or for other reasonable cause. 

(c) Physically or mentally incapacita- 
ted. 

(a) Excused on account of sickness, 
etc., or for other reasonable cause. 



Six months. 



Twenty -if our 
weeks. 



(b) Home two miles from school. 
Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 gears and over = 8.3. 



(56) Code of Puhlic Instruction State of Wasliington, 1917, page 155. 
Further legislation in the State of Washington (page 177) reads : "Whenever the 
Government of the Unit(ul States or the State of Washingon shall erect, or cause 
to be erected and mainTained, a school for general educational purposes within 
the State of Washington, and the expenses of the tuition, lodging, food, and doting 
of the pupils therein is borne by the United States or the State of Washington, 
it shall be compiilsory on tlie part of ervery parent, guardian, or other person 
in the State of Washington having control "of a child or children betwen the 
ages of five and eighteen years, eligible to attend said school, to send such child 
or children has been and is such as to prevent his, her, or their attendance at 
annual term, unless such child or children is or are excused from such attendance 
by the principal or superintendent upon it being shown to the satisfaction of said 
principal or superintendent that the bodily or mental condition of such child 
or children has been and is such as to prevent his, her, or their attendance at 
school, or application at study for the period required, or that such child or chil- 
dren is or are taught in the public schools, private schools or other schools, or t 
that in case the Government of the United States or the State of Washington, does 
not m:iJ<e provision for the free transportation of said child or children to and 
home in such branches as are usually taught in the public schools : Provided 
that in case the Government of tfe United Slates or the State of Washington, does 
not make provision for the free transportation of said child or children to and 
from their homes to said school, then he, she, or thev shall not be liable to the 
provisions of this Act, unless they reside less than ten 'miles from said school ". 

(57) The child labour law requiring certificates for the employment of children 
between 14 and 16 in any gainful occupation would apparentlv exempt from 
school attendance a child of 14 over who could satisfv the educational require- 
mtrnts for a certlFTcate (ability to read and write simple En!?lish sentences and 
completion of sixth grade). 



00- 



Ages 



U. S. A. (Continued) 

Exemptions 



Minimum period 



7 16 



Wisconsin D 

(a) Child is 14 or over and is regularly 
and lawfully e/inployed at home or elsew- 
here. 

ib) Completion of eighth grade. 

(c) Distance from school more than 
two miles, if no free transport. 

id) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 



Entire sess- 
ion in cities of 
first class ;ei'ght 
school months 
in any other 
city; six school 
smonths in any 
town or village 



Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 3.2. 



Entire sess- 
ion (at least 
three months). 



Wyoming D 
7-14 (a) Child is physically incapacitated. 

(b) When attendance might " work a 
hardship ", exemption may be granted 
by the District Board. 

(c) Child is excluded for legal reasons, 
unless special provision is made for his | 
schooling. | 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 5 i/ears and over = 3.3. 



District of Columbia 

8-14 ("). (a) Child has acquired branches of Entire sess- 

knowled'ge taught in public schools. ion. 

(b) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

Percentage of illiterates in population of 10 years and over = 4.9. 



(58) Laws of ^S'isconsin relatino; to Common Schools (published 1910), page 
445. 

(59) Child between 9 and 14 living trwo and tliree miles from school must 
attend at least sixty days per year. 

(60) School Laws of Wyoming, 1919. 

(61) Child Labor Law, passcid later than compulsory school attendance law, 
provides for the issuance of work permits to a child of 12 or over whose ser- 
vices are necessary for support of self, parents, or younger brother or sister. 



— 228 



2. — EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 

In its main lines the system of control of the employment 
of children in agriculture in Canada and in the United States 
differs but little from that on which the older countries rely. 
In Europe, as in the Western Hemisphere, there are few 
examples of direct legislation bearing on the labour of chil- 
dren in agriculture, either with respect to the age of admis- 
sion to agricultural work or in relation to other means of pro- 
tection. The reason is not far to seek. Throughout Europe 
the public conscience has been awakened to the evils resulting 
to children from their premature admission to factory life. It 
does not need close study of any industry to realise that a 
child must suffer physically if the spends most of his waking 
hours in a crowded workshop; and it would probably be ge- 
nerally conceded that minding machines is an unsuitable oc- 
cupation for young children. It is easy also to appreciate the 
moral dangers which beset children too early absorbed into 
industry. 

In agriculture the need for safeguarding the child is less 
obvious. To those who agree that a life in the open air 
and the manifold interests of country life are conducive to 
the child's physical and mental development, it may not be 
apparent that, unless judgment and control are exercised as 
to the type of farm-work allotted to growing boys and girls 
these children may be set tasks beyond their strength. The 
lack of limitation of hours of labour in agriculture exposes 
the child on the farm to special dangers which have already 
been diminished by legislation in the case of the child in 
industry. The child farm-worker inay be robbed of sleep 
and recreation necessary for his healthy physical develop- 
ment, and no one be the wiser; in the dulled mental faculties 
of that child when he becomes an adult few would recognise 
the result of some local employer's practice of relying on 
cheap child labour to keep down the wage bill. While the 
more enlightened farmer has realised that his own interests 
are better served if he employs children only on such tasks 
and for such hours of work as are well within the limit of 
their capacity, the absence of direct legislation makes it 
difficult in most countries to deal with abuses when they 
exist. It is undeniable that it is no easy matter to frame 
a law controlling the employment of children in agriculture; 
the administration of any such law must inevitably present 
problems difficult to solve in a practical and satisfactory 
fashion ; and hitherto these difficulties would seem to have 
discouraged Governments from an attempt to extend to the 
country child such protection as is enjoyed by the young 
factory worker. Conditions of work on the land tend to 
exclude the more familiar forms of Government control as 
we know them in industry. For the effective inspection of 



— 229 — 

scattered workers whose very employment necessitates their 
frequent transfer from one part to another of any farm of 
considerable acreage a more elastic and less costly system 
appears to be required. 

Meanwhile, as if by common consent, the majority of Euro- 
pean States have sought a safeguard for childliood in rural 
districts through the indirect operation of education laws 
by which the age of a child's admission to general em- 
ployment can be more or less controlled. 

Since the main purpose of labour legislation in Europe 
is to protect the workers in industry prohibition or limi- 
tation of the employment of children, as of ad'iits, is usually 
related to special trades or processes ; where a schedule of 
suchs trades exists, agriculture is automatically, excluded. 
There are, however, labour laws which specifically exclude 
agriculture from the protection accorded to other industries. 
The Netherlands Labour Act of 1st November 1919 for the 
regulation of hours is such a law. « Agriculture, horticulture, 
forestry and cattle-keeping » are excepted in Section 1 (1") 
from the occupations in which the hours of labour are regu- 
lated, and consequently' the clause prohibiting all work to 
a child under 14 years of age who is attending school does 
not apply to children in agriculture. 

The specific inclusion of the control of children's agricul- 
tural work in general labour laws calls for some consider- 
ation. The conditions governing child labour in agriculture 
are laid down in certain countries ; the relevant sections are 
here summarised : 

Labour Laws with Provisions relating to the Employment 
OF Children in Agriculture 



LAWS 



Denmark. Act on 
work factories and 
regulation of the 
same. 29 April 1913. 



Esthonia. Agri- 
cultural Labour 
Law. 13 May 1921. 



PROVISIONS 



a) Children under 10 are unconditionally 
prohibited from working with machinery. 

b) Children under 12 are not permitted to 
work with machinery (1) (driving a horse- 
whim excepted) « unless they are under 
the direct and continual supervision of 
their parents ». 

c) Children and young persons up to 16 
may not, without supervision, be employed 
in tending machinery declared dangerous 
by the Minister of the Interior. 

a) Children under 12 can only be em- 
ployed on their parents farms. 

b) Children from 12 to 16 may only be 
employed on easy work or on herding 
cattle. 

c) School children cannot be employed 
except during the holidays. 



— 230 



LAWS 


PROVISIONS 


Italy. Act regu- 
lating the cultiva- 
tion of Rice. 16 
June, 1907. 

Spain. Regula- 
tions for the adop- 
tion of maximum 
working day of 
eight hours (2). 15 
January 1920. 

Switzerland (Ba- 
selstadt) ; Act res- 
pecting hours of 
work. 8 April 1920. 


a) Children under 14 may not be em- 
ployed in the weeding {mondatiira) of rice- 
fields. 

b) Boys under 16 cannot be employed 
in weeding rice, except on presentation of 
a birth certificate. 

Young persons under 16 are prohibited 
from working overtime. 

Children may not be employed under the 
age of 12 in any agricultural undertaking 
other than that of their parents; a limit of 
six hours' work a day during the whole 
period of compulsory school attendance and 
of two hours in the school term is imposed. 



Taking an example from this group of laws, we find that 
the protection of children engaged in farm-In }>our appears 
in a modified form as compared with the age-'imit, control 
of hours and safety regulations imposed for children in other 
occupations. In the Danish law quoted above, children who 
have not completed their compulsory school attendance are 
altogether prohibited from work in occupations subject to 
inspection. The Danish School Law fixes that age at 14 (1); 
the child in agriculture is permitted to work with inachinery 
and without the safeguard of inspection four years earlier. 
This may be considered typical of the diffferentiation com- 
monly practised between agricultural and industrial employ- 
ment in Europe. Alike in countries where there is no limi- 
tation as to emplojdng the agricultural child with machinery 
and in those who have recognised the necessity of reducing 
the risks of such employment, attention has not hitherto been 
focussed on the fact that the absence of the accepted safe- 
guards of factory work (fencing, etc.) in agricultural machin- 
ery must tend to increase rather than to diminish the danger 
to child farm-workers now that mechanical power is increa- 
singly used for agricultural implements. Even in those 
countries which have enacted child labour laws directly con- 
trolling the employment of children, modification of the stan- 
dard of protection set up for the factory child is character- 
istic when it is to be applied to children on the land. The 



(1) Any machine on land which, when at work, can cause damage to life or 
health is includod, whether it be power driven by steam, water, wind, gas, oil, elec- 
tricity, or animal power. 

(2) The provisions of tliis Act are applicable to 'all workers in industries, occu- 
pations, and paid employments of all kinds, who are engaged under the dirciction 
or supervision of some other person. , 

(3) Cf. Compulsory School Attendance Laws table attached: Denmark. 



— 231 — 

legislation summarised below cannot be considered inde- 
pendently of compulsory school attendance, but rather as 
complementary to the school law of each country, and it 
should be read with the Education Code in every case. 

Austria, by the Child Labour Act of 19 December 1918, and 
Czecho-Slovakia by a very similar Act (17 July 1919) prohibit 
the general employment of children under 12 years old. In 
both Acts this prohibition is modified in the case of agricul- 
ture, employment in « light work in agriculture » being per- 
mitted from the age of ten. On Sundaj^s and religious festi- 
vals children may not be employed save only for « urgent 
agricultural operations necessary to save the crops, or for 
regular (agricultural) operations which cannot be postpon- 
ed )). Only six hours' work may be required of the agricul- 
tural child on holidays ; this may be compr^red with the 
restriction to four hours' employment of a child engaged in 
other occupations. It may be noted that the definition of 
child labour is common to both Acts and is exceedingly 
wide : « The employment of children in any work whatever 
for which remuneration is paid or which is carried on regu- 
larly even if it is not remunerated ». In Czecho-Slovakia, as 
in Austria, cliildren may not work more than three hours on 
school-days. Agricultural employment for children is pro- 
hibited « in general » for the two hours immediately pre- 
ceding school, and an houi-'s leisure after school is com- 
pulsory. 

In Great Britain and Ireland, apart from the school atten- 
dance provisions in the Education Acts, the labour of 
children in agriculture is already controlled by legislation. 
Li the Agricultural Gangs Act (1) of 1867 it was laid down 
that the distance to which children might travel for work 
should be specified on every gang-master's license (2) ; and 
it established 8 years as a statutory minimum age for children 
in agricultural gangs. The Agricultural Children's Act of 
1873 (dealing generally with the education of agricultural 
children) raised the minimum age for employment in gangs 
to 10. In 1876 the Agricultural Children's Act was itself 
repealed by the Education Act, and the age of 10 was fixed as 
a general minimum age for employment. The fact that the 
age of exemption from school attendance for employment 
has since been graduallj' raised to 12 does not actually pro- 
vide a restriction on the employment of children by gang- 
masters ; for « it has been held that this regulation does not 

(1) This was passed to deal with conditions which were then common, where 
groups of children were taken far from their homes to work under the charge of 
« gang-masters », to whom farmers in the sparsely populated districts of the 
newly drained fen-country had sub-contracted their labour. Tlae school atten- 
dance of these children was made impossible, abuses were grave, and the moral 
conditions were often of the worst description. (Report of Special Assistant Poor 
Law Commissioners on Employment of Women and Children in Agricultue 1843, 
pp. 220-276). 

(2) The Act required that,5aTig-masters must be licensad by at least two magis- 
trates sitting in petty sessions; in 1894 the duty of licensing gang-masters was 
transferred to the Rural District Councils. C/ii7rf Labour in the United Kingdom, 
Keeling, p. 11. London 1914. 



— 232 — 

apply to employment of children by licensed gang-masters 
in ways which do not directly interfere with their school 
attendance (1) ». 

The Employment of Children Act 1903 governs conditions 
for children in general employment i. e., children other than 
those engaged in industrial work (2), and its provisions were 
amended in 1918 by Section 13 of the Education (England 
and Wales) Act. The employment for more than two hours 
of any child of « 12 or upwards » is prohibited (a) on Sunday, 

(b) during school hours on any day when the school is open, 

(c) on any day before 6 in the morning or after 8 in the eve- 
ning. This amended paragraph still authorises a Local 
Authority to make bye-laws permitting employment of chil- 
dren « of 12 and upwards » in occupations which should be 
specified (« subject to such conditions as may be necessary 
to safeguard their interests »), {a) before school hours, (b) by 
their parents ; but it stipulates that no child attending school 
who is employed before 9 in the morning shall be again 
employed during the afternoon for more than nn hour. The 
English law of school attendance has been amended and 
consolidated in the Education Act 8 August 1918, commonly 
kniwn as the « Fisher Act », and the Education (Consolidation) 
Act 21 August 1921. The main lines of the policy of the Fisher 
Act are reproduced in the Education (Scotland) Act of 21 No- 
vember 1918. The leading provision of the legislation of 1918 
in regard to Elementary Schools is contained in Section 8 
(1) and (2) of the English Act and Section 14 (1) and (2) of the 
Scottish Act, where it is laid down that no local Education 
Authority shall retain power to make bye-laws for thf 
exemption of children under 14 (the age-limit for compulsory 
school attendance). These provisions are not yet operative 
either in England and Wales or in Scotland, and will in no 
case come into force before 1 January 1922. When they 
come into force their effect will be to abolish all exemptions 
under 14. Pending the application of these provisions the 
powers of local Education Authorities remain as before in 
the matter of exemption from attendance at school for 
« general emploj'^ment », except in the London Area, which 
is administered by the London County Council (3). Never- 
theless, such parts of the 1918 Acts as are already operative 
have materially strengthened educational legislation in the 
United Kingdom. 

In section 16 of the Norwegian Education Code there are 
embodied some restrictions applicable to the employment of 
children of school age. No such child may be taken into 

(1) Child Labour in the United Kingdom, Keeling, p. 11, London 1914. 

(2) The Women, Young Persons and Children Employment Act 1920 is concerned 
alone with industrial employment, and therefore no fresh powers have been acquired 
by the Homie Office to deal with children in agriculture. In the Education anl 
EmploymcTit of Children Acts a child means a boy or girl under 14; a young person 
means a boy or girl who is over 14 and under 18 years of age. 

(3) Cf. Compulsory School Attendance Tables attached; England and Wales, 
footnote 8. 



— 233 — 

employment unless he obtains from his teacher a certificate 
stating his hours of school attendance. No child of school 
age may be employed during school hours nor jt such a time 
as would prevent his arriving « sufficiently rested » in time for 
school. Neither may any child be employed in such a way 
as to prejudice his school preparation work. 

The means of enforcing school attendance varies conside- 
rably in different countries. It may be the police in coopera- 
tion with the school authorities, the civil or communal author- 
ity, or a local school council which derives its powers from 
a provincial or central council, and which relies ultimately 
on the Ministry responsible for education. In England the 
local educational authority works through its attendance 
officers, who are authorised to enter any place where they 
may suspect unlawful emploj'ment, « whether it be a buil- 
ding or not )). 

Austria has essayed a system of inspection of child labour 
in connection with the Act already quoted (1). To this end 
special offices are to be established ; the duty of the officials 
in charge of such offices is : (a) to supervise the administra- 
tion of the Act of 1918 in co-operation with the industrial ins- 
pection officials; (b) to make reports and proposals in cases 
where relaxations are permitted by the local public authori- 
ties of the Federal States or where the administration itself 
authorises exceptions. All child welfare organisations and 
the Social Insurance Institute are required to notify the 
inspection officer of any contraventions of provisions of the 
Act which may come to their knowledge (2). 

A system of rural inspection which would give the child in 
agriculture similar protection to that provided by an efficient 
system of factory legislation has yet to be founJ; and in most 
states the tendency is rather to tighten the control exercised 
by the school laws by reducing the authorised exemptions 
than to devise any legislation by which child labour in agri 
culture may be altogether excluded until th*^ age-limit of 
school attendance is reached. 

So long as Education Laws are the chief safe>ouard for the 
child in general employment certain points must be closely 
studied in such legislation, for it is in the observance of limi- 
tations wisely imposed that child workers can be best 
protected. 

The age-limit for school attendance is a point of great 
importance, but until that is uniform there are other consid- 
erations which appear to be of even greater moment. These 
include the length of the school-year and the number of 
day's attendance required in the year, both of which vary to 
an almost incredible degree in the different countries of 
Europe. Exemptions from attendance, whether admittedly 

(1) Cf. ante p. 231. 

(2) Administrative Instruction of tlie State Department for Social Welfare in 
agreement with the State Departments for the Interior, Education, Justice, Finance, 
Agriculture, etc., 33 January 1918. 



— 234 — 

for work or for such periods of time as to permit of work, 
complicate the wliole question ; and close investigation 
reveals the fact that neither the age-limit nor the length of 
the school-year governs the situation, nor even the number 
of attendances to which the school child is generally liable 
under the law. Half-time or other partial exemption, 
exemption for seasonal work, the reduction of the school 
year for agricultural purposes in a given locality, all these 
exemptions, and many more, play their part in depriving the 
country child of the protection which it is the aim of the best 
kind of educational legislation to give. 

The strict enforceinent of the laws, which must depend on 
the efficiency of the Educational Authorities and their inde- 
pendence of outside influence, is of very great importance, and 
in small communities in rural districts it is by no means easy 
to secure such independence. 

Severe penalties in the case of unlawful employment 
undoubtedly act as a deterrent in industry ; but in the coun- 
try districts such offences are difficult to detect, and it is not 
easy to induce persons not immediately interested to give 
information to the comf)etent authority. In the enforcement 
of minimum attendance, it is increasingly the modern ten- 
dency to exercise pressure in such a way as will above all 
secure an adequate education for the child. For this reason 
countries with advanced educational legislation prefer the 
attendance order of the magistrate and the special school for 
truants to a money fine or imprisonment of the cliild's 
responsible guardian. The well-being of the child is now 
considered to be of more importance than the punislunent 
of the parent, if we except the case of a parent conniving at 
unlawful employinent, when a heavy penalty is usually 
imposed. 

Under English law local Educational Authorities cannot 
neglect their duties with impunity. For instance, should 
they fail to provide additional school accommodation when 
it is required, or should they neglect to make attendance 
bye-laws, they will be compelled by the Board of Education 
to repair the omission and the order may be enforced by 
mandamus (1). 

Analysing the tables of compulsory school attendance laws 
in Europe which follow, we find that only in one of the states 
represented is elementary school attendance obligatory 
throughout the country up to the age of 15. In nine coun- 
tries the statutory age-limit is 14 (2), in four it is 13, in 
three it is 12 (1), and three countries fix no upper age-limit. 

(1) Education Act (England and Wales) 1902. Section 16. 

(2) Switzci-land has some examples ol' elementary school attendance extending to 
15, but tlie lowrr age-limit in other cantons reduces the average limit of age to 14. 
Cf. Compulsory Scliool Attendance Laws Tables attached, Switzerland. 

In Germany the age-limit is 14 in all the federated states as a rule, both 
in rural and urban districts. Article 115 of the Constitution of 11 August 1919 
seeks to secure complete uniformity by re-stating that the statutory minimum pe- 
riod- of instruction is eight years for all elementary schools. 

(1) For tlie actual practice in the rural districts with regard to an alternative 



235 



The difference between the ages for eiitering elementary 
school is negligible. It is invariably 6 or 7 except in one 
country (2), which has the nominal age of 5; but in this case 
it is contemplated that children may be exempted from the 
ordinary elementary school until the age of 6, wherever nur- 
sery schools arc provided. Information as to the length of 
the school-year is incomplete ; but reference to the attached 
tables will show a variation in the period between European 
countries represented from 12 weeks to 10 months. There is 
a remarkable variation in the maximum period fixed for 
exemptions allowed for agricultural work in different parts 
of Europe, Comparing eleven countries which exempt specifi- 
cally for employment in agriculture, the same limit appears 
twice only. The following limits are fixed in the legislation 
of these countries, and are embodied in the exemptions 
which can be studied in the tables summarising their educa- 
tion laws. 



MAXIMLM lEKIOD 


REASON FOR JXEMPTION FROM SCHOOL 


1. 8 days 

II. 14 days 

III. 35 days 

IV. 6 'weekis .... 

V. Varying pe- 
riods according to 
the regulations in 
different states, from 
I4days to 8\veeksi2- 
VI. 3 months. . . . 

VII. 4 months 

VIII. 4 montlis 

IX. 6 or 9 months. 

X. Varying pe- 
riods according to 
cantons 


Urgent Agricultural Work. 

Field work in spring and autumn. 
Seasonal agricultural work (for 3rd or 4th 
grade pupils). 

Agricultural work (for child of 10 when 
previous attendance has been regular). 

Necessary or seasonal agricultural work 
which may include helping either parents 
or other persons in field or harvest work, 
potato-lifting, etc. 

Half-time for agricultural work, for child 
who has reached age of apprenticeship, on 
reasoned application of parents. 

Parents occupied in agricultural work. 
(School year reduced on application of pa- 
rents.) 

Seasonal agricultural work (school-year 
reduced to 6 months for children of poor 
parents to assist them). 

Agricultural work. (Period determined 
according to age of child.) 

Urgent agricultural work, cattle tending 
in the high pastures, etc. 

Employment in agriculture. 


XI. Exact period 
not specified, but 
« partial exemption » 
may in practice 
extend to 3-5 months. 



age-limit lor the « upper » or « lower courses » of iusrucUon, cl'. Compulsory 
School Attendance Laws Tables attached. Italy. 

(2) Cf. Compulsory School Attendance Laws Tables attached. England and 
Wales) Exemption (b). 



— 236 — 

The amount of employment in agriculture is more difficult 
to gauge in countries in which exemption from school attend- 
ance is not specifically granted for agricultural work, and 
it is difficult to see how there can be effective control of the 
employment of children in such work so long as the school 
attendance period can be curtailed without a definite reason. 
An instance is provided in the case of Sweden, where no spec- 
ific exemption for agricultural work can be granted. In a 
pamphlet published bj' order of the Swedish Government's 
Delegation for collaboration in Social Politics, it is stated 
that parents and agricultural employers expect the help 
of the older children for certain times of the year at 
least. It is also recorded that the reports of school inspectors 
witness to the fact that such employment seriously interferes 
with school attendance. An enquiry was held into large scale 
agriculture in Sweden into; out of a total of 11,970 workers 
employed on 288 typical farms it was found that 51.6 per cent 
were permanently and 48.4 per cent temporarily employed. 
6.0 per cent were under 18; one-seventh of these were under 
15; but among the temporary workers 31.6 per cent were 
under 18 and three-fifths of these were children under 15 (1). 

Italian school attendance legislation has had to meet the 
difficulty of children who « customarily do not attend school 
during part of year » by permitting commnnes. under certain 
safeguards, to reduce the school-year (ordinarily 10 months) 
to six months (2). This is plainly regarded as better than 
unregulated non-attendance. 

Such conditions show the practical difficulty of securing, 
under the present system, any results analogous to those 
which may be claimed for industrial legislation : and seem to 
suggest that a uniform age and the abolition of exemptions 
should be co-related in any attempt to establish real control 
of the Employment of Children. 



(1) The Swedish Agricultural Labourer. Published by order of the Swedish 
Government's Delegation for International Collaboration in Social Politics, p. 71. 
Stockholm 1921. 

(2) Elementary School law, Italy 194. Art. 19. Cf. also compulsory school atten- 
dance laws tables, Italj'. 



— 237 — 

COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE LAWS 

AND ILLITERACY 

IN EUROPE 



Ages between 
which every 
chihl must at- 
t e n d school 
unless exemp- 
ted. 



Exemptions, i.e. conditions under anj' one ol 
which absence from school mav be allowed. 



MinimuHi p e - 
riod of compul- 
sory school at- 
tendance for each 
child each year. 



Austria ' 

6-14. a) Child is under equivalent instruc- 

tion at home or in State secondary or 
recognised private school, particulars of 
such instruction being notified to Edu- 
cational Authority. 

b) Requisite standard of knowledge 
has been reached by child at 13 1/2 
years of age. 

c) Child is attending higher school 
(Biirgerschul), or is attending industrial, 
commercial, or agricultural courses ac- 
cepted by Minister of Education as equi- 
valent to the ordinary course. 

d) Illness of child. 

e) Infectious disease in the home. 

/) Death in the family (excuses tempo- 
rary absence only). 

<7) Attendance is dangerous to health of 
child owing to bad weather or impas- 
sable roads. 

h) Physical or mentally incapacity. 



Percentage of illiterates in 1910 in population of 11-20 years of age 
Boys : 9.62 *. Girls .-11.32. 



(li School Law of 1905 f Austrian Imperial Diet). 

The Act respecting child labour (Gesetz iiber die Kinderarbcit), 19th December. 
1918. No. 141, states (Section 4) « General limitation; Children shall only be 
employed or otherwise occupied in so far as the carrying out of their compul- 
sory school attendance is not prevented >. This applies to « the employer's own 
children and all other children in work of any kind for which remuneration is 
paid, or which is carried on regularly even if it is not specially remunerated. ■• 

'191(1 Census figures Anniuiire Inlernational de Statistique, Etat de la Popula- 
tion iLurope) 1916, p. 1.58. 



— 238 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Belgium (') 

6-14 ^ a) Child is under instruction at home 235 days 

or is attending a private school of a 
primary or middle grade. 

b) Child has completed his 13 th year, 
and has obtained the certificate of pri- 
mary studies (Certificat d'etudes primai- 
res). 

c) Distance from school exceeds four 
kilometres. 

d) Conscientious objections of parents 
to all schools within four kilometres, 
these objections being recognised as well- 
founded by the competent authority. 

e) Physically or (mentally incapaci- 
tated. 

f) No fixed residence. 

g) Illness of child. 

h) Death of a member of the family. 

z) Accidental difficulties of communi- 
cations. 

y) Child has exemption in writing up 
to 35 days for seasonal agricultural work, 
beinig a pupil of third or fourth grade, 
such exemption being approved by the 
school inspector (4). 

Percentage of illiterates in 1920 in population of 5-14 years of age 
Boys : 29.05 *. Girls : 27.33 



Bulgaria C) 

7-14 \ I Child is under equivalent instruction 
or in a private school (7). 
I Child has completed four years' atten 



(1) Law ol' compulsorv primary education, lOtii May 1914, as amended 14tli 
August 1919 and 13tli November 1919, and 14th August 1920. 

(2) Eight years' instruction is obligatory, and is re'Ckoned from the autum 
111 tlie year in which the cliild has attained his sixtli year. Any child beginning 
Ills attendance later than at six years of age must remain tlie full time unless 
he obtains his certificate of primary studies al tlie end of his thirteenth year. 
Even the Minister cannot authorise any departure from this regulation. 

(3) Fixed residence is considered to be established for school attendance pur- 
poses in twenty-eight days. 

(4) Does not apply to fourth grade if child's instruction is already based vipon 
half time. (Section 7). 

•1910 Census figures AnminiPe International dc Statistiqiie, 1, Etat de la Fopu- 
tiition (.Europe) 191(), page 158. 

(.■)) Act on National Enlightenment ^Education). 

(G) Four years' instruction between the ages 7-14 ((S. 5 (3.1). 

17) Such children are examined at tlie end of each school year, and if satis- 
factory progress has not been made are removed to a public national school. 
(S. 41. (4). 



J39 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimujn period 



Bulgaria {continued) 

dance at the elementary school between 
7 and 14 years of age, as required by 
the Act (1). 



Percentage of illiterates in 1920 in population 5-14 years of age 
Boijs : 50.29 *. Girls : 63.86 *. 



7-14. 



Denmark ^ 

a) Child is under adequate instruction 
at home or in a private school. 

b) Child is 14 years old and has passed 
the leaving examination. 

c) Child will complete his 14 th year 
before the end of the summer term; and 
having passed the spring leaving exami- 
nation, has, at the request of his parents, 
been released from attendance by the 
School Commission for special circq/m- 
stances in the home. 

Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



41 weeks 



7-13 \ 



Finland * 

a) Child is receiving equivalent ins- 
truction at home or in a private school. 

b) Distance from School of more than 
5 kilometres (6). 



36 weeks'. 



(1) Attendance at continuation classes for tliree years is compulsorj' for all 
children under 14 who on leaving the elementary school have not entered a pro- 
gymnasium (.higher grade) or special schooi. 

*1910 Census figures Annuaire International de Statistique, 1, Etat de la Popu- 
lation (Europe) 1916, page 158. 

(2) Elementary School Laws, 1855-1904. Denmark. 

(3) At the parents' request the child may enter the school at 6 years of age. 

(4) Compulsory school Law, 1920, Finland. 

(5) If the child has not reached the requisite standard of knowledge, attendance 
must be continued until the age of 14. The first or lower course extends over 
2 years, and 4 years should be devoted to the second or higher course. The law 
provides that throughout the countrj districts continuation schools shall be opened 
for a minimum of four hours a week during 25 weeks for children who have 
attended primary schools which are unable to offer ii^.struction for the statutory 
period of attendance. For such children attendance at the continuation scliool 
is compulsory. 

(0> This applies especially to districts where the density of tlie population is 
less than three inhabitants to the square kilometre. It is enjoined upon Com- 
munal authorities that, in building new schools, the demands of sparsely popu- 
lated districts for educational facilities should be taken into consideration; and 
that wherever possible such districts should be grouped so as to minimise dis- 
tance difficulties which might exclude children from the benefits of public Ins- 
truction. 

(7) In districts where there is but one teacher to serve two schools the child's 
attendance mav be reduced to 18 weeks. On the other hand, in a school where 
both the higher and lower courses are given by the same teacher 40 weeks' atten- 
dance may be required of the pupils. 



240 — 




Finland {continued} 

c) Physical or mental incapacity as 
certified by a doctor. 

d) Child is in one of the two highest 
forms, and is excused attendance for the 
maximum of a week by the School Com- 
mittee for urgent agricultural work. 

Percentage of illiterates in 1920 in population from 5-14 ifears of age 
. .Bogs : 24.83 *. Girls : 24.69 *. 



France ^ 

6-13. a) Child is under efficient instruction 

in the home or is attendin'g private pri- 
mary or secondary school or public se- 
condary school. 

b) Child has obtained at or after age 
twelve the certificate of primary studies. 
(Certificat d'etudes primaires) (2). 

c) Illness of child which has been no- 
tified to Headmaster (3). 

d) Death of a Imember of the child's 
family which has been notified to the 
Headmaster (4). 

e) Child residing with parent or guar- 
dian has been exempted (5) from atten- 
dance for three months by School Coun- 
cil on the reasoned application of parent 
or guardian. 

/) Child (having reached the age of 
apprenticeship) has been exempted from 
one attendance daily, by the school coun- 
cil with the approbation of the provin- 
cial council, either for industrial or agri- 
cultural employment. 

g) Accidental difficulties during con- 
veyance to school. 

h) Other circumstances which have 
been accepted as ground of exemption by 
the school council. 

Percentage of illiterates in 1911 in population 5-14 gears of age 
Bogs : 15.01 *. Girls : 14.19 *. 



*1910 Census ligures. Anniiuire International de S'tatintique, 1, Etat de la Popu- 
lation (Europe), 1916, page 100. 

(1) Law by which primary instruction becomes compulsory, 28 March 1882. 

(2) Law of .January 1910 amending the first p;irnsi'aph of Section 6 of the 
Law of 28th March 1882. 

(4) Headmasters and headmistresses of private schools must, as in public 
Kchools, keep a register of absences of scholars and must report to the Mayor 
each month. 

(r» If these exemptions exceed a fortnight tliey must he submitted for the appro- 
val of tlie Inspector of Primary Education. 

*1911 Census figures Anmiaire International de Statistique, 1, Etat de la Popii- 
lalion (Europe) 1916, page 1.59. 



— 241 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



6-14 



German t' {Baden'') 

a) Sickness of child. 

b) Grave illness of parents, calling for 
the child's presence at home. 

c) Child has reached the last three 
years of compulsory attendance at the 
elementary school, and has been excused 
attendance for necessary agricultural 
work for a maximum of 14 days (5). 

Percentage of Illiterates — no information. 



40 weeks \ 



6-13 



Germany (Bavaria'') 

a) Child is 13 and has passed the Minimum p£ 
« Schlusspriifung » examination, and riod ' 
having satisfied the district Inspector, 40 weeks, 
has received a « Schlusszeignis » (Certi- 
ficate of proficiency) excusing attendance 
at elementary school. 

b) Sickness of child, or infectious di- 
sease in the home. 

c) Bad roads or inclement weather. 

d) Child is absolutely needed to help 
in household or agricultural work. 

e) Christenin-g', wedding, or funera'l in 
the immediate family. 

f) When summer school, i. e., a shor- 
tened school-day is permitted for a defi- 
nite ijeriod to enable the elder children 
to assist their parents in field work, or 
to 'give help to the head teacher in the 
cultivation of the piece of land which 
represents in some cases part of his 
remuneration <9). 

Percentage of Illiterates : No information 



(1) .4s a consequence of delay in obtaining detailed information for the Tables, 
these are not complete for cvcrij State. Six States in n'hicli (Kjricultiire is hi(jly deve- 
loped are taken as examples of compulsory school attendance legislation in G,ir- 
many. 

(2) Compulsory school Laws of the State of Baden, 1775-1907. 

{3) School laws 1868 and 1874 and Art. 115 of German Constitution of 11 August 
1919. Continuation school is compulsory for four years after leaving the elementary 
school. 

(4) The number of hours' instruction is regulated according to the age of tli ■ 
pupil and the organisation of the schools in the dilferent provinces. 

(5) The holidays for the whole year may not exceed eight weeks; therefore holi- 
days for harvest-work, potato lifting, etc., cannoi be more than four weeks in the 
year in all. 

ifi) Compulsory School Laws of the State of Bavaria, 1802-1918. 

i7i Article 145 of German Constitution of 11 August 1919 makes the It age-limit 
compulsory for the whole Empire; but this is not yet fullv applied in every state. 
As fixed by the law of Bavaria t)ic age-limit is' reached at the end of school 
year following the child's thirteenth birthday. The Decree of June 4 1903 provides 
for enforcement of an additional year's attendance if the peescribed standard of 
knowledge is not attained at the end of the statutory period. Continuation schools 
are compulsory for four years; 40 weeks yearly with attendance from 6 to 10 hours 
weekly. 

(8) As a rule. 5 hours daily in Bavaria ; in Lower Bavaria, in the sunnmer three 
hours daily, with a total of 18 hours weekly. 

(9) The summer school may not begin earlier than the month of July. 



242 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Germany (continued) {Mecklenburg-Schiverin ') 



6-14 



a) Sickness of child. 

b) Impassable I'oads. 

c) On the yearly market day in the 
nearest town, and on Wednesday and 
Thursday following Whit Sundav. 

d) Child is engaged on seasonal agri- 
cultural work for such periods of time 
as are agreed between the head teacher 
and the local School Authority; the total 
not to exceed 8 1/2 weeks in the year, 
which may include one week in seed- 
time or hay-harvest to help the head 
teacher on his land ; (4) corn-harvest 
holidays (Ernteferien) or potato-lifting 
holidays (Kartoffelferien). 

Percentage of Illiterates : No information. 



40 weeks. 

8 1/2 weeks 
special h o 1 i- 
days are pei'- 
mitted during 
the school 
year '. 



6-14 •. 



Prussia ' 

a) Child is received adequate educa- 
tion at home as approved by the Edu- 
cation Authority. 

b) Sickness of child. 

c) Child is 13, has passed a qualifying 
examination, and is excused attendance 
in the case of illness of parents, brothers, 
or sisters who require his assistance at 
home. 

d) Child is 13, has passed a qualifying 
examination, and is needed to contribute 
to the support of the younger children 
on account of poverty of parents. 

e) Child has been excused attendance 
for a period not exceedin^g 14 days for 
urgent reasons (7). 

/) Child is excused attendance for agri- 
cultural seasonal work for a period 



40 weeks. 



(1) Compulsory School laws, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and amendments up to 1905. 

(2) The continuation school made compulsory for boys up to 18 in 1905. Both 
sexes included by Art. 145 of German Constitution, 11 August 1919. 

(3) There must be agreement between the school manager, the Pastor, and the 
Head Teacher as to when these special holidays should be given. 

(4) A part of the remuneration of Uie Head Teacher in rural schools may be a 
piece of land. 

(5) Compulsory School laws of the Kingdom of Prussia 1825-1907. 

(6) Age-limit of 14 lixed bv legislation of the Kingdom of Prussia and by Art. 145 
of the German Constitution of 11 August 1919. This Article also extends "to 18 the 
obligation to attend a continuation school. Attendance at a continuation school was 
not before compulsory for Prussia as a whole, although from time to time all 
excepting the four eastern provinces have enforced it by means of local councils 
deriving their authority froim special laws. 

17) No exemption can be granted for a longer period without permission of the 
School Board. 



— 243 — 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Germany {continued) (Prussia) 

which may not exceed two months in 
any year, the exemption being granted 
by the School Council and District School 
Inspector at such times and seasons as 
are suited to the needs of each pro- 
vince (1). 

Percentage of Illiterates : No information. 



Saxony {'-) 

a) Child is under equivalent instruc- 
tion at home or in some other school. 

b) Child is backward or in delicate 
health, and has been permitted by the 
Educational Authority to enter school 
later than at six years old. 

c) Child, having reached an approved 
standard of knowledge, has been allow- 
ed, for urgent reasons, to leave school 
after 7 years' attendance, on the recora- 
mandation of the head teacher and the 
local school authorities, as approved 
by the district school inspector (4). 

d) Child is temporarily in weak 
health (5). 

e) Child is a permanent invalid (4). 

/) Child has been found guilty of mo- 
ral delinquency, or, having a persisten- 
tly bad moral influence on other chil- 
dren, has been excluded from the pri- 
mary school and is an inanate of an in- 
dustrial school (5). 

g) Child has reached the prescribed 
standard of knowledge at the primary 
school, and is excused further atten- 
dance for the purpose af learning a trade 
or of entering domestic service (6). 

Percentage of Illiterates : Xo information 



40 weeks. 



(1) Sucla liolidays are usually given in summer and autumu. Tliere are slight 
variations in matters of detail in the different provinces, but these are mainly in 
administration and in no case is any important principle involved l>y the lack of 
complete uniformity. 

(2) Compulsory School Law, Saxony, 25 August 1874. Tlie application of Art. 143 

(3) Eight years' uninterrupted instruction in primary school. For boys, compul- 
sory continuation school up to 17 years of age. A child may be compelled to remain 
for a longer period, which does not usually exceed one year; on the request of the 
parents, children may enter school thrte months before their sixth birthday. Com- 
pulsory school law. Saxony, 25 August 1874. 

(4) Compulsory School Law, Saxonv 25 August 1874. 

(5) Ibid. Section 5 (8), (9), (10), (11). 

(6) Compulsory school law. Saxony, 26 April 1873. The application of art. 145 
of the German Constitution of 11 August 1919 will make this exemption of no 
effect. 



— 244 — 




M4 



Germany {continued) (Wiirtember</^) 

a) Child, being 14, has passed the 
leaving examination. 

b) Sickness of Child. 

c) Inclement weather. 

d) Impassable roads. 

e) Child, being in the upper classes, 
is attending school for 5 hours before 
noon during the summer, afternoon at- 
tendance being alto-g'ether excused in 
the case of the older scholars, with the 
approval of the Central Education Au- 
thority. 

/') Other very urgent reasons. 

Percentage of Illiterates : No information. 



40 weeks 



Greece * 

■rom 7 ". a) Child is under instruction at home, 

cf. (b). or in a private school. 

b) Child has passed the standard re- 
quired by the examination committee and 
received a certificate of primary studies. 

Percentage of illiterates in 1907 in population from 5-14 ijears of age 
..Bogs: 38.84*. Girls: 72.46*. 



0-12 



Hungary * 

a) Child under instruction at home or 
at a private school with obligation to 
pass a yearly examination at a jjublic 
school. 



10 months 



(1) Compulsory School Laws of the State of Wiirtcmbcrg, 18:!G-1913. 

i2j Law of September 29 1830 and Art. 145 of the Gerinan Constitution of 11 Au- 
gust 1919. (Eight years being compulsory under the constitution, the age of entry 
will need to be altered to apply the Article, Seven years is the present poi'iod of 
school attendance, the age of enfrj' having been raised in 1858 from 6 to 7(. A child 
who, at 14, has not satiiSlied the examiners, must remain another year at school. 

1,3) Unless attending a secondary or technical school, the child must attend the 
general continuation school during two years for 80 hours each vear. 

ii) School law 2tth July 1919. (Greece). 

(.")) No child may be admitted before the completion of six years of age or un- 
less six years will bo completed in the December folloxNing fiis entering the pri- 
mary school. Children of either sex may be permitted to attend a mixed school 
up to sixteen years old if there should be no special school for boys or girls, in 
the district. Garden schools are provided for young children, who" may remain 
in such schools up to eight years of age. 

1907 Census ligures Anniiaire International cle Statisliriue. 1. Elat ile la Popii- 
lulwn 'Europe) 1910, page 159. 

(Cii School Law (Hungary) 1868, and amendments, and Law for enforcing Com- 
pulsory Attendance 1921. 

(7» The compulsory course extends over nine years; after six years' attendance 
at the elementary school the child must atteind the continuation school from the 
!ige of 12 to 15. 



— 245 — 




Hungary {continued} 

b) Retarded development of child. 

c) Infectious disease. 

d) Physical or mental incapacity. 

e) Distance from school, which may 
render the journey prejudicial to the 
child's health or security. 

/■) School year has been reduced to 
eight montlis by the Minister of Educa- 
tion on the request of the Provincial 
Council, in an area where the majority 
of the pupils have parents occupied in 
agricultural work (1). 

Percentage of illiterates in 1910, in population of 6-14 years of age 
Boys : 28.56 * Girls : 31.58 *. 



6-9 ^ 
6-12 \ 



Italy ^ 

a) Child is under instruction at home 
or in private or charitable institution of 
which the school register has been sub- 
mitted to ithe Educational Authority (5). 

b) Child has obtained certificate of 
ipromotion to higher elementary course, 
or of completion of lower course if the 
school he has attended does not provide 
the higher (6). 

c) Child has passed an examination in 
the obligatory elementary subjects before 
he has reached the statutory age limit. 



10 months 



(1) The continuation school course may also be reduced to 8 months under 
the same conditions. 

(*) 1910 census flgures, Annuaire International de Statistique, I, Etat de la Po- 
pulation (Europe) 1916, page 158. 

(2) Elementary Schools law , Italy, 1901, and amendments, including general 
regulations for elementary instruction, R. D. No 150. 1907. 

(3) Compulsory attendance ceases on completion either of the higher or of the 
lower course; this generally accords with the comoletion of the 9th or 12th year 
of age. 

Communes having a population of less than 4,000 are permitted to provide 
only the first or lower course of elementary educ.ition; in these communes the 
child is exempt from further attendance at day-school on completion of this 
course, but must attend for 10 hours weekly instruction at complementari or eve- 
ning schools for a year. 

(4) Attendance at the second or higher course is compulsory in all communes 
where this instruction is given; the higher course exti^nds age of compulsory 
attendance to completion of 12th year. During Uie last two years, compulsory 
attendance may be reduced to threo hours daily in communes where the staff is 
insufficient to provide whole-day classes. 

(5) By the provisions of a law dealing with orimarv and popular education 
(June 1911) « pupils receiving instruction in private schools or at home, must 
at the end of the period of obligation present themselves for examination at the 
public school. 

(6) The Communal Authorities must allow children over 12 years of age who 
have not passed the school leaving-examination and have not attended the higher 
course to attend school again. 



246 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Italy (continued) 

d) School year has been reduced to 
six months by the Commune, as authoris- 
ed by the Provincial School Council, to 
permit children of poor parents to assist 
them in seasonal agricultural work (1). 

e) Illness of child. 

/) Distance from school ; bad roads. 
g) Extrqme poverty. 

Percentage of illiterates in 1911, in population of 6-14 years of age 
Boys : 30.89 * Girls : 32.48*. 



6-13 



Luxembourg ^ 

a) Child is under instruction at home 
or at a private school which instruction 
shall include all the subjects enumerated 
in Art. 23 of the Act. 

b) Child has been excused the seventh 
year of attendance on condition that at- 
tendance is continued for two consecu- 
tive winters (4). 

c) Child is over 11 years of age and, 
on the request of the communal authori- 
ties as approved by the inspector, has 
been excused attendance by the Govern- 
ment to help parents either for the whole 
day or for half a day during a definite 
period of time. 

d) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated. 

e) Child has been excluded by the 
Communal Council for some grave moral 
fault or as suffering from infectious di- 
sease. 

Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



Ci) The authorisation to reduce tlie school year will be given to a commune 
making provisiou for continuing the education of a group of not less than 10 
children, being lialf of the total number on the school register, who are engaged 
on seasonal agricultural work in another district of the same commune. The 
authorisation will be withheld if at least 10 childvtn remain in attendance, or if 
the education provided by the commune docs not leach the standard required by 
the law. 

(*) 1910 Census figures, Annuaire International de Statistique, I., Etat de la Po- 
pulation (Europe) 1916, page 159. 

(2) School Law lOUi August, 1912. 

(3) Or leaving school every child is compelled to attend a continuatian course 
for two years. The course comprises' practical instruction in conjunction with 
continuation of general instruction as received in the primary school. A child 
who has completed 7 1/2 or eight years at the primary school may be excused 
the second year of continuation classes by the normal council, such exemption 
being approved by the government. 

(4) This exemption must be confirmed by the Government. On the other hand 
The administrative authorities of the commune have power to extend the limit 
of compulsory attendance by six months or a vear. 



— 247 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



7-13 



The Netherlands ^ 

a) Child is under equivalent instruction 
at home, or is receiving instruction in a 
school regarded as one for higher edu- 
cation. 

b) Child being over ten years of age 
has been granted by the inspector six 
weeks' leave of absence for agricultural 
woork (3) (including market gardening, 
cattle-tending, and peat-cutting, such 
child having attended school regularly 
for the previous six months). 

c) Conscientious objection of parents 
to all schools within a distance of four j 
kilometres, such declaration made in i 
writing and signed by the school ins- 1 
pector (4). | 

d) No fixed residence (5). { 

e) Illness of child <6). ! 

/) Physical or mental incapacity, as 
certified by a doctor, 

g) Insufficient acconKmodation. 

h) Fulfilment of religious duties, inclu- 
ding religious instruction outside school 
during school hours. 

i) Other serious circumstances, such as 
poverty, serious illness of parents or re- 
latives, or bad weather (7). 



Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



(1) Compulsory Education Law 1900, Netherlands, amended January 1921. 

(2) The compulsory iieriod covers a course of six years, which may be com- 
pleted any time after the child is twelve, and has passed through tlie class in 
which it was on reaching that age. i'he obligation to attend school ceases altoge- 
ther when the child has passed through the class in wich it was on reaching the age 
of thirteen. 

(3) The Inspector must yearly notify the Minister of the exact number of exem- 
tioDs granted foi agricultural work and of the duration of each of such exem- 
tions. 

(4) This declaration must he renewed every^ six months. 

(5) Fixed residence is acquired in 28 days. Parents with no fixed abode must 
make a declaration to the Burgomaster giving the temporary address; this decla- 
ration must be renewed annually as long as the child is of school age if conti- 
nued immunity from school attendance is claimed. 

(fi) In such circumstances the Headmaster may grant leave of absence for an 
unlimited time. 

(7) Headmaster cannot grant leave of absence for these causes for more than 
ten times out of twenty-eight days without obtaining the assent of the Inspector. 



— 248 — 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Miniimim period 



6 1/2-15'. 

(town) 

7-15. 

(Country). 



Norway ^ 

a) Child is private1-- receiving equiva- 
lent instruction. 

b) Physical or mental incapacity of 
child. 

c) Infectious disease or some physical 
infirmitv rendering association with 
other children undesirable. 

d) Grave moral delinquency. 



Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



12 weeks 



7-1 1 *. 



Poland * 

a) Child is receiving adequate instruc- 
tion is some other tha,n the primary 
school. 

b) Child is resident in a commune 
where temporarily only a course of from 
4 to 5 years schooling is given (5). 

c) Child has been excused attendance 
from two to fourteen days for field work 
in spring or autumn. 

d) Illness of child certified by a doctor, 

e) Distance from school of more than 
three kilometres. 

/) Death of a relative. 

g) Infectious disease in the ho(ine. 

h) Serious reasons accepted as such 
by the head teacher. 



8 months 



Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



(l)Primary School Law, 1889 and 1894, with amendments to 1917. 

(2) Children may be accepted in the primary schools from six years old. 

(3) 12 weeks is accepted only for the lower standards; 5 weeks for the higher 
standards. The District Board (Herredstyret) can, however, direct that 21 weeks 
shall be the minimum, or may require that the child attend a continuation school. 
The total compulsory attendance at the elementary and continuation school is not 
to exceed 147 weeks. 

(4) Compulsory School Act, Poland, such portion of it as was formerly in Rus- 
sian territory, 7th December 1919. 

(5) Schools must be provided where there are forty children in the commune : 
should there be less than this number two communes may combine. Although 
the principle of seven years' instruction is laid down four to five years' instruction 
is provisionally accepted; continuation courses are compulsory for children up 
to 14 years of age during the transitory period. These courses continue throughout 
the year and are of not less than four hours' duration. 



249 




From 7 ^ 
(Town) 
From 8 

(Country) 



Serbia ' 

a) Child has completed attendance at 
a primary school which does not provide 
a fifth or sixth class (3). 

b) Child has attended the primary 
school for four years, and except during 
the winter months has been excused at- 
tendance at the 5 th and 6 th classes by 
the Minister of Education. 

c) Sickness or other unavoidable cause. 

Percentage of illeterates in 1900 in Serbian population from 6-14 years 
' of age : Boys : 65.90 *. Girls : 91.21 *. 



6-12 



Spain ^ 

a) Child is under adequate instruction 
at home or in a private school (6). 

b) Child is over ten years of age and 
having attended school from the age of 
six years has been excused by the Com- 
mittee of Public Instruction from school 
for a specified time for agricultural 
work (7). 

c) When child's home is more than two 
km. from school or if there is no school 
canteen more than one km., the mayor 
(alcalde) having granted exemption. 



(1) National School Act, Serbia, 19 April 1904. These laws and regulations 
relating to Compulsory Education are in force in Serbia, Montenegro, and Voi- 
vodina. 

(2) Nursery Schools are provided for young children. Boys over ten years 
of age and girls over eleven years of age are not admitted into the first or junior 
class. 

(3) Instruction is provided for six years in the primary schools; and in com- 
munes where the higher course (5th and 6th) class is available attendance at these 
is obligatory. A mininiiun of flfteen scholars is needed to provide this addion- 
al course. In places where there are no 5th and Oth classes, continuation courses 
are provided and children may attend these (voluntarily) for three winters. In 
rural districts there are also special classes for agricultural instruction; in the 
towns commercial and industrial classes are given. 

* 1900 census figures, Anniiaire International de Siatistique, I'Etat de la Popu- 
lation (Europe) 1916, page 160. The illiteracy figures refer to old Serbia. 

(4) Act on Public Instruction, 1857 amended bv Compulsory Primary Instruction 
Act, 23rd June 1909. 

(5) A child who is transl'crrcd to higlu'r grade instructiion before reaching the 
age of 12 years must pass a special examination before three members of the 
local committee ol' Public Instruction showing that the ordinary standard required 
at 12 years old has been reached. 

(6) Parents of a child educated at home or in a private school must produce 
evidence that adequate instruction is given and the child may be examined If the 
authorities are not satisfied. 

(7) A child who has attended school from 6-10 years of age may be excused 
attendance for half a year between the ages of 10 and 11, and attendance may be 
reduced to three months between 11 and 12 in such cases. 



— 250 — 




Spain {continued) 

d) Insufficient school accommodation 
in the district (1). 

e) Bad weather or other local difflcul- 
lies. 

/) Child is physically or mentally in- 
capacitated and a declaration has been 
made to this effect. 



Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



7-14 



Sweden ^ 

a) Child is under efficient instruction 
at home or elsewhere, ans has been ex- 
cused from attendance at school by the 
School Council. 

b) Child has attained a certain mini- 
mum standard of education, and has 
been excused attendance on account of 
poverty of the parents. 

c) Infectious disease or other valid 
cause. 

d) Mental incapacity. 

Percentage of illiterates : No information 



8 months *. 



(1) In cases of insufficient accomodation it is enjoined that arrangements be 
made to teach temporarily in tlie oi>en air during the favourable part of the year, 
and even when such provision is made lack of accomodation is not accepted as 
a ground of exemption. WTien accomodation is undoubtedly insufficient the 
mayor (alcade) specifies which children shall attend selectries those children 
nearest ten years of age in order of from older to younger and to poor children 
who cannot pay lor instruction. 

(2) Elementary School Law, 1897, Sweden and amendments up to 1919. 

(3) In certain circumstances the School Council may authorise a child to defer 
entering school until the age of nine years. Pupils who have failed to attain 
the standard of knowledge required of those leaving school may be required to 
continue attendance. Children reaching this standard before the age of 14 may 
be permitted to leave school; and in such cases must attend continuation schools 
for 2-3 years; 360 to 540 lessons are distributed over this period. 

(4) Actually 34 1/2 school weeks, which may be extended to 37 1/2 weeks. 



251 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



Switzerland 
P Tcentage of illiterates : No information. 



APPENZELL \ 

A. Rh. 



6 '-14 ' [ (a) Sickness. 

(b) Bad weather and bad 
state of the roads in the case 
of a young child livin^ some 
distance from school. 

(c) Sickness of parents, call- 
ing for the child's presence 
at home. 

id) Church feasts in the 
case of a child who does not 
belong to the evangelical re- 
formed church. 

ie) Help in haymaking, not 
to exceed 10 days for the 
primary school and five for 
the continuation school. 

(/) Child who has completed 
his twelfth year and is at- 
tending the technical school. 



Full school 

year (44 to 46 

weeks). 



APPENZELL *. 

I. Rh. 



6M3 



(a) Sickness. 

(b) Sickness in the family, 
calling for the child's presen- 
ce at home. 

(c) Death in the faVnily. 

(d) Impassable roads, owing 
to bad weather. 

(e) " Other motives *' (must 
not exceed 3 days in the 
year). 



Full school 
year ^ 
(40-44 weeks) 
half-day atten- 
dance. 



(1) Verordnung iiber das Schulwesen des Kantons Appenzell A. Rli. April 1878. 
Kreisschreiben vom Juni, 1897. 

(2) Child who is ill or mentally -sveak may be allowed by the Communal 
School Board (Gemeindesschulkommissioni to enter school a year later. 

1.3) After 13 either tw'o years' continuation school, at least 60 hours yearly, or 
one additional lull school year (Zirkular betreffend Interpretation von Schulver- 
ordnung § 8. Vom 17 April 1899). 

(4) Schulverordung fiir den Kanton Appenzell I. Rli. vom 29 Oktober, 1896, 
mit Nachtrag von: 4 Februar, 1902. 

(5) Child physically or mentally incapacitated may enter school later, or leave 
it before the completion of the seven years. 

(6) Child who has attended school seven years but either not completed the se- 
ven grades, or not got sufficient marks, ' must attend school one more year 
(Amendment of, January 22nd 191.5). 

(7) The Cantonal School Board (Landesschulkommission) may establish a 
full-day school. 



— 252 — 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum j>eriod 



AARGAU 



Switzerland (continued) 

7-15'. (a) Sickness. 

(b) Sickness in the family 
calling for the child's presen- 
ce at home. 

(c) Infectious disease in the 
family. 

id) Death in the family, bu- 
rial, etc. 

(e) Going to fetch the doc- 
tor for a near relative if no 
other person can be sent. 

if) Very bad weather, bad 
state of the roads, in the ca- 
se of a child living some dis- 
tance from school. 

ig) Great poverty, making 
it impossible for the child 
to attend school. 

(7i) Home festivities, if lea- 
ve has been previously ob- 
tained from the teacher. 

(z) Church feasts, in the 
case of Catholics, " refor- 
mierte " and Jews. 

(7) Very ur-gent house or a- 
gricultural work, in the case 
of a diligent pupil, when pre- 
vious leave has been obtained 
from the teacher. 

ik) Child has completed six 
grades, and is attending 
higher grade school. 



FuM school 

year 
42 weeks). 



BASELLAND 



6M4 



(a) Sickness. 

ib) Severe illness or death 
in the family. 



Full school 

year. 
{41 weeks). 



(1) Schulgesetz fiir d:;n Kanton Aargau vom 1 Juni 1865, mit den Abanderungsge- 
setzen vom 21 Februar, 1867, und vom 17 Mars, 1869. Verordnung betrefifend dia 
Massnahmen gegen Verbreitung ansteckender EBonkhelten in der Schule vom 10 
November 1917. Rividierte Verordnung iiber die Abwandlung der Schulversaum- 
nisse an dun Gemeindeschulen vom Heumonat 1868. 

(2) In Communes in whicli continuation schools exist, the Erziehungsdirektion 
may fix the compulsory period at 7-13, followed by two years compulsory atten- 
dance at the continuation school. 

(3) By permission of the School Commission (Schulpflege) with the assent of 
the teachers and the Inspector, holidays are arranged so as to coincide with 
seasonal agricultural work. 

(4) Schulgesetz fur den Kanton Basellandschaft vom 8 mai, IQll.Ferienordnuna 
vom 6 Marz 1912. Schulordnung vom 18 April, 1913. 

.- x*^^ o delicate, or underdeveloped child may enter school later with the assent 
ol the School Commission (Schulpflegen). 

(6) School attendance may be extended to 9 years by the Communes, with the 
i|^ssent of the Regierungsrat (Kreisschreiben der Erziehungsdirektion an die Schulp- 
uegen und Gemeinderte vom 30 September, 1914). 

1 /71. ^^^ }^^ *^° '^^* complete years, or only for the summer half of them, 
Uan-day school may be established by decision of the Schulgemeinden. 



— 253 



Afes 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



BASELLANB 

«]ontinued) 



Switzerland (continued) 

(c) Infectious disease in 
the fatmily. 

id) Very bad weather in 
the case of a child living 
some distance from school. 

(e) Other unavoidable cau- 
se (which must not include 
help given at home or in 
the fields, gather ing wood 
for fuel, etc. 

(/) Physical or mental in- 
capacity. 

[g) A delicate child may, 
upon the presentation of a 
doctor's certificate, be ex- 
cused from attending some 
of the lessons. 



RASELSTADT 



6-14 ^ 



(a) Sickness. 

ib) Infectious disease in 
the family. 

(c) Other unavoidable cau- 
se. 

id) Bad weather, in the 
case of a delicate child. 

<e) Church feasts in the 
case of Catholics and Jews. 



Fulil school 

year. 42 weeks 

for the first 

4 years ; 41 

weeks for the 

last 4 years. 



6 ^-14 '-15. I (a) Sickness. 

ib) Sickness and death in 
the family. 

, (c) Bad weather in the case 
of a delicate child living 
'some distance from school. 



Fuiia school 
year; 34 weeks 
for a 9 years' 

course ; 40 
weeks for an 
8 years' course. 



FREIBURG 



Bovs 
7-16. 



I (a) Sickness. 

(b) Sickness 
'the family. 



or death in 



FuHl school 

year *. 

40-42 weeks). 



(1) Schulgesety des Kantons Baselstadt vom 21 Juni 1880, mit Anderungei:. 
Gesetz betreffend Abanderung vom § 61 des Schulgesetzes vom 18 Juli 1,905. 

(2) Gesetz ube'' den Primarunterriclit im Kanton Bern vom 6 Mai, 1894. 

(3) A child physically or mentally underdeveloped may enter school a year 
later, with the assent of the School Commission (Schulkommission). 

(4) A girl leaving school at 14 must attend for one more year a continuation 
school lor girls or a school of domestic economy. 

(.5) Gesetz vom 17 mai 1884 iiber das Priniarschulwesen. Nachtragsgesctz iihi-r 
den Primarunterr.'cht im Kanton Freiburg vom 10 mai 1904. 

(6) In country schools, half-time in the summer; at least 75 halfdays for the 
upper forms, and at least 150 half-days for the lower and middle forms. 



— 254 — 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



FREIBURG 

{Continued) 



Switzerland {continued) 

Girls (c) Urgent unexpected 

7-15. work (in thie case of a di- 
ligent pupil). 

(d) Bad state of the roads 
(snowfalls etc.) in the case 
of a youno child living some 
distance from school. 

(c) Mental or physical in- 
capacity. 

(/■) Poverty of the parents, 
making it necessary to em- 
ploy the child. (This is on- 
ly perlmitted if the child has 
obtained average marks). 

g) Completion of 13th 
year by child whose work 
is satisfactory in all sub- 
jects, when the parents wish 
for the exemption. 

During the Summer in the 
Alps : 

(h) When the child's whole 
family is living in the 
mountains. 

(z) For cattle-tending in 
the hi'gh pastures : (1) if the 
child is 13 years old, or 
(2) if, being in the upper 
standards, he has obtained 
average marks in compul- 
sory subjects. 



GENEVE \ 



6-14'. 

in tov/u. 

6-15 ^ 

in the rural 

communes. 



(a) Child under efficient 
instruction elsewhere, as cer- 
tified by the Board of Public 
Instruction. 

ib) Illness, especially in- 
fectious disease. 

(c) Infectious or repellant 
diseases-blindness, epilepsy, 
mental incapacity. 



Full school 

year 

(42-46 weeks). 



(1) For such children, attendance at tlie winter schools may be prolonged 
if, at the leaving age, tlie standard of Icnowledge required has not been attained. 

(2) Loi sur I'instruction publique, codiflee suivajit arrete du Conseil d'Etat du 
20 d^cembre 1913. Arrete du Conseil d'Etat du 24 novenibre 1914, alirogeant I'article 
C8 du reglement de I'Enseignement primaire du 28 fevrier, 1905. R6glement de 
I'enseignemcnt primaire collationne en conformite de la loi du 30 septembre 1911 
et approuve en seance du Conseil d'Etat du 16 juin 1917. 

(3) Apprentices to trade or industry and boys employed at home or elsewliere 
without learning a special trade must attend teclinical, industrial or commercial 
classes, unless they are otherwise taught, as certified by the Board of Public 
Instruction. 

(4) In the last two years only half-day school is required. 



255 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



GLARUS * 



Switzerland (continued) 
6-13'. I (a) Sickness. 

ib) Sickness in the fami- 
ly, callinij for the child's 
presence at home. 

(c) Infectious disease in 
the family. 

(d) Other home circums- 
tances, such as death, wed- 
ding, baptism, etc. 

(e) Bad weather and dan- 
gerous roads in the case of 
child living some diistance 
from school. 



Full school 

year (about 44 

weeks). 



Grau- 

BUNDEN ' 

{Grisons). 



7-15-16 



(a) Sickness. 

(b) Severe illness in the 
faimily. 

(c) Death in the family, fu- 
neral, etc. 

(d) Impassable roads, 
(snow-falls, etc.). 

(e) Child mentally or phy- 
sically deficient as certified 
by the school board (Schul- 
rat). 



FuiLl school 

year, 28 or 26 

weeks ^ 



LUZERN 



6-13-14 



No exemptions stated. 



Full school 

year 
40 weeks '. 



(1) Vertassung des Kantons Glarus vom 22 mai 1887 und Revisionen von 1894 
und 1907. Gresetz betreffend das Schulwesen des Kantons Glarus vom 11 Mai 1873, 
27 Mai 1877, 2 Mai 1880, 3 Mai 1885, 5 Mai 1889. 14 Mai 1905, 5 Mai 1907 und 
22 mai 1910. Verordnung getreffend. Massregeln gegen die Verbi-eitong anstec- 
kender Krankheiten durcli di Schulen, un Revision resp. Erganzung dieser. Verord- 
nung vom 14 FeLruar 1883. 

(2) Ck)ntinuation scliool of 2 Iialf-days or 1 full day weekly (Repetierschule) 
from 13 to 15. Child who attenda a secondary school or who has attended one 
for two years is excused from atending the Continuation School. 

(3) Verfassung filr den Kanton Graubiinden vom 2 Oktober 1892. Schulordnuug 
fiir die Volksschulen des liantons Graubiinden vom Jahre 1859 mil Zus^t^en und 
Abanderungen bis 1 Juli 1908. Gesetz betrelfend Schulpflicht und Schuldaucr 
vom 11 Sept. 1904. 

(4) At least 28 weeks for an eight years' course. For a nine years' course, or 
if a compulsory summer school of 10 weeks be lield, the number of weeks may 
be reduced to 26. 

(5) Erziehungsgesctz des Kantons Luzern vom 13 Oktober 1910. 

(6) (a) 6 full school years; 7th year, winter course (20 weeks); (b) 5 full school 
years and 3 years' winter course (at least 20 weeks). An eighth year winter course 
may be arranged for by the Communes. 

(7) The holidays coincide with the seasonal agricultural work. 



256 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Mininiuni period 



NEUCHATEL 



Switzerland {continued) 

6-14 (rt) Sickness, esipecially in- 

fectious disease. 

(b) Unusually bad weather, 
when school is some dis- 
tance off. 



(c) 
cause. 



Other unavei'dable 



Full school 

year 
(42 weeks " . 



st-gallen 



6-14 \ 



(a) Infectious disease. 

(b) Physical or mental 
weakness. 

(c) Child under efflcient 
instruction at home or else- 
where. 



Ful school 

year 

(usually 

42 weeks'). 



schaffhau- 

SEN \ 



6-14. 



(a) Sickness. 

(b) Infectious diseases in 
the family. 

(c) Death in the family. 

< d ) Other unavoidiable 
cause. 

(e) Child is under private 
instruction. 



Full school ' 

year 
(42 weeks). 



(1) Loi sur i'enseignement primaire du 18 novembre 1908. Rcglement general 
pour les ecoles priniaires du 3 septembre 1912. 

(2) Special leave lor agricultural work not exceeding 10 weeks, from April to 
November, may be granted by the school commission. The child who has obtained 
that leave during the last two school years must attend school during the next 
winter session, munless he has obtained the schools' leaving certificate. (Certiflcat 
d'etudes). 

(3) Verfassung des Kantons St. Gallen vom 16 November 1890. Gesetz iiber das 
Erziehungswesen des Kantons St. Gallen vom 8 Mai 18C2 mit Revisionen. Schulord- 
nung fiir die Primar unci Sekundarschulen d«s Kantons St. Gallen vom 29 Dezember 
1865 mit BeriicksJchtlgung dcr bis Ende 1911 erfolgten Abanderungen. 

(4) After 13, 2 years' continuation school which may be rejjlaced by an eighth 
year full year school or by two winter courses. There arc special schools (I'abriks- 
chulen) for children of 14, who do factory work. For such children school work, 
including religious instruction, and factory work, niav not exceed 11 hours a day 
altogether. 

(5) Other types of school also exist :ia) Dreivierteljahrschule (39 full school weeks); 
(b) Teilweisejahrschule (whole-day school for some forms, half-day or half-year 
school for others) ; (c) Halbtagjahrschule (morning or afternoon school only) ; (d) Ge- 
teilte Jahrschule und Halbtagjahrschule (full school half the year, continuation 
school the other half). 

(6) Schulgesetz fiir den Kanton Schaffhausen, vom 24 September 1879 mit revi- 
sion vom 20 Juli, 1885. 

(l) Half-day school may be established, from 12 to 14, bv the Erziehungsrat ; or 
the two years' full school may be replaced by 3 years' partial school. 



Ages 



Exemption^ 



MininuMii period 



SCHWYTZ '. 



7-14. 



Switzerland (continued) 



(a) Sickness. 

(b) Severe illness of pa- 
rents, especially infectious 
diseases. 

(c) Impassable roads in 
bad weather. 

(d) Completion of 7 grades. 

(e) Child has reached the 
age of 14. 

(/) Child goes to a higher 
grade school. 



Full school ■ 
year 42-44 = 
weeks ; the 
first four years 
may be half- 
day school. 



suLOTHURN 7 *-] 5 '. ' (a) Sickness, especially in- 
fectious disease. 

(b) Severe illness of par- 
ents, calling for the child's 
presence at home, 

(c) Death in the family, fu- 
neral, etc. 

id) Bad weather and bad 
state of the roads, when 
school is some distance off. 

(e) Other unavoidable cau- 
ses. 



Full school 
year. (In win- 
ter 24 weeks 

for the first 
two years; af- 
ter that, 30; in 

summei 24 
weeks for the 
first four years 
after that 12"). 



fICINO , 



6-14 



(a) Sickness. 

b) Child is urgently nee- 
ded by parents and is receiv- 
ing instruction. 

c) Child who attends a se- 
condary school, or who is 
under adequate instruction 
elsewhere. 

id) Child is mentally inca- 
pacitated. 



Full school 

year (7-lU 

months *. 



(1) Verfassung des eidgenossischen Standes Schwytz vom 11 Juni 1876 und 23 
Sfptenibei- 1877. Organisation des Volksschulwesens fiir den Kanton Schwvtz vom 
2{) Oktober 1877/18 Juli 1878. 

(2) Children avIio live one hour from school may attend school for half-day only. 
Holidays are fixed according to local conditions. 

(3) Verfassung des Kantons Solothurn vom 23 Oktober 1887, Gesetz iiber die 
Primarschulen vom 23 April 1873. 

(4) By permission of the School Commission (a) delicate child may enter school 
later, or (b) a delicate child may enter school later than 7. 

(5) Boys who have completed their eight years' course must attend a continua- 
tion school for three half-years (SO hours each), unless they attend a higher grade 
school. 

(6) Girls need attend only needle-work classes during the last year. 

(7) Legge suH' Inscgnamento elementare del Cantone Ticino (28 Settembre 1!)14) 

(8) By an executive decree of Decendjer 12th 1918 a delicate child need not attend 
school before he is 7. The limit of 11 is extended for a child who has not reached 
the required standard. 

(9) The Cantonal Board of Ktiucation may, under special circumstances, grant 
extra leave, at certain times, for agricultural work. 



258 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



THURGAU 



Switzerland (continued) 

G'-12'. (a) Sickness, especially in- 

fectious diseases. 

(b) Sickness in the family, 
calling for the child's presen- 
ce at home. 



home circums- 



(c) Other 
tances. 



d) Impassable roads. 

e) Physical or mental 
weakness. 

/) Child physically or 
;:ment!a(lly incapacitated. 

(f) Child has completed six 
grades, and wishes to attend 
a higher type of school. 

h) Child under efficient in- 
struction at 'hom>e or else- 
where. 



Full school 
year ^ 
From 12 to 14 
or 15 full at- 
tendance at 
school during 
the winter 
combined with 
continuation 
school in the 

summer is 
compulsory *. 



UNTERWALD 
MDWALD ■'. 



Girls 

7-13 ^ 

Boys 

7-13-14. 



a) Sickness. 

b) Sickness or death in 
the family. 

c) Bad weather and bad 
state of roads, especially in 
the case of delicate children 
living some distance off. 

d) Urgent Agricultural 
work or other unavoidable 
cause. (7) 



Full school 
year ; (42 
weeks) some- 
times half-day 
during the 
summer. 



(1) Verfassung des eidgenossischcn Standcs Tliurgau vom 28 Februar 1869. Gesetz 
iibcr das Unterrichtsweson vom 29 August 1875. 

(2| A delicate cliild may enter scliool later, and a backward or lazv pupil may 
have to attend sctiool longer. 

(3) Holidays must coincide with seasonal agricultural work. 

(4) By an amendment of .January 10th 191,") the Communes may limit school 
attendance to 8 years, providing pupils have attended a summer school during 
the last two years. Girls are excused after 8 vears, hut must attend classes ii 
needlework and singing for one more year after they have left school. 

C)) Verfassung des Kantons Unterwalden und Nidwald vom 27 April 1913. 
Schulgesetz des Kantons Nidwaldcn vom 10 September 1879. Abanderung des 
.Schulgesetzes vom 10 September 1879 vom 25 April 1909. 

(fi) Children may enter school when they are 6 1/2, with leave of the local 
School Administration (Ortsschulbehorde). Girls leave school after the completion 
of (1 grades. Hoys attend for one half-year more, or leave when thev are 14. Chil- 
dren whose instruction is unsatisfactory can be made to attend school longer. 

(7) This Exemption is never granted during the first two school years, and 
seldom afterwards, as th? holidays may be made to coincide with seasonal agricul- 
tural woi'k. 



259 — 



Ages 



Exemptions 



Minimum period 



UNTERWALD 
OBWALD \ 



F-13 



Switzerland (continued) 



a) Mental and physical j Full school 
deficiency. | year 

I (42 weeks'). 

b) Too great a distance j 
from school. ' 



URl 



7-13 " 



a) Sickness, especially con- 
tagious sickness. 

b) Sudden sickness or 
death in the family. 

c) Bad weather, impracti- 
cable roads, when school is 
some distance ofT. 



Fuill school 

year 

(30 weeks "). 



WALLIS . 

iValais) 



7-15 



a) Sickness. 

b) Severe illness or death 
in the family. 

c) Bad weather. 

d) Mental or physical de- 
ficiency. 

e) Child (a qirl) is 14 and 
has been excused further 
attendance by the cantonal 
Board of Education. (9) 



Fuilll school 

year 

(6-10 months). 



(.1) Schulgesetz des Kaiitons Obwalden vom 1 Dezember 1875 mit Abanderungen. 

(2) (a) As a rule, a child is not excused attendance before he has completed 
the six scliool grades; 'b) he is never excused before 13, unless he is incapable 
ol furUier intellectual development. 

(.'}) After on th primary school, 2 years' continuation school (120 hours) or 
one winter half-year course. 

(4) Verfassung des Kantons Uri vom (i mai 1888 — Schulordnung des Kai.tons 
Uii vom 26 November 1906. 

(5) Some schools have a seven, year course. Compulsory attendance may be 
extended for a year or more in the case of normal children who have not obtained 
a satisfactory leaving certiflcate, but ceases at the age of 13. Children who lack 
Intellectual power may be exempted afti'r 7 years' attendance, even if they have 
not completed all the grades. 

(6) Compulsory 2 j'ears' continuation school of at least 2 hours a week from 
V.\ to 15; exemption may be granted by the local School Board (.Ortsschulrat) if 
there is very good ground for it. 

(7) Gesetz vom 1 .luni 1907 betreffend den Volksunterriclit und die Xormal- 
schulen. Reglement fiir die Volksschulen des Kantons Wallis vom 5 November 
I'JIO. 

(8( A normal child v. ho has not reached the required standard must attend 
school one more year. 

(9) Such girls must attend house keeping and needlework classes. 



260 




VAUD 



Switzerland (continued) 

a) Infectious, dangerous or 
repellant disease. 

b) Infectious disease in the 
family. 



Full school 

year '. 
(42 weeks). 



a) Sickness, especially in- 
fectious diseases. 

b) Sickness in the family 
or other unavoidable cause. 

c) Vice or moral defect 
which might be harmful to 
other pupils. 

d) Physical or mental de- 
ficiency. 



Ful school 

year 

(42 weeks) 

Half-day in 

the summer 

for the seventh 

year. 



ZURICH 



a) Sickness, (especially in- 
fectious disease). 

b) Other unavoidahle 
cause in the family. 

c) Bad weather, when 
school is some distance off. 

d) Church feasts in the 
case of Catholic children. 



FuM school 

year 
(43 weeks'"). 



(1) Loi du 15 mai 1906 sur 1 'Instruction publique xjrimaire. Reglement du 
15 (f6vrier 1907 pour les ecoles primaires Arrete du 17 mars 1914 concerna4it 
I'hygiene dans les ecoles publiques et privees. 

(2) Preparatory school (not compulsory) from 5-7; in communes which have 
no preparatory school, child may be admitted at six, subject to the consent of the 
school commission. In some Communes, the period of compulsory school atten- 
dance may extend from to 15 only by decision of the Municipal Authorities and 
school commission. W'ith the assent of the Cantonal Board of public education, 
this decision may apply to girls only. 

(3) Child who has completed 12 years, whose instruction is satisfactory, and 
whose home circumstances make it desiraJjle, may be allowed by the Municipal 
Authorities and the School Commission to attend school in the morning only du- 
riiig the summer session. Special measures may be taken with regard to these 
cliildren who belong to mountain schools or who live in distant hamlets. 

fJ) Schulgesetz fiir den Kanton Zug vom 7 'Xovember 1898. yoUziehungsv.'rord- 
nung zuni Schulgesetz rtes Kantons Zug vom 11 Dezember 1900. Verordnung be- 
treffend SchulgesundheitspfJege, vom 25 Juli 1894. 

(5)' By permission of the School Commission a physicallv or mentallv dell- 
cient child, as certified by the doctor, may enter school later". 

lit) Child who has not reached the ordinary standard required may be excu- 
sed by the Local School Commission from further attending school :" (a) if his 
intellectual powers are somewhat deficient; (b) if he is in a poor state of health 
which makes sciiool attendance difficult; (c) if his parents are ill, very poor, 
and need the eldest child at home. 

(7) Verfassung des eidgenossischen Standes Ziirich vom IS April 1809 mit Aban- 
derungen. Gesctz liber das gesamte Unterrichtswesen des Kantons Zurich vom 
2:5 Dezember 1859. Gesetz betrefTend das yolksschule vom 11 Juni 1899. Verord- 
nung betrelleiul das Volksschulwescn vom 7 .\pril 1900. 

181 Child physically or mentally deficient may enter school later, but, in the case 
of a backward pupil, one more year, may required. 

(9) Holidays fixed according to local agricultural requirements. 



— 261 




5-14 ' 



I'mtki) Kingdom (England unci Wales) 

a) Child is attending school or insti- 
tution providing efficient instruction and 
open to inspection, or is under adequate 
instruction in some other manner. 

b) Child h;<s been excused attendance" 
at school until the age of six years under 
a bye-law of the local Educational Autho- 
rity approved by board of Education (3). 

c) Sickness or other unavoidable cause. 

d) Child is attendin-g certified school 
for mental and physical defectives (4). 

e) Home of child not within such dis- 
tance as may be prescribed by the bye- 
la ws (o). 

f) When the local education authority 
has fixed the minimi|m age for exemption 
from school at 13 vears for a child to 
be employed in agriculture, and said 
authority has accepted 250 attendances 
yearly as sufficient for such child be- 
tween 11 and 13 years of age (6). 

g) Child has attained 12 years of age, 
and, having made 300 attendances in 
each of the five preceding years has 
obtained partial exemption (7). 

h) Child has completed his twelfth year 
of age, and, having passed Standard V as 
certified by H. M. Inspector,, has obtain- 
ed total exemption from attendance at 
school by means of a « labour certificate » 
or a « certificate of proficiency ». 



Fu'lil school 
year. (School 
must be open- 
ed not less 
than 400 times 
yearly). 



(1) Elementary Education Act 1900, Section G, amending Section 74. of Elementary 
Education Act 1870. 

(2) The tei-m « attendance > means the attendance of an child at a morning or 
afternoon meeting of a school, during not less than two hours of instruction in 
secular subjects if in a school or class for elder children, or one hour and a half 
if in a school or class for children under 7 vears of age. Statutory Rules and 
Orders No. 38, 1901, p. 4, and Code of 1877. 

(.'}) Education Act 1918, Section 8. This provision came into force August 1st 1919. 

(4» Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act (England and 
Wales), 1914, arit' extension to physical defectives by Education Act 1918, Sec- 
tion 20. Became operative April 20,' 1920. 

(5) Elementary Education Act 1870; amended by Section 8 (7) of Education 
Ac 1918. This provision came into force August 8, 1919. 

(6) (7) Elementar>' Education School Attendance Act, 1899. « Robson Byelaw » 
issued officially in connection with Education Act 1899 states tliat the parent of 
any child -which is over 11 years of age and has passed the prescribed standard 
may « give notice to the local authority that such child is to be employed iu 
agriculture and that a certificate from tlae head teacher that such child has 
made the attendances required by this byelaw shall be sufficient evidence to 
justify the employment in agriculture of such child. 



262 — 




United Kingdom {continued) [England and Wales) 

Within the jurisdiction of the London 
Counti] Council all exemption of chil- 
dren under 14 is abolished ; in place of 
f), g), h) above the following is opera- 
tive : 

Child being 14 is free from the obli- 
gation to attend an elementary school (8). 

Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



)-14\ 



United Kingdom (Scotland) 

a) Child has attained the age of 14, 
has passed Standard V., and is exempted 
from further attendance at school (2). 

or other unavoidable 



b) Sickness 
cause (3). 

c) Child is over 12 years or age, and 
has been specially exempted by the edu- 
cational authority frqm full number of 
attendances (4). 

d) Distance from « public or inspected 
school » of more than 3 miles (5). 

Percentage of illiterates : No information. 



Ful school 
year. (School 
;nust be open 

ed not less 

than 400 times 

yearly). 



(8) Under Section 8 (1) and (2) of the Education Act 1918, which became ope- 
i-ative in London 10 January 1921, no exemption from attendance can be granted 
to a child under 14. In all other districts, whether urban or rural, exemptions 
(f), (g), and (h), will continue to be granted until Section 8 (1) and (2) of the 
Act comes into force in such districts. Under Section 10, of the Education Act 1918, 
which became operative in London concurrently with Section 8. (1) and (2), 
young persons from 14 to 16 years of age must attend a continuation school JFor 
.'120 hours yearly, unless the attendance is reduced by the London County Council 
to 28 hours. Only evidence that the young person has readied a standard of 
education justifying exemption, is receiving full-time or other equivalent educa- 
tion, or, being 11, is engaged in or has completed a course of training for sea 
service, liberates him from this obligation. 

(1) Education (Scotland) Act, 1908, Section 7. 

(2) Education (Scotland) Act 1883, Section amending Section 73 of Education 
(Scotland) Act 1872. 

(3) The term « attendance » means the attendance of a child at a morning or- 
afternoon meeting of a school, during not less than 2 hours of instruction in 
secular subjects if in a school or class for elder children or one hour and a 
halfif in aschool or class for children under seven vears of age. Statutory Rules 
and Orders. No. 308, 1901, p. 4, and Code of 1877. 

(4) Education (Scotland) Act 1883, Section 11. 

(5) Education (Scotland) Act 1901, Section 3; see also Education (Scotland) 
Act. 1918 Section 16 (1) referring to Section 2, of Education (Scotland) Act 1901, 
which prohibits the employment during school hours and the casual employment 
betore 8 o'clock in the morning or after 6 o'clock in the evening on school days, 
ol any child eitl-.er under or over 12 years of age who has not been specially 
exempted by the Educational Authoritv. The child's name and circumstances of 
individual exemption must be entered in a register kept for the purpose. All such 
exemptions are subject to revocation bv the Department; and under Section 9 
ol Education (Scotland) Act 1918, the conditions of exemption of such children 
may include^ the c bligation to attend continuation classes up to the age of 16. Bye- 
laws requiring such attendance should include anv young persons under 17 who are 
not receiving a suitable education. Notification of the regular employment of 
any young persons included in the operation of the bye-laws for the district, 
<in(l particulars ol i//i,(> Iionrs of their emploijment must be notified to the Educa- 
tion Authority by tlieir employer, who is subject to penalty for omission to notify. 



263 




United Kingdom {continued) {Ireland) 

5-14^ a) Child has attained the age of 14 

i has passed standard V (2), and is exemp- 
I ted from further attendance at school. 

I b) Child is over 13 years of age, and 
has obtained a certiiicate of proficiency 
as is prescribed by the Commissioners 
of National Education for the fifth stan- 
dard (2). 

c) Sickness or domestic necessity. 

d) Distance from school exceeds two 
miles, or child is under seven years of 
age and is unable to attend school on 
account of distance, although this is less 
than two miles. 

e) Parent has objection on religious 
'founds to such schools as are within 
two miles. 

/) Child is over 11 and is engaged in 
seasonal work. {For definition, see foot- 
note 4). 



150 atten- 
dances \ 



Percentage of . illiterates in 1911 in population 5-14 years of age : 
Boys : 20.75 * Girls : 19.10 *. 



(1) Education (Ireland) Act, 1892, bve-laws under that Act and Employment of 
Children Act 1903. 

(2) Filth standard in the Irisli Education Act refers to the standard of profi- 
ciency (in reading, writing, and arithmetic) required by the Commissioners of 
National Education. 

1 3) The term c< attendance » means the attendance of a child at a morning or 
afternoon meeting of a school, during not less than two hours of instruction 
in secular subjects if in a school, or class for elder children or one hour and a 
half if in a school or class for children under seven vears of age. Statutory Rules 
and Orders No. 308, 1901, p. 4, and Code of 1877. 

(4) « Necessary operations of husbandry, ingathering of crops, giving assistance 
in the fisheries, or other work requiring to l>e done at a particular time or season ». 

(*) 1911 census figures, Annuaire International de Statistique, 1 Etat cle la Po- 
pulation (Europe) 1916, page 159. 



264 — 



3. _ OTHER NON-EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 



Just as in Europe and America the control of the employ- 
ment of children in agriculture is regulated in general by in- 
direct legislation, and is almost wholly dependent upon the 
enforcement of compulsory school attendance laws, so also 
in other countries whose standards may be judged accordingl3\ 



Australia 



Throughout Australia primary education is compulsory 
and free. This is, however, one of the countries where the 
difficulties of providing for the rural districts are consider- 
able, owing to the dispersion of the agricultural population 
over large, sparsely settled areas. In all the States, therefor, 
exemption has had to be allowed on the ground of distance — 
the limit of distance being graded according to the age of 
the child. The difficulty has been in part overcome by the 
provision of travelling facilities by the State. Thus, New 
South Wales allows free passes on the State Railways to the 
nearest school. Western Australia in 1918 disbursed over 
£ 10,000 in « driving grants » to parents whose homes are 
over three miles from the nearest schools, and who arrange 
to have their children driven in. 

In addition, various methods are adopted in places where 
it has been impossible to found a school completely answer- 
ing to the normal requirements, of carrying education in 
some other waj^ to remote districts. Among these are : 

a) Provisional schools. These are small schools in which 
the attendance does not amount to more than about a dozen 
pupils, and which are transformed into ordinary recognised 
schools when the attendance reaches the minimum required. 

b) Halftime schools. When there are not enough child- 
ren to form a provisional school, a teacher's time may be 
divided between two schools, which he visits on alternate 
days. 

c) Itinerant teachers. In more sparsely peopled districts 
an itinerant teacher is often employed to go from house to 
house within a certain radius. In Queensland during 
1918, 14 itinerant teachers dealt with 1587 children in thi« 
way. 

A somewhat more regular form of instruction is given by| 
means of Saturday schools, in which small gi'oups of children 
are visited by the teacher of the nearest school on Saturdays. 

d) State grants to schools formed by the combined efforts 
of a number of families. 



^ 265 — 

e) Travelling schools. New South Wales has equipped a 
number of vans, which enable a teacher to take with him 
from one centre to another such books and apparatus as are 
required in a primary school. 

/) Railway camp schools are in operation on the sites of 
extensive railways works. 

Most States also provide for education by correspondance 
of children in isolated districts. 

In addition to the prohibition of employment of children 
during school hours, the education law of Victoria forbids a 
child to be employed before school hours in any occupation 
carried on for gain « if the nature and extent of the employ- 
ment is such as to prevent the child from profitably taking 
part in the school lessons on any such day ». 

Of persons over 20 in the whole of Australia, the number 
unable to read at the census of 1911 was about 2 1/4 per cent. 

The provisions of the laws relating to compulsory educalion 
in four of the States are given below : 



266 



LEGISLATION REGARDING COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN 

AUSTRALIA. 



Slate i3j 



© ® 2 D G- 

© ■- -f^ -J ^• 



Exeniplious, i. e. conditions under any of which 
absence from school may be allowed 



New South Wales, 



Victoria 



Queensland 



Western Australia , 



6-14 



6-14 (1 



6-14 i'2 



6-14 



a) Child is receiving regular and 
efficient instruction in some other 
manner. 

b) Child is unable to attend school 
owing to sickness, fear of infection 
or other unavoidable cause. 

c) Distance of two miles from 
nearest school. 

d) Child has reached the standard 
of education required. 

a) The child is under efficient 
and regular instruction in some 
other manner. 

b) Child is prevented by sickness, 
temporary or permanent infirmity or 
any unavoidable cause. 

c) Child is excused by a general or 
praticular order of the Minister, 

d) Child is 13 years of age and has 
obtained a certificate of merit as 
prescribed. 

e) Distance from nearest school 
of 1 mile if under 7, 2 miles if 
between 7 and 9. 2 1/2 miles if bet- 
ween 9 and 11, 3 miles if over 11. 

a) The child is receiving effi 
cient instruction is some other man- 
ner. 

b) Child is prevented by sickness, 
infirmity or an^' other unavoidable 
cause. 

c) Distance from the nearest school 
of over 2 miles if under 10, or over 
3 miles if over 10. 

d) Child has reached the prescrib- 
ed standard of education. 

e) Any other reason satisfactory 
to the Minister. 

a) Distance from school, of over 
one mile if under 9, or two miles if 
between 9 and 14 unless convey- 
ance is provided by the State. 

b) Child is receiving efficient 
instruction elsewhere. 



(1) The Government has announced its intention of raising the leaving age from 
14 to 15. 

(2) The Governor in Council may in addition establish continuatios classes at 
which attendance shall be compulsory from 14 to 17 for boys and girls who have 
not reached the prescribed standard of education. He is also empowered to make 
regulations determining iTle obtions of parents and employers in respect of chil- 
dren liable to attend such classes. 

•Ji) Information re South Australia and Tasmania was not available for this 
report. 



267 — 



Chili 



Under the Act relating to compulsory elementary education 
which came into force on 1 March 1921, parents or guardians 
arc obliged to cause their children or wards to attend a state, 
municipal or private elementary school, during four years 
at least, and before completing the thirteenth year of their 
age. In addition, children who have completed their thir- 
teenth year without acquiring the instruction imparted in 
the first grades of elementary education, must continue to 
attend school to the age of fifteen, unless they have attained 
the requisite standard in the meantime After reaching the 
age of fifteen they shall continue to be subject to this obli- 
gation, if they have obtained any permanent employment, 
but shall discharge it by attendance at a continuation school. 

In country districts, or where circumstances do not permit 
of the maintenance of permanent schools, children are 
required to attend temporary schools where such have been 
established for at least four terms of three months each. No 
owner of a factory or workshop shall give employment of 
a temporary character to any person under sixteen years of 
age, who shall not present a certificate of discharge from 
school. 



India 

Compulsory primary education at present exists only for 
a very small proportion of the population of British India. 
Several legislative councils have, however, in the last two 
or three years passed legislation empowering municipalities, 
and in some cases, other units of local government, to make 
attendance at primary schools compulsory within their area. 
The general nature of this legislation may be seen by compar- 
ing the primary education Acts now in force in the Bombay 
and Bengal Presidencies, the United Provinces, the Punjab, 
the Central Provinces, and Bihar and O.rissa (1). These 
provinces comprise a very large portion of the area of Bri- 
tish India and a population of about 180,000,000. It is sta- 
ted (2) that in the Bombay Presidency a few municipalities 
have already taken advantage of the Act. 

All the acts referred to provide that a municipality, and 
in some cases other local bodies also, (e. g. District Boards 
and Cantonment Committees) may, with the previous sanc- 

(1) Bombay Act No. 1 of 1918: Bengal Primary Education Act, 1919; United Pro- 
vinces Primary Education Act, 1919: Punjab Act No. \U, 1919: Central Provinces 
Primary Education Act, 1920: Bihar and Orissa Primary Education Act, 1919. 

(2) Indian Year Bdok, 1920: p. 414. 



— 268 — 

tion of the provincial government, declare primary education 
compulsory within their district. To obtain the necessary 
sanction the local government must satisfy the provincial 
government that it is in a position to make, and will make, 
adequate provision for compulsory education. 

The application of some of these Acts is limited to boys 
only ; in others it is laid down that girls may be brought 
within the scope of compulsory education after boys have 
been provided for, while one leaves this matter to the discre- 
tion of the local authority. 



Ages. 

The period during which education is compulsory is from 
the age of 6 or 7 to 10 or 11. (In one case, the period pres- 
cribed is at least 5 years between the ages 6 and 14 ) 



Exemptions. 

All the Acts contain provisions, very similar in effect,^ 
exempting from compulsory attendance children who live 
more than a certain distance (usually 1 mile) from a school, 
or who are receiving elsewhere instruction recognised as effi- 
cient, or who have reached the prescribed standard. 

The chief provisions of these acts are given in the table 
which follows. 



5T)9 



(j) iioiiei.ndod 






j 




a|oqA\ ut 


lr~" 








saiBJ9i!i|! ,)o 


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c: 








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3-^5 




73 ;- c 2 i; be 


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o SJ 2 -5 -2 = *^ 
c-' .-H *; ^ oj re oj 


o tu c 








fc- S O r<«<-«"-i 2- 

o re oi2 o o s 


5 ^ii 






"^ ^ 


•i ^ 


iT CO 

t- CO 


£ 


C5 5 


re p 




o 


o 


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s 


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o - 


75 ^ re 




B 


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•y; 5 


^ .^3 


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-3 V 


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>i 


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-3=^ o 


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cC 


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<v ■;2 


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re 'o ttc .. 
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ij s^'^ i; =^ r^ 


re £ +-■ a 

2 « C o 
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tn 


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— 270 — 



(TJ iioi)e|tHlod 

0|OL|AV III 

so}eJG|iiii JO 



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o 

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re ^ S " 
Out, 

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p « ^ p ^ 



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p s « °-p 

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=g 



•t; P 



271 — 



Japan 



All cities, towns and villages are obliged to maintain 
sufficient elementary schools to accommodate the children of 
school age in their area, but in certain cases my be exempted 
from this obligation by the governor of the prefecture w^hen 
circumstances render such measures impracticable. Parents 
or guardians are responsible for the attendance of the child 
during the period of compulsory education. Persons employ- 
ing children of school age who have not completed the 
ordinary elementary course, must not allow this employment 
to keep them from attending school. 



RECII.ATIOXS RF.f.ARDIXr. COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN JAPAN 





etween 
every 
statleiiii 
unless 
ipted 


Exemptions i. e. conditions under any of 


Minimum period 
of compulsory 


o 




■r = O o 


which absence from school may be al lowed 


school attend- 


Z 5 




g.:s :e -a o 




ance each year 






< ^ :s ■■'• 






CL 


Japan 


6-14 


a) Parent or guardian is 
too poor to send child to 
school (1). 

b) With the sanction of the 
mayor or competent author- 
it> if the child is receiving 
the prescribed instruction at 
home. 


Holidays 
must not ex- 
ceed 90days 

excluding 
Sundays, in 
a year. 





New Zealand 



In New Zealand attendance at a registered school in com- 
pulsory except under the conditions specified below. Educa- 
tion at the State schools in free and in addition grants are 
made from state funds for boarding and conveyance. 



(1) Tuition lees cannot be levied in elementary schools except in special cir- 
cumstances, Avhcn the consent of the governor of the prefecture is required. 



272 

LEGISLATION REGARDING COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 
IN NEW ZEALAND 



Apes betwoon 

which every 

child must attend 

school unless 

exempted 


Exemptions i. e. coniitions under any of which 
absence from schooll may be al lawed 


Minimum [icriod 
of compulsory 
school atten- 
dance each year 


Percentage of 

illiterales 

in the whole 

population 


7-15 


I 

a) Distance from school or railway , 
etc., over two miles (if child is under 
10) or three miles (in other cases). 

b) 'Child is receiving efficient ins- 
truction elsewhere. 

c) Sickness, danger of infection etc. 

d) Child is over 13, holds ithe pres- [ 
cribed certificate of proficiency, and is 
resident more than the distance pres- 
cribed in (a) from a school providing 
instruction in advance of standard Vt. 


1.5-79 



South Africa 



In the Union of South Africa education is only compulsory 
for white children. In all the States an exemption is allowed 
in the case of pupils residing over three miles from the near- 
est school, provided that their parents are unable to afford 
the cost of means of conveyance or boarding, and provided 
that the State inakes no provision in either of these respects. 
The enforcement of these regulations is entrusted to the Cen- 
tral Department in each State, which appoints attendance 
officers for the purpose. The length of the school year is also 
fixed by the Central Department. The ages of compulsory 
attendance and the exemptions allowed in the four States of 
the Union are as follows : 



273 — 



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— 274 — 



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275 — 



D. — NIGHT WORK OF CHILDREN IN AGRICULTURE 



Just as in the case of the Night Work of Women, so here, 
the balance of opinion in the Government replies to the 
questionnaire of the International Labour Office indicates 
that any measures of control should aim at ensuring a mini- 
mum period of rest rather than at establishing a rigidly defin- 
ed niglit period of prohibition. The necessity of this mini- 
mum period of rest for children is particulary urgent from the 
standpoint of both health and education. The review of the 
control of the employment of children in agriculture (pp. 188- 
274) discusses the restrictive legislation on this subject includ- 
ing the question of hours. Further references include the 
following : 

In Austria an Act respecting Child Labour dated 19th De- 
cember, 1918, section 8 (1) reads : « In agriculture and domes- 
tic work, children must be allowed an uninterrupted rest at 
night of ten hours in winter (in the months of October to March 
hiclusive) and nine hours in summer (in the months of April 
to September inclusive). In winter the hours between 8 p.m. 
and 6 a. m. and in summer the hours betveen 8 p. m. and 5 a. m. 
shall be the hours of the night's rest; the provincial govern- 
ments may allow deviations from this rule without reducing 
the legallj^ prescribed length of the uninterrupted night's 
rest ». 

In Czechoslovakia an Act respecting Child Labour, dated 
17th July, 1919, section 5, reads : « In agriculture and domestic 
work, children shall be allowed an uninterrupted night's rest 
of 10 hours. The hours of the night's rest shall be the hours 
between 8 p. m. and 6 a. m. The provincial governments may 
fix other limits by way of exception from this rule, provided 
that the legally prescribed length of the night's rest is not 
reduced. " 

In England and Wales the Education Act 1918, Section 13 
(1) reads : A child under the age of twelve shall not be 
employed ; and a child of the age of twelve or upwards shall 
not be employed on any Sunday for more than two hours, 
or on any day on which he is required to attend school before 
the close of school hours on that day, nor on any day before 
six o'clock in the morning or after eight o'clock in the. 
evening. " 

Similary the Education (Scotland) Act, 1918, Section 16 (1) 
reads : " A child under the age of thirteen shall not be em- 
ployed on any day on which he is required to attend school 
liefore the close of school hours on that day nor on any day 
before eight o'clock in the morning or after six o'clock in the 
evening, nor shall any child who is at the age of thirteen, be 
so employed unless he has been exempted under the Educa- 



— 276 — 

tion (Scotland) Act, 1901, from the obligation to attend school: 

Provided that any local authority may by byelaw vary 
these restrictions, either generally or for any specified occu- 
pation. " 

In the United States the Nebraska law (page 196) specifi- 
cally provides that no child may work in a beet field before 
the hour of six in the morning, nor after the hour of eight 
o'clock in the evening. 

In Peru An Act to regulate the Employment of Women 
and Children, dated 25 th, November 1918, prohibits their 
employment at night, but exempts from the operation of the 
Act, agricultural occupations in which mechanical power is 
not used. 

In Switzerland (Basle)) the Act respecting Hours of Work, 
dated 8th April 1920, section 9, reads : " The rest period of a 
young person shall not be less than nine hours, except in case 
of emergency " 



PART II 

SPECIAL MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION 
OF AGRICULTURAL WORREUS 



CHAPTER I 

TECHNICAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 



Introduction 



The diffusion of agricultural knowledge is of such funda- 
mental importance to rural workers that a more or less de- 
tailed description is given here of the educational facilities 
of several countries from the stand point of agriculture. 

As will be seen the development of Agricultural Education 
in these countries has foll.owed much the same lines and still 
shows very similar tendencies. Agricultural colleges affiliat- 
ed with or closely patterned after universities forged the first 
link in the chain. Then with the desire for new and increas- 
ed knowledge came laboratory equipment in the form of ex- 
periment stations, experimental farms, etc. Scientific agri- 
cultural knowledge soon accumulated much more rapidly 
than it was dessiminated. Agricultural instruction in most 
countries failed to keep pace with the growth of popular 
education. 

The agricultural college and affiliated institutions with 
their stores of scientific knowledge were open only to the few 
who could meet their more or less rigorous demands. With 
few exceptions this was true up to the last decade and is 
still all too true in some countries. 

The movement to extend and to popularise agricultural 
education among the rural population where it has been 
attempted has however met with remarkable success. The 
aim of what has sometimes been called the extension 
movement in agricultural education has been to place within 
reach of the men and women and boys and girls who actually 
live and work on the land, facilities for instruction and train- 
ing in agriculture which shall include, in addition to agri- 
cultural colleges, experiment stations and agricultural high 



— 280 — 

schools, such extension courses and practical demonstrations 
in agricultural and home economics as shall tend to encour- 
age and to assist the agricultural workers to better living, to 
more helpful education and to more profitable methods of 
work. 

It will be seen from this study that those countries which 
have shown the greatest progress in making the fund of agri- 
cultural knowledge accessible to actual workers on the land 
have followed much the same methods. Special agricultural 
high schools ; the introduction of agriculture into the 
secondary schools; winter schools; special and short courses 
given at convenient centres; the creation of a rural atmos- 
phere recognizing agriculture as the logical subject about 
which to orientate the general subjects of study as in school 
gardens and other projects; the employment of local agricul- 
tural experts : (County agents, county organizers, agricultural 
representatives. Directors of Agricultural Services, etc.) ; the 
organization of auxiliary educational agencies, Chambers of 
Agriculture, Farm Bureaux, Womens' Institutes, Boys' and 
Girls' Clubs; all to a greater or less extent are being used to 
bring to the farming people the full benefit of the knowledge 
relating to agriculture and the farm home. 

The present study does not aim to be exhaustive, but to 
outline, on the one hand, in some detail, what is being done 
in technical agricultural education and to show, on the other 
hand, the present f adilities such as agricultural colleges, expe- 
riment stations, state and other agricultural services, capable 
of providing the necessary leadership in the event of the 
members of the International Labour Organisation recom- 
mending the development of vocational education within 
their territory for the agricultural workers employed. 

Australia 

It appears that extensive facilities for agricultural educa- 
tion are provided in most of the States of the Australian Com- 
monwealth. Experimental and advisory work in particular 
are highly developed. 



Higher education. 



\a) Universities. 



There is a faculty of agriculture at Melbourne University, 
with a staff of about 20 professors and lecturers. There are 
chairs in agriculture and veterinary science at Sydney Univ- 
ersity; there is a chair of agriculture at Perth; and a school 
of forestry at Adelaide University, which grants degrees in 
this state. 



— 281 — 
(b) Agricultural Colleges. 

Most of the States possess agricultural colleges which pro- 
vide complete courses of 2 to 3 years' duration in the theor>^ 
and practice of agriculture for young men over 16. Among 
these colleges may be mentioned Hawkcsbury College (New 
South Wales) and the Colleges at Dookie (Victoria), Rose- 
worthy (South Australia) and Gatton (Queensland). 

In Victoria 150,000 acres of Crown lands have been perman- 
ently reserved from sale under the Agricultural Colleges 
Act, 1884, in order to make provision for the establishment 
of agricultural colleges and experimental farms in this State. 

Research and experimental work. 

This is largely conducted by the experts in various 
branches of agriculture who are attached to the State Depart- 
ments of Agriculture. Besides laboratory research, field ex- 
periments are extensively conducted by the agricultural 
staff at the experimental farms, demonstration orchards, etc., 
of which most States possess several, and on experimental 
plots at private farms, by special arrangement with the 
owner. 

The number of experimental farms in existence in the 
season 1916-17 was : 

New South Wales 23 

Victoria 5 

Queensland 5 

South Australia 9 

Western Australia 6 

Tasmania 1 

Northern Territory 2 



51 



The importance attached to this work may be inferred from 
the report of the Department of Agriculture, New South 
Wales, for the year 1920, which shows the following branches 
reporting separately to the Department : Chemists' branch, 
biological branch, entomologist, apiary inspector, plant breed- 
er, agrostologist, dairy expert, herd master, sheep and wool 
expert, poultry expert, fruit expert, viticultural expert, to- 
bacco expert. Many of these departments employ a large 
staff of inspectors and instructors, whose work largely con- 
sists in diffusing knowledge of the latest results of research 
among farmers of the State by personal visits, lectures, de- 
monstrations, etc. In all the States great importance appears 
to be attached to the personal visit. 



— 282 — 

The usual practice in the case of experimental plots would 
appear to be that the farmer provides the land upon which 
the experiments are conducted, and also the labour, while 
the Department supplies the seed and fertiliser. The plots 
are supervised by the local inspector of agriculture, and the 
farmer is allowed to retain the resultant crop. These plots 
are distributed all over the State, and are as a rule located 
in those districts in which the Department has not an expe- 
rimental farm. The number of plots on which experiments 
were conducted in New South Wales in 1919-20 was 4.^9. 



II. — Other specialised agricultural, instruction. 



(a) Farm schools. 

Under this term are included a number of experimental 
farms where pupils are received for a course of training 
less theoretical in character or of shorter duration than that 
given in agricultural colleges. The course mny last up to 
two years, and lead up to an examination for which a certi- 
ficate is granted. At other farms the instruction given would 
appear to be almost entirely practical. Thus in New South 
Wales a distinction is made between « farm schools » and 
« farm apprentice schools (*) ». 

There is a Government agricultural training farm for 
boys at Pitt Town, Sydney, which provides a three months 
course of training free of cost. This farm is open to boys 
from the United Kingdom. In Victoria there is a school of 
agriculture and small farming at Burnley, which provides 
a two years course for youths over 14 ; a Government viticul- 
tural station, which trains boys in agriculture and viticulture; 
and an agricultural college for younger pupils (14-16) at 
Longernong. In South Australia there is an agricultural 
school at Adelaide for boys under 15, in connection with the 
school of mines and industries, and a training farm for boys 
from 14 to 16 at North Booboorowie. which provides element- 
ary training in all branches of farm work. 

{h) Short courses, winter schools, etc. 

Short courses in general agriculture (winter schools) are 
held at an agricultural college in some of the States in the 
winter vacation. These courses last about four weeks. A 
small fee is charged to cover board and lodging. 



(*) Report of the Department of Agriculture, New South Wales, for the year ending 
30 June 1920. 



-- 283 — 
(c) Itinerant instruction. 

This consists chiefly in the advisory work of the « experts » 
employed by the State Departments (see above). Their lec- 
tures and demonstrations are largely given under the aus- 
pices of the Agricultural Bureaux, local associations of far- 
mers for the promotion of agriculture, the formation of 
which is encouraged and aided by some of the State Depar- 
ments. 

In one or two States dairy schools are held in different 
centres. 



III. — Agricultural education in the ordinary 
State Schools. 

In some of the States instruction in the elementary prin- 
ciples of agriculture is usual in the primary schools. In others 
such instruction as is given is purely voluntary and not sys- 
tematically provided. The teaching of nature study is gene- 
ral, and school gardening is every^wtiere encouraged. There 
are usually special officials to advise on the teaching of these 
subjects, and in some cases a special grant is given. In 
New South Wales the Education Department has organised 
Rural Camp Schools for the purpose of giving teachers and 
scholars first hand knowledge of country industries. 

In Victoria there are several secondary schools with a rural 
bias, cajled agricultural high schools, which form a link 
between" the rural school and the agricultural college. 



Belgium 

I. Legislation. — The principal Acts and Decrees relating 
to Agricultural Education include : 

A. Act of the 4th April 1890 (1). Under the provisions 
of the Act of the 4th April 1890, which supplemented the Act 
of the 18th July 1860, promoters of agricultural instruction 
were permitted to established a sysem of agricultura schools 
and courses of all kinds throughout the country ; and such 
establishments are still in operation at the present time. 

This Act modified the constitution of the College at Gem- 
bloux, added agricultural .courses to the schools of horticul- 
ture at Vilvorde and Ghent, created a State practical school 



(1) Bulletin Mensuel des Renseignements Agricoles, 1920, p. 905, published by the 
International Institute of Agriculture at Rome. 



— 284 — 

of agriculture which was established at Huy, and provided 
for the granting of subsidies to agricultural schools and cours- 
es attended by at least fifteen pupils, accepting the official 
programme and satisfying the requirements of the state in- 
spectors. 

The Act further provides that a Report on the condition of 
Agricultural Instruction shall be presented to the Government 
and the Legislative Chambers every three years. 

In pursuance of the Act, the Directorate of Agricultural 
Instruction prepared courses of study for the schools, con- 
ditions for grants, methods of supervision etc., and publish 
ed them in twenty-two numbers, which thus practically 
constituted a codification of all the provisions relating to 
agricultural instruction in schools in Belgium. 

B. Act of the 15th November 1919. 

The Act of the 15th November 1919 has replaced the Act 
of the 4th April 1890. Its principal provisions are the fol- 
lowing: 

a) The State is authorized to organize and administer : 

(1) An agricultural college whose courses will be 
given in French and an agricultural college whose 
courses will be given in Flemish. 

(2) Vocational Schools of Agriculture and related 

subjects, (Horticulture, Arboriculture, etc.). 

(3) Elementary Vocational Schools of Agriculture or 

of special subjects of local importance. 

(4) Classes and Lectures for the propa£fation of agri- 

cultural Education. 

b) Subsidies may be granted to all schools submitting 

to official inspection and except in special cases, at- 
tended by at least fifteen pupils. 

c) Appointments to the staff of State Agricultural Colleges 

and Schools shall be made by the Government. 

d) A Committee of Supervision and Administration may 

be established in connection with each school. 

e) Holders of College Diplomas may submit them for ra- 

tification to the Minister of Agriculture. 

/) The Act leaves the following questions to be dealt 
witli by administrative regulations : 

(1) The situation of each school, and its internal or- 

ganisation; 

(2) Selection of the staff of each establishment; sa- 

laries of said staff; 



— 285 — 

(3) Composition and attributes of Committees of Su- 

pervision and Administration; 

(4) Programme of instruction; distribution and dur- 

ation of courses; 

(5) Conditions for promotion from one class to anoth 
er and for obtaining the diploma and passing 
examinations. 

(6) Conditions for admission of the public to theore- 

tical and practical lectures. 

C. Royal Order of the 30th July 1911 (1) relating to State 
Courses for Agricultural Experts. (Agronomes). 

This Order contains the following principal provisions : 

The principal duties of State Agricultural Experts are : 

a) To popularise information regarding the theory and 
practice of agriculture, particularly by means of oral 
or written advice, lectures, and demonstration and 
experimental stations. The experts must place 
themselves in touch with farmers, and furnish them 
gratuitously with any advice required. 

(b) To instruct farmers in the advantages which they may 

derive from association, and to furnish persons 
desiring become associated with exact information in 
regard to the organisation and the working of 
agricultural associations. 

(c) To keep the central administration informed as to the 

work carried on by official or subsidised agricultural 
societies. 

(d) To organise and direct the agricultural classes for 
adults established in their respective districts by the 
Department of Agriculture. 



II. Organisation : 

A. Agricultural Colleges and Schools for Men and Boys : 

(a) Senior Grade (2) : 

Senior agricultural instruction is given at the State 
Agricultural College at Gembloux and at the Agricultur- 
al College of the University of Louvain. 



(1) Almanach Royale Olflciel, Brussels, 1920. P. 863. 
(2) Rapport Triennal sur la situation de renseignement agricole, presents par le 
Minlstre de I'Agrlculture, Brussels, 1919, and Fascicules Nos. 1 and 2, publshed 
by Section I. of tlie Ministry of Agriculture. 



— 286 — 

Its object is to train heads of large agricultural un- 
dertakings, directors of agricultural instruction, larid- 
owners, professors of agriculture, state agricultural ex- 
perts, and higher officers of the administration of Forests 
and Waterways. 

Persons who have attained the age of 16 years if 
they hold one of the following certificates are admitted to 
these institutions : 

(1) Certificate of a completed course in ancient or 
modern Humanities. 

(2) Certificate granted by the Jury of Preparatory 
Examinations established by the Act of the 10th 
April 1890. 

(3) Certificate of entrance to an institute of higher 
instruction, 

(4) In the case of foreigners a certificate of matu- 
rity. 

(5) Certificate granted after examination in confor- 

mity with the programme established by the 
Royal Decree of the 8th April 1920. 

The school fees amount to 300 francs per annum for Belgian 
subjects, and 400 francs for foreigners. An entrance fee of 
40 francs is payable in addition by each pupil. Auditors are 
required to pay 50 francs for the course. 

The instruction given in these schools is primarily theore- 
tical, through it also involves practical demonstrations and 
excursions. Prior to the Royal Order of the 28th April 1920, 
the period of study, was three years; a fourth year might be 
taken at the option of the pupil, and the programme of studies 
comprised the following courses : 

Cultivation, Rural Engineering, General Chemistry, 
Analytical Chemistry, Mineral Sciences, Zootechny, 
Botany, Zoology, Bookkeeping, Rural Economy, Social 
economy or legislation. Technology, Drawing, Phj'- 
sics. 

Now the agricultural course is divided into two parts : stu- 
dies preparatory to the Degree of Licentiate in Agricultural 
Science and studies for obtaining the diploma of specialist 
in one or other of the branches of Agriculture. 

The period for obtaining the degree of Licentiate in Agri- 
cultural Science is two years. The subjects for the Licence 
are : 

Natural Science : Experimental Physics and Meteorolog}% 
General Chemistry, Elements of Analytical Chemistry, 
Botany, Geologj', Agrologj% Hydrology, Zoology. 

Agriculture : General Agriculture, Chemistry applied to 
Agriculture, Cultivation special to temperate regions. 



— 287 — 

Rural economy, General and Agricultural Book-keep- 
ing. 

Sylviculture : Study of principal species, Re-planting. 

Zootechny : Elements of anatomy and physiology. General 
and special zootechny, Hygiene and feeding of domes- 
tic animals. 

Rural Engineering : Mechanics, Agricultural Machines, Sur- 
veying and levelling. Land Improvement, Drainage. 

Agricultural Industry : Elements of Dairy Industry, Sugar 
Manufacture. 

Legislation : General and Rural Legislation. 

The period of study for obtaining the degree of Specialist 
in one of the branches of Agriculture is four years. 

The studies comprise : Two years preparator>' and leading 
to the degree of « candidat ingenieur agricole » ; and two j^ears 
devoted to a special branch of agriculture, preparatory to a 
degree in any one of the following : 

General Agriculture, Colonial Agriculture, Forest and 
Waterwaj^s, Horticulture, Rural Engineering, Agri- 
cultural Industry, Agricultural Chemistry. 
The subjects of study for the first two years include : 

Natural Sciences : The same as for the obtaining of the 
License and in addition general and agricultural mi- 
crobiology and Mineralogy. 

Agriculture : General Agriculture and Agricultural Che- 
mistry. 

Zootechny : Comparative external anatomy and physiology 
of domestic animals. 

Sylviculture : General Sylviculture, Study of principal spe- 
cies. Elements of division for cutting, Technolog}% 
Cubing, and Forest Valuation. 

Rural Engineering : Supplementary Mathematics, Mechan- 
ics, Agricultural Machines, Land Surveying, Levelling, 
Drawing, Economic Science and Law; General Book- 
keeping. 

Political and Social Economy : General and Rural Legis- 
lation. 

Methodology : Elements of Methodolog\\ 

In the third and fourth year the student specializes in one 
of the following sections : 

Agronomy, Colonial Agriculture, Forests and Water- 
ways, Rural Engineering, Horticulture, Chemistry 
or Agricultural Industry. 



_ 288 — 

The programmes of all these sections include the most im- 
portant agricultural sciences, such as agriculture, zootechny, 
and rural economy. In addition, the programme includes the 
whole field of the science selected for specialisation. 



The Agricultural College of Gemhloux. 

Special Legislation. — Act of 18 July, 1860, providinsf for 
the foundation of the institute; Royal Orders of 30 August, 
1860; 7 October, 1887; 22 February, 1900; 19 August, 1912; 
Royal Orders of 12 June, 1914 (Moniteur Beige, 1 July, 1914, 
No. 182. 

Attached to the college are gardens, demonstration stations, 
and a farm occupying an area of 65 hectares, which serves 
for both practical instruction and experimental work. 

The teaching staff consists of nine ordinary and extraor- 
dinary professors, three assistant professors, three professors 
in charge of courses, and a certain number of lectures, labor- 
atory assistants, etc. 

NUMBER OF PUPILS AND AUDITORS : 



S<"hool Year 


Number of regular pupils 


Auditors 


Total number 

of pupils for the 

three years 

compuls-ory 

course 


1st year 


2ncl year 


3rd year 


1911-12 

1912-13 

1913-14 

1914-15 

1915-16 

1916-17 


90 
106 
80 
12 
38 
58 


34 
36 
40 
11 
15 
16 


34 
29 
27 
5 
5 
15 


6 

8 

10 

16 

7 
20 


164 
179 
157 
44 
65 
117 



The number of pupils who passed the final examination of 
the fourth (optional) year of study : in 1912 was 5; in 1913 
was 7; in 1914 was 5. 

The course of the fourth year was not in operation during 
the war. 



The Agricultural College of Louvain 

The Agricultural College of Louvain, founded in 1878, cons- 
titutes a special faculty in the university of Louvain (inaugu- 
red at Malines in 1834 and established at Louvain in 1635). 
The college comprises an electric dairy, an agricultural bo- 
tanical garden, an arboratum (occupying an area of 2 hec- 
tares), and a farm of 70 hectares. 



— 289 — 

In 1904 the teaching staff consisted of thirteen ordinary 
professors and three extraordinary professors. 

The numbers of pupils was 228 in 1910-1911; 224 in 1912- 
1913: and 221 in 1913-1914. 



(b) Intermediate Grade : 

Intermediate agricultural Education in Belgium is repre- 
sented by the free (subsidised) schools of Carlsbourg, la Lou- 
viere, and Lcuze, and by llic State practical school of agricul- 
ture at Huy. 

These schools are organised to train heads of agricultural 
undertakings of moderate size, directors of small agricultural 
industrial undertakings, farm bailiffs , etc The duration of 
the course is three j-ears except at Huy, where it is two years. 
Pupils with an elementary education are admitted; the mini- 
mum age is sixteen years. 



Carlsbourg, la Loiiviere, and Leuze. 

The programme and organisation of these three schools 
is regulated by the Ministerial circular of 30 October, 1901. 
The instruction is theoretical and practical. 

The course of study includes: 

Compulsory Courses : Physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, 
agronomy, agricultural chemistry, special branches of culti- 
vation, book-keeping. 

Optional Courses : Analytical chemistry, arboriculture, 
market gardening, sylviculture, poultry farming, entomology, 
bee-keeping, agricultural mechanics, rural building, techno- 
logy. 

Attached to the schools are farms, orchards, kitchen gar- 
dens, and fields for experimental purposes. 

The number of pupils from 1911 to 1917 was: 

1911-12 

1912-13 

1913-14 

1914-15 

191.5-16 

1916-17 

In the same period the teaching staff consisted of : 9 pro- 
fessors at Carlsbourg; 9 professors at La Louuiere; 7 professors 
at Leuze. 

19 



54 


26 


68 


63 


26 


76 


57 


22 


82 





11 


51 


19 


57 


60 


31 


101 


33 



— 290 — 

The School at Hiiy (1). 

Special Legislation : Act of 13 November, 1919, and Royal 
Order of 1 April, 1920. 

The instruction given is theoretical and practical. The 
pupils are resident or non-resident. For the purposes of 
practical instruction the school is provided with a well equip- 
ped farm and the necessary lands for cultivation and experi- 
ments, as well as laboratories, museums, and work-shops. The 
duration of the agricultural course is two years. A prepa- 
ratory year is provided for pupils who are not in a position 
to take this work. Regular pupils of Belgian nationality 
receive instruction gratuitously; foreign pupils pay 150 francs 
a year. Scholarships are granted to pupils who distinguish 
themselves by their application, etc. A certificate of inter- 
mediate agricultural studies is granted to pupils passing an 
examination after the terminaticn of the course. From 1911 
to 1917 the number of pupils was as follows : 25 in 1911-1912; 
24 in 1912-1913; 27 in 1913-1914; 12 in 1914-1915; 12 in 1915- 
1916; 31 in 1916-1917. 

The teaching stafit' at present consists of six professors and 
six lecturers. 

(2) Other Secondary Agricultural Schools (2). — Agricul- 
tural work of secondary grade and less advanced is offered 
in twenty-four schools distributed over the whole country. 
By virtue of the Ministerial Order of 15 May, 1920, free inter- 
mediate schools may organise an agricultural section and ob- 
tain a subsidy from the Department of Agriculture. The sub- 
sidies vary fron 2,500 to 5,000 francs. The conditions of ad- 
mission are a minimum age of sixteen years and a sufficient 
elementary education. 

The instruction is given in a course of three years, one of 
which is preparatory. The minimum programme required 
by the Ministry of Agriculture comprises, physics, chemistry, 
botany, zoology, agronomy, agricultural chemistry, zoo- 
techny, and book-keeping. 

The instruction is theoretical and practical, and must in- 
clude six hours theory and six hours practice each week. Al- 
most all the schools possess gardens, fields for experimental 
purposes, etc. 

The practical instruction consists of excursions, demonstra- 
tions, and exercises in applied drawing. Most of the courses 
do not include what is ordinarily called agricultural practice. 
They do not actually teach the pupils to plough, harrow, 
sow, etc. But the pupils are to a great extent the children 
of farmers and consequently in their own homes are acquain- 
ted with all the work of a farm. The object of these secon- 

(1) Fascicules nos. 1 and 1 b., published by the Ministry of Agriculture rela- 
ting to the intermediate school at Huy. Ministry of Agrculture, 2nd 15 Div. Social 
2 nd Section. 

(2) Triennial Report, page 5. 



— 291 — 

dary schools is to instruct the pupils in the scientific founda- 
tions of agriculture. The teaching staff consists altogether 
of 135 professors. The number of j)upils was in 1911-12, 
1009; in 1914-15, 646; and in 196-17, 1054. 

(c) Elementary Grade (1). 

(1) Elementary Course. — Courses in elementary agricul- 
ture were organised by way of experiment in 1901-2. They 
are carried on during the winter, the period of rest for the 
worker on the land. Originally they were attached to rural 
elementary schools, but many are now independent. The 
course of study includes agriculture, agricultural chemistry, 
special forms of cultivation, elements of animal husbandn,, 
agricultural associations and agricultural book-keeping, and 
may be adapted to local requirements. It is completed in 
tw^o half yearly terms. Schools must have the use of a de- 
monstrating garden of at least 10 ares (2). The pupils must 
have completed a course of elementary study and have attain- 
ed the age of fourteen years. The subsidies granted by the 
Department of Agriculture vary from 500 to 1000 francs in 
addition to the subsidies granted by the Department of 
Science and Arts under the Ministerial Order of 21 September, 
1898. The instruction is free. In 1907 there w^ere altogether 
twenty-one elementary agricultural vocational sections for 
boys. The total number of professors in 1917 w^as 33. The 
total number of pupils in 1913-14 was 1001 (this figure includes, 
as regards two schools, the number of pupils in 1916-17). 

(3) Agricultural Extension (3). — Work similar to that of 
the courses in elementary agriculture just described is oti'ered 
also as extension work, that is, in courses which are organized 
wherever there is a convenient place wdth a sufficient au- 
dience (fifteen pupils at least). The courses were instituted 
in 1904-05 and up to 1917 ten hab been organized by State 
agricultural experts in different parts of the country. The 
w^ork in done during the three winter months and each 
course consists of three or four classes of three or four hours 
per week. 

(3) Courses in agricultural mechanics : In view of the neces- 
sity to wdiich farmers are more and more driven by the lack 
of labour of employing agricultural machinery, courses in 
agricultural mechanics answer a real need and the assiduous 
attendance at the five which have been regularly established 
is easily explained. In two provinces State agricultural ex- 
perts have organized also itinerant courses which are carried 



(1) Triennial Report, page G. 

(2) An Are = a scjuare of 10 metres. 

(3) Triennial Report, page 7. 



— 292 _ 

on during the winter, and change their location every two or 
three years; and in three other provinces courses of from ten 
to fifteen lessons in agricultural mechanics are offered. The 
instruction is both theoretical and practical. The theory 
comprises elements of agriculture, natural science, legisla- 
tion affecting agricultural mechanics, and the description 
of agricultural machines, steam, electric, and other motors, 
etc. Practical work is provided in the form of drawing, 
mounting, unmounting, and regulating agricultural instru- 
ments, driving of motors and working in iron and wood in 
connection with small repairs. To facilitate such practical 
work mechanical workshops on a sufficiently large scale are 
provided. 

The courses generally occupy three afternoons a week 
during three months for two or three consecutive years. The 
number of pupils in 1913-14 averaged from thirty to forty in 
each school. 

(4) Courses in Agriculture in Intermediate Schools (1) .* 
These courses are organised at the joint expense of the De- 
partment of Science and Art and the Department of Agri- 
culture in about fifty athenaeums and State intermediate 
schools, and at the exclusive expense of the Department of 
Agriculture in about fifty private establishments. They con- 
sist of from one to two hours teaching per week by an agri- 
cultural specialist or by an intermediate school teacher. The 
programme includes the study of plants, animals, and agri- 
cultural associations. These courses are not intended to 
train farmers but they are useful to young people, some of 
whom, after their intermediate studies, will return to the 
paternal farm while others will go on to higher courses of 
study, become solicitors, barristers, etc., and establish them- 
selves in the country where they will have many opportuni- 
ties to take an intelligent interest in the affairs of the rural 
community. 

Owing to the destruction of records during the war, exact 
statistical information exists only for the years 1909-1911. 

The total number of courses established in State or private 
intermediate schools amounted in 1908-09 to 81 with 2.476 pu- 
pils; in 1909-10, to 83, with 2,578 pupils; and in 1910-11, to 94, 
with 2,872 pupils. 

B. Agricultural schools for Women and Girls. 

(a) Senior Grade (2). — Senior work in household econo- 
mics has been available in Belgium since the establishment 
in 1918 of a fifth year at the normal schools for assistant mis- 
tresses at Wavre, Notre-Dame, and Heverle. 



(1) Triennial Report, page 8. 

(2) Triennial Report, page 9. 



— 293 — 

These two normal agricultural schools are very well equip- 
ped. They are intended for the training of future rural ele- 
mentary school mistresses, whose duties will include teaching 
household economics in elementary schools. They also train 
teachers of rural household economics in vocational schools. 
The programme of these schools includes instruction in all 
hranches of women's work in the country. 

A second senior normal scool was opened at Laeken, Brus- 
sels, in Octoher, 1920. 

During the period covered by the two reports presented bj^ 
the Minjster of Agriculture for the years 1912-1917, the senior 
school of agriculture at Heverle was the only establishment 
for this grade of instruction. The duration of the course was 
three years. There were 17 members on the teaching staff. 
The number of pupils in 1911-12 was 49; in 1912-13 w^as 58; 
in 1913-14 was 105; in 1914-15 was 77; in 1915-16 was 117; 
in 1916-17 was 138. 

(b) Intermediate Grade. 

(1) Schools of Rural Household Economics (1) : located in 
the various provinces of the country constitute the more ad- 
vanced intermediate grade of this branch of education. The 
course usually occupies two years and the pupils are for the 
most part resident. 

The course of study includes elements of natural science 
and agriculture, market gardening, floriculture, dairy work 
and cheese-making, domestic economy (cooking, sewing, etc.) 
pedagogA,^ hygiene, commerce, book-keeping, and elementary 
law. 

The teaching staff are usually elementary school mistresses 
with certificates in household economics. Ten hours per 
week are devoted to theoretical teaching and twenty to prac- 
tical work, (dairy work, cheese-making, gardening, domestic 
economy, etc.). 

Candidates for admission to these schools must be at least 
fourteen years of age and have sufficient elementary instruc- 
tion. In 1917 there were fifteen schools of rural household 
economics of this kind. The teaching staff consisted of 57 
masters and mistresses. The total number of pupils was : 
421 in 1911-12, 483 in 1913-14, 151 in 1914-15, 361 in 1916-17. 

(2) Short Courses. — Junior work in rural household eco- 
nomics is also available in courses shorter than those in the 
schools first described. These courses include the study dur- 
ing one year at least of the principles of agriculture applied 
to gardening, dairy work, cheese-making, domestic economy, 
and book-keeping. Theoretical and practical w^ork must 
each occupy at least four hours per week. 

In 1917 the total number of such courses was 7, with twen- 

(1) Triennial Report, page 9. 



— 294 — 

ty-four masters and mistresses. The total number of pupils 
was : 89 in 1911-12, 166 in 1913-14, 98 in 1914-16, 156 in 1916-17. 

c) Elementary Grade. 

(1) Short courses in Rural Household Economics (1) (Ex- 
tension Work). — These courses correspond to the agricultu- 
ral extension work for boys, with this difference, that they 
are held only during the winter while the boys' work conti- 
nues throughout the year. 

Such a course may be organized at the request of the com- 
munal administration of agricultural societies or of indivi- 
duals, in any commune in which there is suitable accommo- 
dation and a sufficient number of persons who wish to at- 
tend (minimum 15 pupils). These schools are intended for 
girls who have finished their elementary studies and are ca- 
pable of doing the work of the school. No fees are charged. 

The programme includes the study of dairy work, cheese- 
making, domestic economy (cooking, sewing, washing, iro- 
ning, housekeeping, etc.), hygiene, training of children, gar- 
dening (market gardening), poultry farming, nutrition and 
the care of farm animals. The course lasts four months, and 
is both theoretical and practical. For theoretical study the 
pupils are generally supplied wdth manuals. The practical 
work is carried out by means of material supplied to all the 
schools — materials for dairy work, cheese making and cook- 
ing, machines for sewing, etc. 

During the period from 1909 to 1911 State agricultural ex- 
perts organised 79 courses, and 1,221 pupils received diplo- 
mas. During the three years 1919-1914, 55 courses were or- 
ganised, and were well attended. 

(2) Elementary Courses (2) : 

These courses in household economics for girls correspond 
to the elementary courses in agriculture for l3oys. They are 
based on the same Ministerial provisions which require 60 
hours of theory and 60 hours of practical work for obtaining 
the subsidy, which varies from 350 to 750 francs. 

The course of study is an abridgement of that of the inter- 
mediate grade. The latter are intended for girls who are 
able to give at least one complete year to study without inter- 
ruption," while the elementary courses are open to those who 
are only able to give a few hours a week and wish to perfect 
themselves while regularly employed at home. 

In 1917 the total number of such courses offered was 5. The 
teaching staff included 11 teachers. The number of pupils 
was : il2 in 1911-2, 105 in 1913-14, 104 in 1914-15, 110 in 
1916-17. 



(1) Triennial Report, page 10. 
(2) Ibid, page 11. 



— 295 — 



Special Schools. 

a) State School of Veterinary Medicine at Cureghen (lez- 

Bruxelles (1). 

(Acts of the 4th April 1890 and 2cSth May 1906.) The period 
of study is 4 years. The instruction is theoretical and prac- 
tical. In order to be admitted as a pupil it is necessary to 
possess a diploma of candidate in natural science. Auditors 
are admitted. 

The fees are fixed at 200 francs for the school year for 
regular pupils and 50 francs for each course for auditors. 
Bursaries may be given to pupils who distinguish theinselves 

The teaching staff consisted in 1917 of 13 professors. 

The number of pupils was 151 in 1904-05; 101 in 1912-13, 
and 83 in 1913-14. 

b) State school of farriery at Molenheek-Saint-J ean (Brus- 

sels) (2). 

The courses at this school are open to farriers holding a 
certificate given to those w^ho have taken the public lectures 
on farriery established by the Department of Agriculture, or 
a certificate from the School of Equitation at Ypres. 

The courses are given in French and Flemish from October 
to the end of July on days fixed by the Minister of Agricul- 
ture. 

The instruction is free and is essentially practical. 

At the conclusion of the courses the pupils may take an 
examination, after which, if successful, they receive the di- 
ploma of Master Farrier. 

There are 5 teachers on the staff. 

In 1911-1914 the number of pupils was 90. In 1917 as a 
result of the war the number fell to 33. 

c) Schools of horticulture (3). 

(1) State schools of horticulture at Vilvorde and Ghent : 
The instruction given is practical and theoretical but the 
practical instruction plays a preponderant part, especiallv at 
Vilvorde. The course includes the following subjects : Phy- 
sics and meteorology'', general and agricultural chemistry, 
botany, agronomy, cultivation of fruit trees, market garden 
ing, floriculture, elements of commerce and bookkeeping, 
land surveying, drawing, architectural gardening, and various 
special subjects. 



(1) Almanach Royal 1920, page 870. 

(2) Ibid., page 871. 

(3) Triennial Report, page 509. 



— 296 — 

Nurseries, collections including all the trees and shrubs on 
the market in Belgium, market gardens and pleasure gardens, 
greenhouses for cultivation of flowers, fruits, etc. serve for 
practical instruction. The period of study is three years. 

Candidates for admission must be at least 16 years of age 
and have sufficient physical strength to do the work requi- 
red.' They have to pass an entrance examination. Auditors 
are also admitted. Instruction is free for Belgian subjects; 
foreigners are required to pay an annual fee of 150 francs. 
Auditors pay 20 francs for each course. Bursaries may be 
granted to pupils who distinguish themselves by their ability, 
application, etc. 

The school at Vilvorde is organised under the law of 4 April 
1890 and the regulations of 17 October 1890. It comprises 
French and Flemish Sections. 

In 1917 its teaching staff consisted of 11 professors. 

The number of pupils was : 97 in 1911-12, 107 in 1912-13, 
106 in 1913-14, 40 in 1914-15, 50 in 1915-16, 60 in 1916-17. 

The school at Ghent was established by Ministerial Order 
of 15 September 1855 and by the law of 18 July 1860, and reor- 
ganised by Royal Order of 17 October 1890 in conformitv 
with the law of 4 April 1890. 

In 1917 its teaching staff consisted of 11 professors. 

The number of pupils was : 46 in 1911-12, 38 in 1912-13, 
44 in 1913-14, 15 in 1916-17. 

During the first two years of the war the school was closed. 

(2) Subsidised Schools of Horticulture (1) : These schools 
offer a course of three years and follow the programme of 
the State Schools of Horticulture. Tlie instruction is practi- 
cal and theoretical. The directors do all in their power to 
encourage practical instruction in horticultural science. 
There are four of these schools located at Carlsbourg, Char- 
leroi, Liege and Tournai, all with extensive gardens, nurse- 
ries etc., for demonstrations and practical work. 

There are 24 members on the staff. 

The number of pupils was : 124 in 1911-12, 120 in 1912-13, 
99 in 1913-14, 47 in 1914-15, 82 in 1915-16, 88 in 1916-17. 

(3) Horticultural Courses for men (1) and boys : In 1917 
19 courses in horticulture were offered to men with periods 
of study varying from six months to two years. The theore- 
tical work is given generally in the evening three or four 
times a week. Practical instruction is generally given on 
Sunday morning in the gardens of the schools. The mini- 
mum age for admission is 15 years. The purpose of the work 
is to train practical horticulturalists and to enable them to 
profit by a knowledge of the most modern methods. 

In 1917 the teaching staff of the sections of Horticulture 
consisted of 61 teachers. 



(1) Triennial Report, pages 24-26. 



— 297 — 

The number of pupils was 857 in 1913-1914 and 711 in 1916- 
1917. 

(4) Horticultural Courses for Women and Girls : Up to 
1917 there was only one horticultural course for women, viz. 
at Rondu. The period of study is 2 years. Classes are held 
every year from the 1st November till the end of June on one 
afternoon a week from mid-day till 5 or 6 o'clock in the eve- 
ning. The subjects studied are botany, market gardening, 
arboriculture and floriculture. 

This section numbered 32 pupils in 1913-1914 and 23 in 
1916-1917. 

(5) Courses and conferences in arboriculture, market 
gardening and floriculture (1) : The complete course in arbo- 
riculture, market gardening and floriculture comprises 20 
lessons. The object of this work is to afford supplemental ins- 
truction to fruit growers who depend upon their orchards for 
their livelihood. 

The conferences comprise from 5 to 6 lessons each. From 
1912 to 1917 the number of these courses and conferences 
u^as as follows : 

Arboriculture 

in 1912 courses 21 

conferences . . 226 

in 1913 courses 23 

conferences . 246 

in 1914 courses 24 

conferences . . 224 

in 1915 courses — 

conferences . . 75 

in 1916 courses 18 

conferences . . 139 

in 1917 courses 20 

conferences . . 165 



D. Agricultural Extension. 

a) State agricultural experts and horticultural advisers. 

(1) State agricultural experts (3) (agronomes) : The object 
of the organisation of instructions of state agricultural ex- 
perts has already been defined and includes the popular- 
isation of information regarding the theory and practice of 
agriculture. 

Besides the Royal Order of 30 July 1911 an important 
Order was issued on the same date relating to the travelling 



Market 




gardening 


Floricult\ 


14 


— 


191 


58 


13 


— 


243 


63 


9 


— 


257 


58 


145 


3 


2 


— 


182 


11 


9 


— 


203 


12 



(1) Triennial Report, page 322. 
(2) Ibid., pages 24-26. 
(3) Almanaeh Roval, pages 8G3-8G4. 



— 298 — 

expenses, office expenses and subsistence allowances granted 
to State agricultural experts. 
Their organisation is as follows : 

In the province of Antwerp 2 State agricultural experts- 1 d&puty 

» » » )) Brabant 3 » » » 2 » 

» » » » East Flanders 4 » » « 4 » 

» » » » West Flanders; 3 » » . » 1 » 

» « » » Hainaut 4 » »" » » 

» » » » Liege 3 » » » 1 » 

» » » » Liimbourg 2 » » » 1 » 

« « )' » Luxembourg 4 » » » 2 w 

» » » » Namur 3 » » » 1 » 



Total... 28 » » » 31 » 

(2) State horticultural advisers : The Order of the 9th No- 
vember 1909 created in the Department of Agriculture a ser- 
vice of State horticultural advisers. 

The principal functions of these officers are : 

to popularise the knowledge and practice of horticultural 
science, particularly by means of oral and written advice, 
lectures, experimental demonstration, etc.; 

to instruct horticulturists in the advantages which they may 
derive from association and to furnish persons requesting 
the same with precise information in regard to the organisat- 
and work of horticultural associations; and to keep the 
ion and work of horticultural associations; and to keep the 
subsidised horticultural societies. 

The service of State horticultural advisers consists of 4 dis- 
tricts and 7 officers. 

b) Agricultural instruction in elementary schools (1). 

The work in agriculture to be included in the elementary 
education given in rural schools is regulated by the Ministerial 
circulars of the 5th February 1890 and 17th September 1898. 

Compulsory agricultural instruction in rural communes is 
prescribed by Article 4 of the Act relating to the organisation 
of education of 1884-1895, by Article 13 of the Act of 1914, and 
by Article 17 of the Act of the 14th August 1920. 

Lessons in agriculture are given in elementary schools com- 
mencing usually with the 4th Class. The object of these les- 
sons is not to take the place of vocational agricultural ins- 
truction but to give the pupils the elementary notions of agri- 
culture necessary for all trades and professions. 

In 1911 the number of boys' elementary schools and mixed 
elementary schools in which compulsory instruction in the 
elements of agriculture was given (communal, adopted and 
private subsidised schools) was 4024. The number of tea- 
chers engaged in giving this instruction in these schools was 
7,150. 

(1) Rapport triennial sur I'enseignement primaire en Belgique, Brussels, 1913. 



— 299 — 

The Ministry of Agriculture prepares a pamphlet for edu- 
cational purposes, called « Advice to Farmers. » The teachers 
devote one a more lessons to the subjects dealt with, and on 
the occasion of the tri-monthly conferences copies are distri- 
buted to the pupils in order that they may be read in their 
homes. 

c) Agricultural instruction of adults (1). 

Agricujtural lectures and courses for adults have been gi- 
ven for a great many years in Belgian villages by State agri- 
cultural experts, professors of agriculture, teachers posses- 
sing the diploma of agricultural instruction, etc... These lec- 
tures and courses deal with the various subjects of interest 
to agriculturists such as manures, feeding of animals, hygiene, 
dairy work, associations, rural law, measures for combating 
the enemies of plants and animals, bee-keeping, poultry far- 
ming, farriery, etc... The courses are established under the 
Ministerial Order of 30th July 1920 (Fascicule No. 7. published 
by the second section of the Ministry of Agriculture) in the 
following manner. The Minister of Agriculture appoints each 
year on the recommendation of the district agricultural ex- 
perts the communes in which an agricultural course for adults 
shall be offered. The courses are public and free, and are not 
held unless there are at least 20 regular pupils. They are super- 
vised by State Agricultural experts. The teachers receive a 
fee of 15 francs per lesson and travelling expenses. 

The number of agricultural lectures delivered to adults in 
1913-1914 was 2,152. There are no statistics for the period 
from 1915 to 1917, the records having been destroyed during 
the war. 

Courses in bee-keeping and poultry farming are taken by 
amateurs as well as by farmers who wish to learn better 
methods and increase their profits. 

The number of lessons in poultrv-farming was 491 in 1911- 
1912; 464 in 1912-1913; and 428 in 1913-1914. The figures 
relating to bee-keeping are 437. 556 and 487 respectively. 
There are no statistics for the period 1915-1917. 

Since 1920 these courses have been reorganised and includ- 
ed in the regular extension courses for adults. 

Lectures for farmers' wives (2) have been organised by the 
Department of Agriculture for more than 10 years. They 
deal with various subjects interesting to the farmer's wife, 
such as the feeding of cattle, dairy work, poultry farming, 
kitchen gardening, domestic economy, hygiene, etc. 

The lectures are established by the State through the 
medium of the official agricultural experts or of associations 



(1) Monthly bulletin of agricultural information, 1920, p. 910. 

(2) Ibid., p. 911. 



— 300 — 

of farmers' wives. As a result of the war exact statistics 
only exist for the vears 1908-1910. 

In 1908-1909 the' number of lessons was 292; in 1909-1910 
323, and in 1910-1911, 392. The average attendance was 96, 
71 and 67 women respectively. 

Courses in agricultural science for soldiers are regularly 
organised every winter from December to March in all bar- 
racks in which at least 20 entries are secured. 

The total number of courses was 17 in 1911-1912; 21 in 
1912-1913; 20 in 1913-1914. 

In the same years the number of lessons was respectively 
362, 410 and 406. 

d) Institutions connected with agricultural education (1). 

The State agronomic station and the State analytical labo- 
ratories were founded and re-organised by Royal Orders of 
the 22nd June 1891, the 22nd July 1899, the 25th March 1907, 
the 26th July 1909, the 31st December 1912 and the 30th April 
1913. 

The State agronomic station at Gembloux comprises : 

(1) the station of agricultural chemistry and physics; 

(2) the dairy station; 

(3) the station of plant-pathology; 

(4) the station of agricultural entomology; 

(5) the station of rural engineering; 

(6) the research station for the improvement of agricul- 

tural seeds. 

The station furnishes assistance to the central adminis- 
trations of the Department of Agriculture in the scientific 
research and the results of their investigations are published 
for general distrubution. It organises a course of lectures 
every year in the month of July and its advice is free to the 
public at all times. 

Analytical laboratories have been established for the pur- 
pose of enabling the public to obtain in establishments suita- 
bly equipped and under the direction of specialists : 

(1) The analysis of soils, fertilising matters and agri- 

cultural products, and the testing of seeds : 

(2) The analysis of products and substances used for 

food or in the manufacture and preparation of 
food. 

These analyses are made in accordance with a scale of pri- 
ces fixed by the Minister. 

In 1917 the number of State analytical laboratories was 7. 

(1) Almanach Royal, page 861 et seq. 



— 301 — 

The State botanical garden (1) was founded b ythe Act of 
June 7th 1870 and reorganised by Royal Order of May 3rd 
1909 and Ministerial Orders of Septembre 3rd 1871, and June 
15th 1876. 

The object of this garden is to furnisli an opportunity for 
the study and teaching of botany. The garden arranges collec- 
tions, living or preserved, of the flora of the globe and their 
descriptions. It gives a preponderant place to collections of 
living and fossil flora of Belgium and the Congo. 

These collections of the Botanical garden are divided into 
two sections : 

(1) The hcrbarian section; 

(2) The section of vegetable morphology and palaeon- 

tology. 

To the latter section are attached all the collections of liv- 
ing plants intended for the teaching of batany and the col- 
lections of greenhouse plants and the woodland museum. 

The agricultural libraries have also played an important 

part in the popularisation of agricultural science. They are 

distributed throughout the country, and in 1914 numbered 
119. 



IV. Subsidies granted by the state for the development of 

AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION UNDER THE BUDGET OF THE 
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE IN 1914 (2). 



A. Agricultural Schools for Men 


1' R A N C S 








AND Boys 






360,300 


a) Senior Grade Total. 




183,865 




State Agricultural College at 








Gembloux 


183,865 






b) Intermediate Grade Total. 




99,900 




1. The State Practical School 








at Huy and subsidies to the 








free schools of Carlsbourg, 








la Louviere and Leuze. . . . 


52,775 






2. Subsidised secondary agri- 








cultural schools 


47,125 






c) Elementarif Grade 


76,535 




1. Courses in Elementary Agri- 








culture 


21,225 






2. Agricultural Extension 


20,780 






3. Courses in agricultural me- 








chanics . 








4. Courses in Agriculture organ- 








ised in the Athenaeums 








and intermediate schools. 


34,500 







(1) Almanach Royal, p. 860. 
(1) Triennial Report, page 410. 



— 302 



B. Agricultural Schools 
.FOR Women and Girls 

a) Senior Grade 



Normal Schools at Heverle and 
Waver-Notre-Dame 



b) Intermediate Grade 

1. Schools of rural Household 

Economics 

2. Courses in rural Household 

Economics 

c) Elementarif Grade 



1. Short courses in rural House- 

hold Economics 

2. Elementary courses in rural 

Household Economics.... 

C. Special Schools 

a) School of Veterinary Medicine. . 

b) State Central School of Farriery. 

c) Schools of Horticulture 

1. State Intermediate Schools 

of Horticulture 

2. Subsidised Schools of Horti- 

culture 

3. Horticultural Courses for 

men ; 

4. Horticultural Courses for 

girls 

5. Courses and Conferences on 

horticulture 



D. Agricultural Extension 

a) State agricultural experts and 
horticultural advisers 



b) Agricultural instruction in ele- 
mentary schools 



Agricultural 
adults 



instruction for 



1. Courses and lectures for 

adults 

2. Courses and lectures for far- 

mers 

3. Courses and lectures for sol- 

diers 



d) Related institutions... 
Total. 



6.250 

39,250 
4,895 

A. c. 2 
2,355 



103,871 
16,100 
29,698 

41,950 



68,300 
8,000 



Francs 



6,250 



44,145 



2,355 



52,750 



191,619 



191.619 



76.300 



76,300 



680,969 



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'o/'*" 



303 



V. General remarks and sources 

All technical agricultural education in Belgium is under 
the supervision of the Second General Directorate of the Mi- 
nistry of Agriculture. 

The directorate consists of four ofticcs, viz : 

(1) The horticultural office; 

(2) The office for higher agricultural education and 

agricultural scientific institutions; 

(3) The office for intermediate and elementary agricul- 

tural education and institutions for the populari- 
sation of agriculture; 

(4) The office of rural engineering. 

The subjects dealt with by the various offices are as fol- 
lows : 

Office 1. — Horticultural education service of horticultural 
advisers; agricultural experiments and demonstrations; wor- 
kers' gardens, State botanical garden. 

Office 2. — Higher agricultural education; experimental 
stations; laboratories. 

Office 3. — Intermediate and elementary agricultural da- 
cation; service of the State agricultural experts; agricultural 
experiments and demonstrations; study circles. 

Office 4. — Instruction of rural engineers in the higher ins- 
titutions; schools and courses in agricultural mechanics. 

For the supervision of schools of Household Economics 
there is a special organisation which in 1919 included two 
women inspectors and five advisers in the various provinces. 

In order to establish as close a connection as possible bci- 
ween the agricultural educational institutions and the agri- 
cultural population, the act of the 15th November, 1919, ])ro- 
vided that a committee of supervision and management might 
be established in connection with each school. The Royal 
Order of the 21st March, 1919, with the same end in view esta- 
blished in the Ministry of Agriculture a superior council 
for the encouragement and improvement of agricultural and 
horticultural instruction. 



Canada and the United States 

Technical agricultural education in Canada and the United 
States has developed consistently during the past sixty 
years and a survey of organisation to-day includes agricul- 



— 304 — 

tural colleges and high scJiools, experimental farms exten- 
sion courses, and practical demonstrations in farm methods 
and home economics. A beginning in elementary agricultural 
education through the public schools and through boys' and 
girls' clubs has also been made and can show some excellent 
results. 

In both countries agriculture occupies a dominant place 
in the life of the people and the demand for education in 
matters immediately related to farm management is wide- 
spread and persistent. Both Washington and Ottawa have 
strong departments of agriculture, and as these have found 
ways to co-operate with State and Provincial Departments 
of Education and Agriculture extensive plans for technical 
agricultural education have been evolved and have received 
increasing support. The policy of assisting the rural popu- 
lation to better living and more profitable methods of work 
is recognised as fundamentally sound both socially and eco- 
nomically, and its influence is felt and appreciated by a large 
proportion of the people. 

In the last analysis technical agricultural education should 
mean the education of the farm worker. The movement 
began with agricultural colleges and departments organised 
to meet the needs of students and farmers' sons. In order 
that technical instruction might be supported by agricultural 
research, model farms and experiment stations were establish- 
ed and mark the next step forward. Still the system had 
not reached by far the largest number of workers on the land, 
the farm men and women out of touch with ordinary educa- 
tional forces. This was a problem; but a solution was found 
in what is generally called « agricultural extension », and 
since the Agricultural Instruction Act of 1913 in Canada, 
and the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 in the United States, tech- 
nical agricultural education has been increasingly available 
to the men and women who carry on the practical M'^ork of 
the farm. 



U. S. Department of agriculture 

The Department of Agriculture with its various offices 
and divisions is at the head of agricultural education in the 
United States. The libraries and laboratories of the Depart- 
ment constitute very largely the university or graduate 
branch of agricultural education throughout the country and 
have for their chief functions the discovery and dissemina- 
tion of information regarding the theory and practice of agri- 
culture. In general, the States Relations Service represents 
the Secretary of Agriculture in his relations with the State 
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations and in the 
administration of funds appropriated by Congress for far- 
mers' co-operative demonstration work, investigations rela- 



— 305 — 

ting to agricultural schools, farmers' institutes, and home 
economics; and the maintenance of experiment stations in 
Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands. 
The Service includes the following offices: 

(1) Office of the Director which deals with the general 
business and administration of the service and the work 
relating to agricultural instruction and farmers' institutes; 

(2) Office of Experiment Stations, which deals with the 
work and expenditures of the State and insular experiment 
stations; 

(3) Office of Extension Work in the South which has charge 
of co-operative extension work in fifteen Southern States; 

(4) Office of Extension Work in the North and West, which 
has charge of extension work in thirty-three Northern and 
Western States; and. 

(5) Office of Home Economies, which deals with questions 
of food, clothing, and household equipment and manage- 
ment. 

Since the war the extension offices have concentrated their 
efforts on aiding the various States to strengthen and further 
develop co-operative extension work. Special emphasis has 
been given to the organisation of county work, so that it may 
represent the real requirements of farming people, and have 
their intelligent co-operation and support. Increased atten- 
tion has been given to the economic problems of agriculture, 
to the needs of farm women, and to the organisation of boys' 
and girls' club work as an organic part of a permanent system 
of extension work. Progress has been made in the more 
perfect co-ordination of the worK of extension specialists 
with that of the county agents (men and women), and 
demonstration work has been developed among the negro 
people on the farms. 

Agricultural legislation 

In the United States, the federal acts wich affect agricul- 
tural education are: 

First Morrill Act. — Approved July 2nd 1862. Public 
land granted to each State for the endowment and mainte- 
nance of at least one college where the leading object shall 
be: To teach such branches of learning as are related to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts. 

Second Morrill Act. — Approved August 30th 1890. More 
complete endowment and support. 

Hatch Act. — Approved March 2nd 1887. An Act to esta- 
blish experiment stations in connection with the colleges 
established under the Morrill Act. 

20 



— 306 — 

Adams' Act. — Approved March 16th 1906. To provide for 
an increased annual appropriation for agricultura' experi- 
ment stations. 

Smith-Lever Act. — Approved May 8th 1914. Ai Act to 
provide for co-operative agricultural extension work iietween 
the agricultural colleges and experiment stations and the 
United States' Department of Agriculture. 

Smith-Hughes Act. — Approved February 23rd 1917. An 
Act to provide for the iDromotion of vocational educc 'ion in 
agriculture and the trades and industries and for the prepa- 
ration of teachers in vocational subjects, in co-operatic n w^ith 
the States. 



Agricultural colleges 

The first Morrill Act of 1862 is described as « An Act dona- 
ting public lands to the several States and Territories which 
may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts ». Agricultural Colleges had been established 
before this date in New YorK, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Con- 
necticut and Maryland; and in other States, e.g., Kansas, 
Iowa, Wisconsin, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, depart- 
ments of agriculture were already established in connection 
with existing institutions, departments which were after- 
wards developed into colleges and secured the benefit of the 
federal act. Harvard, Yale, and the Universities of Virginia 
and Georgia had also made some progress in the pursuit of 
agriculture as a science, before the passing of the Morrill 
Act; and even though the ciu'ricula of those earlier days do 
not seem to approach verj'^ near to the modern idea of prac- 
tical agricultural training, still these colleges performed a 
needed function in extending public education of a more or 
less special nature to a greater number of the common 
people. 

The second Morrill Act, 1890, provided for the further en- 
dowment of agricultural colleges, and those funds were 
again supplemented in 1908 by the Nelson amendment. 

The object of the American college, as frequently stated 
by its early founders and advocates, is described by the Dean 
of the College of Agriculture, Illinois, as threefold: « (1) To 
promote the business and social welfare of the farmer, 
through courses of study, and by means of appropriate deal- 
ing with the materials of his life and surroundings; (2) To 
insure the development of agriculture beyond the confines 
of handicraft and into the field of science, not as a favour 
to farmers but as a matter of general and public welfare; 
(3) to preserve the homogeneity of the Americafn people by 
making in unnecessary to desert the farm in order to secure 
the benefits and graces of education. » Further, in esti- 



— 307 — 

mating results, he says: « The agricultural college that has 
its fee+j upon the ground is studying agriculture as a national 
indub ry, and is conducting a course of study whose back- 
bone is intended to train men for operating an American 
farm and living a typical American life in a country com- 
muni.y (1) ». 

Technical colleges established under the Morrill Act are 
frequently called « Land-grant Colleges » because of the ap- 
propxiation of land for their endowment. In 1910 the total 
numUer of Land-grant Colleges was 67, and at least one was 
founl in each of the States and Territories except Alaska; 
65 maintained courses of instruction in agriculture. 

A summarj^ of statistics of Land-grant Colleges for 1916 
is given in Appendix A. and shows : That the aggregate 
value of the permanent funds and equipment of the Land- 
grant Colleges and Universities was $87,130,832.72; the num- 
ber of members of faculties of colleges for white persons 
was 6,409, and for coloured persons was 412; the number of 
students in colleges for white persons was 128,140; and the 
number of students in colleges for coloured persons was 
7,110. 

The number of students in agriculture by courses, at Land 
grant Colleges in 1910, is shown in Appendix B. At that 
date there were 51 Colleges for white persons, organised 
with four-year courses in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, 
veterinary science and household economics; and two-year 
courses in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, dairying, vete- 
rinai'y science and household economics. Teachers' courses 
of from one to three j^ears were offered by some of the 
colleges, and by others summer schools for teachers. Six- 
teen Land-grant Colleges for coloured students were organ- 
ised, with courses of from one to four years. 

Standards for admission and for graduation vary widely 
in different institutions. In some cases students are admit- 
ted freely from the common schools, while in others the en- 
trance requirements are based on a four-j^ear course in a 
standard high-school. The tendency is to raise entrance 
requirements to correspond more nearly with the recommen- 
dations of the Committee on Entrance Requirements of the 
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations. 

Courses of study also show wide differences, and include 
degree courses and prei)aratory and short courses. A tj'^pi- 
cal high-grade college requires that candidates for admission 
be at least sixteen years of age, and either present satisfac- 
tory credentials from an accredited school or pass examin- 
ations for which the required subjects are English, French 
or German, United States' History and Civics, Old World 



(1) The Aqricnltnral CoUeqe in the United States, by Eugene Davenport. World 
Agriculture, Jan. 1921, p. 76. 



— 308 — 

History, Algebra and Plane Geometry, and five elective sub- 
jects chosen from language, history, mathematics, science, 
drawing and manual training. The student is required to 
follow a definitely prescribed curriculum during one and 
one-half years, after which he is allowed to select the major 
portion of his work from a large number of electives in agri- 
culture, horticulture, biology, chemistry, mathematics, lands- 
cape gardening, language, civil engineering, agricultural edu- 
cation, rural social science and military training. Comple- 
tion of four years of undergraduate work entitles him to the 
degree of bachelor of science. 

Along with the improvement of college courses in agri- 
culture is coming the realisation of the true function of these 
courses as the training of leaders in agricultural progress. 
For this purpose the best-trained teachers and the best-equip- 
ped departments are required, and the success of the work 
is judged by the same standards as are applied to other col- 
lege courses. A large proportion of the graduates are re- 
cruited for work in the general education of the agricultural 
population, and it is they who fill the positions of agricultural 
teachers, organisers, demonstrators, and county agents. 



Agriculturai- experiment stations 

As the function of an agricultural school includes not 
only the instruction of students, but also research in agricul- 
tural science, model farms established as agricultural exper- 
iment stations developed in the United States side by side 
with the colleges. The Hatch Act of 1887 provided funds 
towards the establishment and support of an agricultural 
experiment station in each State; and in 1906 the Adams Act 
made further appropriations to the same end. By 1910 sta- 
tions were in operation in all the States and territories, and 
under special appropriation acts in Alaska, Hawaii, Porto 
Rico, and Guam. At a later date a station was established 
in the Virgin Islands. 

« The total income of the stations maintained under the 
acts of 1887 and 1906 during 1919 was $ 3,537,700.25, of which 
$ 1,344,000, was received from the National Government, 
the remainder, $ 2,193,700.25, coming from the following 
sources : State governments. $1,320,370.06; individuals and 
communities, $16,468.61; fees for analyses of fertilizers 
$175,137.96; sales of farm products, $277,502.82; miscella- 
neous $ 404,220.80. In addition to this, the Office of Experi- 
ment Stations had an appropriation of $349,220 for 1910, 
including $28,000. each for the Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto 
Rico Experiment Stations, $ 15,000 for the Guam Experiment 
Station, $ 10,000 for nutrition investigations, $ 75,000. for irri- 
gation investigations, $81,160 for drainage investigations, and 
$ 10,000 for farmers' institutes and agricultural schools. 



— 309 — 

The value of the additions to the equipment of tlie stations in 
1910 is estimated as follows : Buildings, $331,974.25; libra- 
ries, $79,117.14; apparatus, $47,505.12; farm implements, 
$62,950.11; live stock, $35,124.59; miscellaneous, $382,079.32; 
total, $ 928,750.53. 

« The stations employ 1,403 persons in the work of admi- 
nistration and enquiry. The number of officers engaged in 
the different lines of work is as follows : Directors, 56; as- 
sistant and vice-directors, 23; special agents in charge, 4; 
chemists, 268; agriculturists, 43; agronomists, 160; horticul- 
rists, 130; floriculturists, 6; pomologists, 6; viticulturists, 4; 
foresters, 19; plant breeders, 14; botanists, 76; plant physiolo- 
gists, 5; plant pathologists, 47; mycologists, 3; bacteriologists, 
48; animal husbandinen, 98; dairymen, 81; veterinarians, 51; 
animal pathologists, 7; poultrymen, 25; zoologists, 8; entomo- 
logists, 107; meteorologists, 11; biologists, 8; physicists, 11; 
geologist, 1; irrigation engineers, 16; agricultural engineers 
and farm mechanics, 12; extension workers and farmers' ins- 
titute directors, 24; in charge of substations, 54; farm and 
garden foremen, 30; secretaries and treasurers, 31; and li- 
braries, 19. There are also 40 persons classified under the 
head « Miscellaneous », including gardeners, laboratory and 
field assistants, herdsmen, editors, etc. Five hundred and 
fifty- two station officers do more or less teaching in the col- 
leges with which the stations are connected. During the 
year the stations published 583 annual reports, bulletins, and 
circulars, which were supplied to over 952,000 addresses on 
the regular mailing lists. A larger number of stations than 
formerly supplemented their regular publications with more 
or less frequent issues of press bulletins and other special 
publications, and most of the stations report a large and cons- 
tantly increasing correspondence with farmers on a wide va- 
riety of topics (1). )) 

In order that the Federal laws may be carried out in the 
various State Experiment Stations which receive appropria- 
tions under the Hatch and Adams Acts, the United States 
Department of Agriculture retains in the Office of Experi- 
ment Stations a measure of administrative and advisory au- 
thority. This organisation ensures further that the work 
shall be encouraged by advice and assistance, and tJie welfare 
of the entire system promoted. 

A summary of statistics relative to the Agricultural Expe- 
riment Stations in 1910 is given in Appendix C, and includes 
an outline of the principal lines of work undertaken. 



(1) Annual Report of the Office of Experiment Stations, 1910, pp. 273-274. 



— 310 — 

Agricultural extension 
The smith-le\^r act extension work 

To provide for co-operative agricultural extension work 
between the agricultural colleges and experiment stations, 
and the United States Department of Agriculture, the Smith- 
Lever Act was passed in 1914, In the preceding years, far- 
mers' institutes and agricultural societies and fairs had been 
widely organised, and now the Federal Government defin- 
itely undertook to make accessible to the farming people the 
full benefit of the knowledge relating to agriculture and the 
farm home which was being constantly increased by agricul- 
tural colleges, experiment stations. Departments of Agricul- 
ture, and other agencies. 

A 1919 report (1) of the States Relations Service of the De- 
partment of Agriculture operating under the Smith-Lever Act 
reviews the progress made in the preceding five years. In 
2,400 counties Co-operative Agricultural Extension work is 
in progress, with 2,874 men employed as county agents and 
assistants in agricultural work, and 1,705 women in Home 
Demonstration work. In addition, about 500 men and wo- 
men are specially employed as leaders of Boys' and Girls' 
Clubs. The colleges and the United States Department of 
Agriculture maintain also about 1,500 Extension Specialists 
who supplement the work of the County Agents and aid them 
in various ways. 

Farmers' Organisations are now nation-wide, and consti- 
tute a large factor in the advancement of the work, e.g., the 
County Farm Councils in the southern states and the Farm 
Bureaux in the northern. Whatever their form, these orga- 
nisations have as their primary purpose participation in and 
active aid to the general educational movement for the ad- 
vancement of agriculture and country life. In the words of 
the Federal Director : « Here is a basis for a truly demo- 
cratic system of education suited to the requirements of rural 
people, in which the fruits of practical experience and scien- 
tific enquiry are combined through the joint efforts of the 
people and their experts. » 

The operation of the Smith-Lever Act is sometimes refer- 
red to as the County Agent movement, and it is in fact about 
the County Agent as pivot that the organisation of the work 
is centred. This agent, as agricultural expert, is at once 
a government representative and an employee of the local 
Farm Bureau, and it is upon him that both the Department 
of Agriculture and the Farmers' Organisations depend for 
leadership in educational undertakings. 



(1) Five years of the Smith-Lever Extension Act » by A. C. True, Ph. D., Director, 
states Relations Service. 



— 311 — 

A report on co-operative work in agriculture and home 
economics must includes many activities. When representa- 
tives of a farm communit}- get together to draw up a pro- 
gramme looking toward profitable and progcssive farming 
and satisfactory home and community life, the county agent 
is present as adviser in considering the technical phases of 
the work and in helping to work out a division of labour. H^ 
brings to the community group also information as to what 
help can be secured from the State agricultural college, the 
United States Department of Agriculture, and other public 
institutions. A typical example of a community i)rogramme 
and the results in extension work which it secured is report- 
ed from a western state as follows : 



GOAL 


RESULTS 


Live stock : 

To build seven silos 

To hold one silo filing demons- 
tration 

To get ten herds to test for 
tuberculosis 

To hold a tuberculin postmor- 
tem 

To get four dairymen to keep 
milk records 

Horticulture : 

To hold one pruning and one 
sprayin-g! demonstration 

Foultrif : 

To buiild one demonstration 
poultry house 

Farm Management : 

To interest four farmers in 
keeping farm accounts 

Home work : 

To hold an extension canning 
school 

To hold an extension dressmak- 
ing shool 

To place three household ac- 
count books 


Ten were built. 
Two were held. 

Eighteen were tested. 

No reactors were found. 

Three were secured. 

One pruning and three spraying 
demonstrations were held. 

Tills was accomplished and a 
demonstration meeting was 
held. 

Ten farmers kept records 
through the year. 

A two-day school was held 

Not held; unable to get demons- 
trator from the college. 

This was done. 



A simple programme of tliis Kind shows what the people 
wanted and it accomplished results because an appeal was 
made to the community c'onsciousness and the leaders got co- 
operation and support. 

Another programme, this time from a southern community 
reads : 



— 312 — 

(1) A home garden for every farm and town family, with 
full production of home supplies of syrup and potatoes. 

(2) The production or corn and grain sorghums as the main 
food crops. 

(3) Production of wheat, rye and oats as winter crops to 
supplement the other grains for food and feed, including 
increased acreage and production of rice. 

(4) Increased production of hay and forage, including sum- 
mer legumes, such as velvet beans, soy beans, cowpeas, and 
peanuts. 

(5) Production of the eggs, meat, and milk of the South on 
the farms of the South, which involved an increase in the 
production of hogs, cattle, dairy cows, and poultry. 

(6) Production of cotton as the surplus cash crop, on less 
acres better tended, and more carefully marketed. 

(7) Exchange of surplus crops other than cotton for the 
living expenses of the family and an income from the farm at 
more times of the year than one. » 

In this case also splendid results were secured. 



Demonstrations 

No part of the extension work in Technical Agricultural 
Education is more vital than the farm demonstration. In fact, 
county agent work is based on successful demonstration, the 
purpose of which is to show by example how practice might 
be modified to advantage or methods improved. The actual 
demonstration is conducted by the farmer on his own land 
with the help of the county agent. Sometimes it is under- 
taken on a community basis and the whole neighbour- 
hood is interested. The value of reports on methods used 
and results secured is emphasized and in this way county 
agents are ahle to build up permanent records. These in- 
clude already a very large number of projects. Typical lines 
of work in connection with farmcrop demonstrations and 
campaigns are the selection of seed corn in the fall, the 
testing of seed corn for germination, treatment of seed wheat 
for smut, modified practice relative to the culture of hay, al- 
fafa, soy beans and other crops, home-garden work, can- 
ning, storage of fruits and vegetables, etc. In live stock 
work, progress is recorded in securing registered stock, in 
organising cow-testing and live-stock breeders associations, 
in figuring balanced rations, in testing animals for tubercu- 
losis and treating for blackleg, cholera, etc. Agents have also 
done valuable work in connection with the organization of 
live-stock shipping associations and live-stock auction sales. 
In soil-fertility work, plans have been made and adapted for 
crop rotation systems, drainage systems, irrigation systems, 
the use of commercial and home-made fertilizers, soil tests, 



— 313 — 

etc. Farm homes and farm business are not forgotten ; the 
use of farm account bocks is encouraged and methods of 
record-keeping discussed, farmers'loan associations and ex- 
changes have been organised, water supply and sewage dis- 
posal systems have been introduced, rodent and insect control 
has been undertaken and farmers have been assisted in secu- 
ring tractors, sprayers, ditching machines and other power 
machinery to economise labour. 

In 1905 the Office of Experiment Stations established a 
section on rural economies and from this, with the co-ope- 
ration of the Department of Agriculture, has developed the 
Office of Farm Management. The research work to he car- 
ried out by this office in co-operation with the agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations is outlined as follows 1) : 



Outline of Research Work in Farm Management 
and Farm Economics. 



1. Cost of production. 

1. Financial records. 

2. Enterprise records. 

3. Complete cost records. 

4. Price relations. 

5. Basic unit factors of cost. 



//. Farm organization. 

1. Types of farming. 

a). Determination of enterprises. 

b). Plan or combination of enterprises. 

2. Size of business. 

3. Farm plan or layout. 

4. Effective use of labor and equipment. 

5. Intensity of production. 

6. Business methods. 



///. Farm Finance. 

1. Methods of financing. 

2. Insurance. 

3. Taxation. 

4. Other financial relations. 



(1) Paper real by Mr H. C. Taylor at a joint meeting of the American Farm 
Economic Association and the Experment Station Section of the American Association 
of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations Chicago, November 12, 1919 
(Journal of Farm Economics, Jan. 1920). 



— 314 — 

IV. Farm labor. 

1. Supply and movement. 

2. Trend of population. 

3. Living and housing problems. 

4. Creating new productive enterprises for farm labor. 

5. Standards of supervision and compensation for farm 
labor. 

V. Agricultural history and geography. 

1. Trend of agricultural development. 

2. Shifts of agricultural production. 

3. Relation of American to foreign agriculture. 

4. Supervision of atlas. 

17. Land economics. 

1. Land resources. 

2. Land values. 

3. Land ownership and tenancy. 

4. Land settlement and colonization. 

5. Land policies. 

VII. Farm life studies. 

1. Rural home life. 

2. Opportunities for social contacts in typical rural 

communities. 

3. Rural organization. 

4. The relation of educational and religious institu- 

tions to farm-life problems. 

5. The relation of health and the various forms of 

disability to rural welfare. 

6. Social effects of the various types of farm labor, 

tenancy and landlordism. 

Similarly the methods of study are outlined as follows : 



Methods of study 



A. Survey Method : 



This method may be used in making such studies as, 

1. Labour income. 

2. Farm enterprises. 

3. Farm practices. 

4. Farm costs. 



— 315 — 

The value of this method depends upon. 
1. Trained investigators. 

2. Sufficient numbers of records. 

3. iRepresentative data. 



B. Cost accounting method : 

This method is valuable. 

1. For providing basic unit factors of farm production 

which are essential to proper farm organization, 
such as. 

a) Labour requirements. 

b) Feed requirements. 

c) Material requirements. 

2. As a check on more extensive methods of farm 

analysis, and also to compare the results obtained 
by other methods. 



C. Observation method : 

This method should be of value when used as preliminary 
or supplementary to other investigational work. It 
shoult not serve as a basis for conclusions.. 



D. Geographic method : 

This method is valuable as a means of contributing infor- 
mation concerning the physical and economic fac- 
tors which influence farm organization. 

1. Climate. 

2. Soil. 

3. Topography. 

4. Transportation. 

5. Marketing facilities. 

6. Market prices. 

E. Historical method :. 

This method is valuable. 

1. As a means of understanding the development of 

the farming industry. 

2. To assist in the interpretation of the trend of agricul- 

tural production. 

F. Statistical method : 

This method, although involved in the other ,methods 
mentioned, may be used as a direct means of studying 
farm organization. 



— 316 — 

It may be used for such studies as 

1. Cycle of production. 

2. Price relationship. 

3. Types of farming. 

G. Experimental method : 

The experimental method may be used to advantage in 
the study of certan problems, such as. 

1. The proper degree of intensive culture. 

2. The right balance of enterprises. 

3. The proper unit of organisation. 



Canada 



Federal Department of agriculture. 



The Ministry of Agriculture has a v^ell-reoognised place 
in the government of Canada, and the activities of this 
Department extend from coast to coast. While each of 
the provinces has also a Department of Agriculture, their 
work is closely linked with that of the federal office, and 
technical agricultural education has the active support of all 
The Federal Departmend includes : The Dairy and Cold Stor- 
age Branch, the Seed Commissioner's Branch, the Live Stock 
Branch, the Dominion Experimental Farms and Stations, the 
Health of Animals Branch, the Fruit Branch, the Entomolo- 
gical Branch, the International Institute Branch, and the Pu- 
blications Branch. 

Conferences of Representatives from the provincial De- 
partments of Agriculture and the various Branches of the Fe- 
deral Department of Agriculture are held from time to time, 
in order to further co-operation and to discuss plans for the 
extension of the work ; and at the Conference of 1920 it was 
decided to form an Advisory Board in each Province, with 
representatives from both the federal and provincial depart- 
ments, to consider and report on all schemes for the placing 
of new Experimental Farms and Illustration Stations, and to 
recommend new lines of work. 



Agricultural Colleges 

In Canada the development of agricultural education in 
college and extension work has been very similar to that in 
the United States. Faculties or colleges of agriculture are 
found in almost all the provincial universities, and each of- 
fers a four or five years' course leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. It is usual to require at 



317 



least one year of practical experience on a farm before en- 
rollment. The seven principal agricultural colleges in the 
Dominion, the dates of their establishment, and, for 1920, the 
number on the teaching staffs, and the number of students 
enrolled are recorded as follow (1) : 



Name and Address 


Year 
Established 


Xuniber on 

Teaching 

Stall- 


\uinl)cr of 
students 
enrolled 


Agricultural College, Truro, 
Nova Scotia 


1888 
1907 
1874 
1903 
1907 
1906 

1907 


is 
57 
60 
38 
16 
19 

15 


392 
722 
2067 
1122 
246 
175 

45 


Macdonald College, St Anne de 
Bellevue, Montreal 


Ontario Agricultural College, 
Guelph 


Manitoba Agricultural College, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 

College of Agriculture, Saska- 
toon, Saskatchewan 

College of Agriculture, Edmon- 
ton, Alberta 


Agricultural Department, Uni- 
versity of British Columbia, 
Vancouver 





Other agricultural colleges of first grade are located in 
Quebec, at Oka, and Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere ; statistics as 
above are not available for these colleges. The school at Oka 
is one of the oldest experimental farms in Canada, is affi- 
liated to the University of Montreal, and has accommodation 
for 150 pupils. Horticulture is practised largely, small fruits 
are a specialty, and experimental work is carried on with 
cattle, swine, poultry and bees. Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere 
is affiliated to Laval University of Quebec, and offers a four 
years' course in Agronomy as well as the practical agricultu- 
ral course of two years. 

The Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm 
is an institution of the Provincial Government administered 
by the Ontario Department of Agriculture and was establish- 
ed in 1874 to train young farmers in the science and prac- 
tice of agriculture and to conduct agricultural experiments 
for the benefit of the province. The land property consists 
of 700 acres of average loam soil. The farm occupies about 
500 acres, the experimental plots about 100 acres, and the 
campus and wood lots form the remainder. 



(1) « Agriculturar Education in Canada » by E. H. Godfrey, F. S. S., Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. The Scottish Journal of Agriculture. July 1921. 



— 318 — 

The annual reports of 'he College show uninterrupted pro- 
gress from its beginnijig forty-s'^r ,n years ago as a « Model 
Farm » to its present status as on educational institution 
where the sciences are taught as thoroughly, and where la- 
boratory schools are as up-to-date as in any of the higher 
institutions of learning in the country. While matriculation 
standing is not required for entrance, only those who have 
had not only good farm practice, but sufficient scholastic 
preparation to carry the work creditably are admitted ; and, 
at the end of two years, those only can proceed further toward 
the degree of B. S. A. who have reached a recognised stan- 
dard of accomplishment. 

For the academic work there are at present sixteen large 
buildings including dormitories, class-rooms and laborato- 
ries, in addition to barns, stables, storage-houses and dwel- 
lings. The principal buildings comprise the men's residence, 
with accommodation for 230 students, and the dining-hall, 
completed in 1914, with a seating capacity for 500. The Mas- 
sey Hall was erected in 1901. This hall, with a seating capa- 
city of 450, occupies the ground floor, and is used for roll- 
call, Sunday services, literary society meetings, concerts, etc. 
On the upper floor is the library containing over 26.000 vo- 
lumes to which the students have easy access. The other 
buildings are for biology (including botany and entomology) 
physics, horticulture, chemistry, field husbandry and animal 
husbandry and bacteriology. A judging pavilion with seat- 
ing accommodation for 300, is used for practical work in live 
stock. There are also the machinery hall and buildings for 
the dairy and for poultry. 

As part of the College, Macdonald Institute is equipped for 
the training of farmers' daughters in home economics, both 
in long and short oourses. These comprise the theory and 
practice of cooking, general housekeeping, laundry work, 
sewing, dressmaking, millinery, home decoration, etc. Wo- 
men students are boarded in Macdonald Hall, wich was 
erected in 1904. 

The following is a complete statement of the various cour- 
ses of study off'ered by the College in the four departments 
of I Agriculture ; II Home Economics ; III Manual Training ; 
and IV Nature Study. 

I. Department of agriculture. 

Duration 

1. Course leading to the Degree of Bachelor 

of the Science of Agriculture (B.S.A.) .... 4 years. 

2. Two-year course following two years at ei- 

ther of the Universities of Toronto, 
Queen's (Kingston) or McMaster (Toron- 
to), leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Agriculture B. Sc. (Agr.) 2 » 



— 319 — 

3. Associate Diploma of the College 2 weeks. 

4. Factory Dairyman 12 » 

5. Farm Dairy 4 » 

6. Summer Dairy 5 months. 

7. Cow Testing 10 days. 

8. Ice Cream Making 1 week. 

9. Soft and Fancy Cheese Making 1 » 

10. Poultry 4 weeks, 

11. Stock and Seed Judging 2 » 

12. Horticulture 6 » 

13. Bee-keeping 2 » 

14. Farm Drainage and Surveying 2 » 

15. Farm Power 2 » 



II. Department of home economics. 

1. Normal Course in Domestic Science 2 years. 

2. Associate Course (Non-Professional) 2 » 

3. Housekeeper 2 » 

4. House-maker 1 » 

5. Domestic Science 3 months. 



III. Department of manual training. 
Teachers' Normal Course 1 year. 

IV. Agricultural courses for public and high school teachers. 

1. Public School Teachers 5 weeks. 

2. Science Teachers 5 » 

3. Farm Mechanics 2 » 



« Tuition fees for residents (1) of Ontario are $20 per an- 
num for first and second year, and $ 50 per annum for third 
and fourth year students. Students from other provinces and 
from Newfoundland pay $ 50 and students from outside of 
Canada and Newfoundland $ 100 per annum. Board at the 
College costs $ 5 per week. There are small fees for mem- 
bership in literary, athletic and philharmonic societies, and 
there are credit payments for manual labour by students 
in outside departments. Altogether it may be estimated 
that the cost of a four years' course to residents in the pro- 
vince, including miscellaneous expenses, amounts to about 
$800, or, say, $200 a year, in addition to the cost of clothing. 



(1) Residents of Ontario are defliied as tliose ■whose parents are ratepayers or 
bona fide residents of tlie province. 



— 320 — 

It is therefore possible for a farmer's son to obtain a high- 
class Agricultural Diploma, carrying with it the possibility 
of valuable appointments in expert capacities at very mode- 
rate cost. A young agricultural student, by working as farm 
help during the summer can usually earn the major portion, 
if not the whole of the amount necessary to put himself 
through college. An Experimental Union, under College 
direction, has existed for many years for the conduct of 
practical agricultural experiments in all parts of the pro- 
vince (1). 

During the period from its establishment in 1874 to 1919 
approximately 20,000 students of both sexes have registered 
in the Ontario Agricultural College for all courses. Eighty 
per cent of those who have completed the two-year course 
and ninety per cent of the B.S.A. graduates are now engaged 
in agricultural work, mostly farming. Five ex-students who 
are farmers fill the positions of Premier, Minister of Agri- 
culture, Provincial Secretary, Minister of Education, and 
Minister of Public Works, in the Ontario Government, and 
ex-students who are engaged in agricultural work other than 
farming include officers in Government Agricultural Depart- 
ments, Agricultural College and University presidents, pro- 
fessors and investigators, agricultural editors, agricultural 
representatives, members of the Soldier Settlement Board, 
cheese-makers, buttermakers, drovers, farm managers, etc. 
The twenty per cent of ex-students not actually engaged in 
agricultural work include clergymen, missionaries, lawyers, 
veterinary -surgeons, implement agents, flour millers, produce 
dealers, bakers and manufacturers. 

This somewhat detailed report on the Ontario Agricultural 
College is given here because it was the first Canadian col- 
lege established for purposes of higher agricultural educa- 
tion. Similar reports might be given for the other agricul- 
tural institutions of college grade, all especially equipped to 
train young men and women in the science and practice of 
agriculture and all looking toward the general improvement 
of Canadian rural life and enterprise. 



Agricultural experiment stations 

In Canada as in the United States, Agricultural expe- 
riment stations were established early in the history of tech- 
nical agricultural education. The following brief report is 
quoted from the Canada Year Book, 1919. 

Central and branch farms. — Inaugurated in 1886 by Act of 
Parliament, the Dominion Experimental Farms system was 

(1) « Agricultural Education in Canada » by E. N. Godfrey, (See foot-note p. 317.) 



— 321 — 

at first made up of the Central Farm at Ottawa and four 
branch Farms : one at Nappan, Nova Scotia, for the Mari- 
time Provinces; one at Brandon for Manitoba; one at Indian 
Head for the Northwest Territories and one at Agassiz for 
British Columbia. 

Table 4. — Dominion Experimental Farms and Stations, 1919. 







it 


4)~ 


FARM OR STATION 


PROVINCE 


-5 




Central Farm, Ottawa. 


Ontario. 


467 


1886 


Kapuskasing Station. 


Ontario. 


1,282 


1916 


Harrow Tobacco Station. 


Ontario. 


49 


1909 


Charlottetown Station. 


P r i n ce Edward 
Island. 


100 


1909 


Nappan Farm. 


Nova Scotia. 


460 


1886 


Kentville Station. 


Nova Scotia. 


434 


1912 


Fredericton Station. 


New Brunswick. 


520 


1912 


Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere Sta- 


Quebec. 


340 


1911 


tion. 








Cap Rouge Station. 


Quebec. 


339 


1911 


Lennoxville Station. 


Quebec. 


455 


1914 


La Ferme Station, 


Quebec. 


1,200 


1916 


Farnham Tobacco Station. 


Quebec. 


65 


1912 


L'Assomption Tobacco Station. 


Quebec. 


6 


1909 


Brandon Farm. 


Manitoba. 


625 


1886 


Morden Station. 


Manitoba. 


280 


1915 


Indian Head Farm. 


Saskatchewan. 


680 


1886 


Rosthern Station. 


Saskatchewan. 


650 


1908 


Scott Station. 


Saskatchewan. 


520 


1910 


Lacombe Station. 


Alberta. 


850 


1907 


Lethbridge Station. 


Alberta. 


400 


1906 


Invermere Station. 


British Columbia. 


53 


1912 


Summerland Station. 


British Columbia. 


550 


1914 


Agassiz Farm. 


British Columbia. 


1,400 


1886 


Sidney Station, Vancouver Is- 


British Columbia. 


125 


1912 


land. 









The opening up and rapid settlement of the Dominion has 
led to a corresponding increase in the number of Experimen- 
tal Farms and Stations (1). Tliese now total 21, with a total 
acreage of 11,850, as compared with the original five farms 
estabfished in 1886, with a total acreage of 3,472. Table 4 
shows the present number of Farms and Stations with the 
acreage of each and the date of establishment. 

In addition there are eight sub-stations, viz. Salmon Arm, 
B. C; Swede Creek, Yukon Territory; Fort Vermilion, 
Grouard and Beaverlodge, Alberta; and Forts Smith, Resolut- 



(1) The five original farms established in 1886 are known as « Experimental 
Farms »; tliose added since are styled : « Experimental Stations ». No distinction 
In the work is expressed by these titles. 



— 322 — 

ion and Providence, Northwest Territories. Experimental 
work under the Division of Illustration Stations is conducted 
on 15 farms in Sakatchewan, 17 in Alberta and 19 in Quebec. 

Organisation of the System of Experimental Farms. — 
The Central Farm at Ottawa, as its name implies, is the cen- 
tre or headquarters of the system. Thereat are situated the 
Director, having control and general supervision of the whole 
and the chief technical officers, having charge each of 
his special line of work, both at the Central and branch 
farms. At Ottawa, the policy to be pursued throughout the 
system is settled by agreement after discussion by the Di- 
rector, the technical officers and the Superintendents on whose 
brandh farms the work is to be conducted. The technical 
staff at Ottawa supervise the actual experimental work at 
the Central Farm. At the branches, the Superintendents are 
in charge of the carrying out of the various lines of general 
experiment and also conduct experiments which are of lo- 
cal importance. 

The Divisions at Ottawa, which also represent the different 
lines of work carried on throughout the system and which 
have each a technical officer in charge, are as foUow^s : (1) 
Animal Husbandry; (2) Bees; (3) Botany; (4) Cereals; (5) 
Chemistry; (6) Extension and Publicity; (7) Economic Fi- 
bre Production ; (8) Field Husbandry ; (9) Forage Plants ; 
(10) Horticulture; (11) Illustration (Stations; <12) Poultry 
and (13) Tobacco. Briefly the main lines of the work of 
these Divisions are as follows : 

Animal Husbandry. — This Division comprises work with 
beef cattle, dairy cattle and dairying, horses, sheep and swine, 
and undertakes experiments in the breeding, feeding, housing 
and management of each of these classes of live stock. 

Bees. — The Bee Division covers the breeding, feeding, 
and manipulation of bees, and the study of bee jDroducts, in- 
cluding their marketing. 

Botany. — The work of this Division falls into the two 
classes of Economic Botany and Plant Pathology. The for- 
mer includes the study of medicinal, poisonous and econo- 
mic plants. Different varieties and strains of fibre plants 
are also studied, and special attention is given to the life 
history and control of weeds. The Division has also charge 
of the Arboretum at the Central Farm. In Plant Pathology, 
in addition to the pathological lobaratory at Ottawa, there 
are laboratories at Charlottetown, P. E. I., Fredericton, N. B., 
St Catharines, Ont., Brandon, Man., and Indian Head, Sask 
Investigations are being conducted into diseases affecting 
forest frees, cereals, small fruits, potatoes, vegetables and tob- 
accos. 



— 323 — 

Cereals. — In the Cereal Division, the work comprises the 
production, by cross-breeding and selection, of new varie- 
ties of grains and the testing of these as to their suitability 
for various parts of Canada. Approved varieties are grown 
on a larger scale, and samples are distributed free to appli- 
cant farmers. Among the more recent varieties produced in 
this Division and now widely grown in Canada are the Arthur 
pea and the Huron, Marquis and Prelude wheats. Two in- 
teresting varieties now being introduced are the Ruby wheat, 
ripening not quite so early as Prelude but yielding better, afid 
the Liberty Hull-lees oat, which should greatly widen the 
field of usefulness of this cereal and simplify the processes 
of its manufacture into food for man and beast. The Divi- 
sion also carries on extensive milling and baking tests. 

Chemistry. — The work of the Division of Chemistry com- 
prises the analysis of fodders and feeding stuffs, fertilizers, 
soils, well waters, insecticides, fungicides, etc. It also assists 
other Divisions in cheminal problems and does a large 
amount of analytical work for other branches of the Depart- 
ment and for military and civilian use abroad. Field tests 
with various kinds and quantities of fertilizers are carried 
on b}' this Division at a number of the branch Farms and 
Stations. 

. .Economic Fibre Plants. — This Division studies the areas 
in Canada suitable for fibre production, the best varieties 
and strains ol seed of fibre plants, cultural methods, harves- 
ting, retting and scutching processes, etc. A fully equipped 
flax mill is operated at the Central Farm. 

Field Husbandry. — This Division tests or applies, under 
field conditions, the results obtained by other Divisions 
more directly engaged in scientific research. Some of the 
main lines of work under w^ay are tests of fertilizers, methods 
of drainage, rotations and cultural methods. Data of cost 
of production of field crops are gathered in connection with 
this work. 

Forage Plants. — The Division has for its w^ork the va- 
riety testing of grasses, leguminous forage plants, field roots 
and Indan corn; plant breeding with these; the collection 
of genera and species likely to be of value as forage plants; 
the study of the possibilities and methods of growing root 
seed, including sugar beets, in Canada, and the distribution 
for trial of seed of varieties newly obtained and not availa- 
ble commercially. 

Horticulture. — The work of the Division of Horticulture 
falls under four main heads : vegetable gardening, orchar- 
ding and small fruits, ornamental gardening and plant bree- 



— 324 — 

ding. In the three first named, the testing of varieties is a 
main feature, with a view to ascertaining the hardiest, ear- 
lies, best-yielding and most disease-resistant sorts. In plant 
breeding, the aim is the improvement of existing sorts, by 
cross-breeding. Greenhouse work is also given special atten- 
tion at Ottawa. Canning experiments and demonstrations are 
also carried on. 

Illustration Stations. — This Division forms another 
connecting link between the Experimental Farms and the 
farmer. These Stations are now 51 in number. Each is lo- 
cated on the farm of a representative farmer, who does the 
work according to directions framed to illustrate the best ro- 
tations the best varieties of crops, and the best cultural me- 
thods, as determined by the work of years on the Experi- 
mental Farms. 

Poultry. — The scope of work of the Poultry Division has 
been greatly extended during the last few years. It now 
covers the following main lines of investigation : artificial and 
natural incubation, poultry breeding, systems of breeding and 
rearing, production of heavy-laying strains, feeding for eggs 
and table and housing of poultry. Poultry survey work, i. e., 
the endeavour to get groups of farmers in various localities 
to keep accurate records of their poultry costs and returns, 
is already showing results in the better housing, breeding and 
care of the farm flock. Egg-laying contests and record of 
performance work are carried on. 

Tobacco. — The Tobacco Division deals with the breeding, 
variety tests and cultural methods, the warehousing and mar- 
keting of tobacco. A complete analysis of the soils of the 
tobacco-producing regions of Canada is being made. During 
the growing season, inspectors examine the tobacco fields of 
as many growers as possible, with a view to suggesting the 
best cultural methods and means of combating diseases and 
insect pests. 

In addition to the work done by the Divisions of Ex- 
tension and Publicity and Illustration Stations, the results of 
the work of the Experimental Farms are made available to 
the farmer (1) by correspondence, (2) by publications. Practi- 
cally all lines of agricultural effort are covered by the Expe- 
rimental Farms' publications and they embody the best 
thought and latest results of the experimental work. (3) 
« Seasonable Hints », now in its fifth year, a 16-page pam- 
phlet brought out every four months, is filled with brief, 
timely articles and notes on farm topics, and each issue is dis- 
tributed to the entire mailing list of some 300.000 names. It 
is issued in two editions, one for Eastern Canada and Bri- 
tish Columbia, the other for the Prairie Provinces. (4) « Press 
Articles ». An average of three short, pithy and timely 



~ 325 - 

articles is sent out to the Canadian press each week. The 
Farm officers devote considerable time each year to lectur- 
ing, demonstrating, judging at fairs and assisting at Short 
Courses in Agriculture. Excursions to the various Farms 
are also a valuable means of bringing the work to the at- 
tention of the farmer. 



Agricultural extension : the agricutural instruction act 

The contribution to technical agricultural education in 
Canada, made by the Agricultural Instruction Act of 1913, 
is found largely in the increased support and encourage- 
ment of extension work. In this the Agricultural Instruction 
Act can show in Canada results similar to the Smith-Lever 
Act passed the following year in the United States. Ap- 
proximately two-thirds of the Dominion Grant of $ 1,100,000, 
which is divided annually between the provinces in the form 
of supplements to provincial appropriations is expended in 
extension undertakings, i. e., in bringing instruction through 
local demonstrations, etc., to the farming population which 
would not be reached through other educational channels. 

The agricultural representative is at the centre of this 
movement in Canada just as the county agent is in the United 
States. Forty-five per cent, of the total expenditure on agri- 
cultural extension is spent in maintaining these men as scien- 
tifically trained leaders in local communities. 

As an example of the enthusiasm with which the move- 
ment has met, the province of Ontario has a resident agri- 
cultural representative in practically every countj'^ and dis- 
trict, some forty-eight in all. Each representative has a 
well-equipped office in a centrally-located town. Around 
these Offices centre most of the local activities of the Domi- 
nion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture in relation 
to animal and field husbandry. Here the farmers come to 
secure the latest bulletins on agriculture or to hold their 
association and club meetings. The agricultural representa- 
tive is the leading spirit in organising and directing boys' 
and girls' clubs. Women's Institutes, etc. The office is also 
linked with the provincial Employment Service, and in this 
way is able to co-operate in securing labour for the farms. 

While in purpose and results the agricultural representa- 
tive movement in Canada and the County agent movement 
in the United States are similar, in organisation they are 
somewhat different. In the United States the county agent 
is more under the local authority, through the Farm Bureau, 
than is the agricultural representative in Canada, wha is di- 
rectly responsible to the provincial Department of Agricul- 
ture. Even in Canada, however, the initiative for the esta- 
blishment of an agricultural representative's office usually 
comes from the local county, and must carry with it certain 



— 320 — 

guarantees with regard to providing office accommodation 
etc. In Manitoba, further, a local Board of Agriculture is 
organised in connection with each office to advise and assist 
the agricultural representative in his work. The Board is 
responsible for paying the office expenses and a proportion 
of the representative's salary, a system which is to some 
extent a compromise between the usual American and Cana- 
dian plans. 

In 1919-20 the schedule of allotment of Dominion grants to 
the provinces under the Agricultural Instruction Act was as 
follows : 



Prince Edward Island 

Agricultural Buildings 

Equipment and maintenance $ 1,725.00 

Director and agricultural representatives ... . 5,800.00 

Short courses 300 . 00 

Drainage and soils 1,300.00 

Live stock and dairying 3,900.00 

Poultry, horticulture, bee-keeping and co-opera- 
tive marketing 1,700 .00 

Women's Institutes 3,510.00 

Agricultural instruction in public and high schools, 
training of teachers, allowances, grants, main- 
tenance of Rural Science Department, Prince 

of Wales College 11,500.00 

Contingencies, including clerical assistance 2,014.22 



$31,749.22 

Nova Scotia 

College of Agriculture 

$ 

1. Science Building — Interest and Sinking Fund. 8,000.00 

2. Salaries and maintenance 23,000.00 

Demonstration and Instruction 

3. Agricultural representatives 12,000.00 

4. Short courses 1,000.00 

5. Dairying 5,618.54 

6. Poultry 1,500.00 

7. Bee-keeping 71 . 30 

8. Drainage and soil survey 1,600.00 



— 327 — 

9. Soils and fcrlilizors 2,118.55 

10. Field crops 1,191 .61 

11. Fruit growing 2,000.00 

12. Women's Work 2,500 .00 

13. Entomological work 8,500.00 



Elementary Agricultural Education. 

$ 

14. Agricultural instruction in Public, High and 

Normal schools, teacher training, grants 

and allowances 10,000 .00 

15. School children's exhibits and competitions... 2,000.00 

16. Contingencies 610 . 69 



$81,716.69 
New Brunswick 



1. Agricultural schools. — Salaries and mainte- 

nance 1,500.00 

2. Agricultural representatives 12,000.00 

3. Bee-keeping 2,400 .00 

4. Soils and drainage . . .• 5,000 .00 

5. Horticulture 5,200.00 

6. Live stock 4,500 .00 

7. Dairying 5,210.80 

8. Poultry 3,800.00 

9. Entomology 900.00 

10. Agricultural .societies 2,800 .00 

11. Women's Institutes 6,000.00 

12. Elementary agricultural education — Agricul- 

tural instruction in Public, High and Nor- 
mal schools, household science, teacher 

training, grants and allowalices •• . . 14,800 . 00 



$ 64,110 80 



Quebec 

Colleges and Schools of Agriculture 

$ 

1. Grants and allowances — Macdonald College, 

School of Agriculture, Ste-Anne-de-la-Po- 

catiere. Oka Institute 75,000.00 

2. School of Veterinary Science, building and ex- 

tension 5,000.00 



— 328 — 

Instruction and Demonstration. 

3. Animal husbandry 9,000.00 

4. Poultry husbandry 18,000.00 

5. Horticultural and entomological work 31,000.00 

6. Experimental and demonstration orchards . . 4,000.00 

7. Dairying educational work in cheese and but- 

termaking 5,000.00 

8. Agricultural representatives 69.000.00 

9. Seed selection, clover plots and demonstra- 

tions 9,000.00 

•10. Bee-keeping- educational work 7,000.00 

11. Drainage 6,000.00 

12. Maple industry — Maintenance of schools and 

allowances to students 4,000.00 

13. Short courses and lectures 9,113.76 

Elementary Agricultural Education. 

14. To promote the teaching of agriculture in aca- 

demies, rural and Normal schools, teacher 

training, school gardens 8,000.00 

15. To promote the teaching of domestic science 

in academies and Normal schools. Grants, 

lectures and inspection 10,000.00 

16. School children's exhibits 2,000.00 



$271,113.76 

Ontario 

Agricultural Colleges and Schools 

$ 
1. Ontario Agricultural College. 

(a) Building, equipment and 

furnishings 40,000 .00 

(b) Salaries and expenses, ad- 

ditions to staff mainte- 
nance 15,000.00 



2. Agricultural School and farm: 

(a) Capital expenditure 45,000.00 

(b) Maintenance, purchase of 

stock, machinery repairs, 
services, expenses and 
equipment 15,000.00 



55,000.00 



60,000.00 



Instruction and Demonstration 



3. Agricultural representatives, including cle- 
rical and other assistance in connection 
with the administration 126,000.00 



— 329 — 

4. Extension work in household science in rural 

communities 1,500 .00 

5. Co-operation and markets, educational work 

in connection with the marketing of farm 
products, including organization of co- 
operative societies 10,700.00 

6. Demonstration and instruction, in vegetable 

growing 12,531 .92 

7. Stock and seed judging short courses and Ins- 

titute lectures 2,000 .00 

8. Women's Institute work, including courses in 

cooking, sewing, etc 5,000.00 

9. Short courses for fall fair, field crop and poul- 

try judges, including travelling and living 

expenses 3,568 . 08 

10. Lectures on horticulture 500 . 00 

11. Demonstrations in growing and handling 

fruit 1,803.26 

12. Demonstrations with vegetables and hardy 

fruits in New Ontario 5,300.00 

13. Vineland Horticultural Experiment Station 

experimental work 2,000.00 

14. Demonstration work on soils 5.900.00 

15. Bee-keeping 1,000 .00 

16. Instruction and special educational work in 

growing and handling corn 3,500.00 



Elementary Agricultural Education. 

17. To encourage the teaching and organisation 
of classes in agriculture; and of household 
science and manual training as applied to 
work on the farm. To provide for teaching, 
inspection services, and equipment in con- 
nection with such classes in High, Public, 
Separate, Continuation and Normal schools 
and in universities, in summer courses and 
other courses and educational gatherings; 
for travelling and living expenses in con- 
nection with short courses or other educa- 
tional gatherings. To be available for 
grants to boards, teachers, and inspectors 
and to be paid on the recommendation of 
the Department of Education 40,000.00 

Total $336,303.26 



330 



Manitoba 

$ 

Agricultural Representatives 20,113.11 

Dairy Work 3,000.00 

Boys'and Girls'Clubs 13,000.00 

Extension Schools 20,000.00 

Home Economics 13,000.00 

Bee-keeping 1,000.00 

Killarney Demonstration Farm ... 4,000.00 

Soil Analysis and Survey 1,000.00 

Contingencies and Miscellaneous 2,000.00 



77,113.11 



Saskatchewan 

College of Agriculture 



1. Stafi' salaries-Research and extension services. 21,476 16 

2. Women's work-Homemaker's Clubs 5,500.00 



Instruction and Demonstration. 

3. Co-operation and marketing ■-.... 7,000.00 

4. Animal husbandry 3,000.00 

5. Dairying , 3,000.00 

6. Field husbandry 5,000.00 

7. Demonstration trains 7,000.00 

8. Agricultural representatives 1,476.16 

9. Veterinary short course 500.00 



Elementary Agricultural Education. 

10. Agricultural instruction in Public, High and 

Normal schools, houssehold science; train- 
ing of teachers; nature study 24,476.16 

11. School fairs 2,500.00 

12. Agricultural scholarships-Post graduate course 

in agriculture 800 .00 

$81,728.48 



331 



Alberta 

Schools of Agriculture 38,000.00 

Special work placing live stock on I'arins under 

Live Stock Encouragement Act 7,400 00 

Women's work ^ 9,000.00 

Agricultural representatives .... 10,000.00 

Poultry and egg marketing • . . . . 25,500.00 

Miscellaneous 65.62 



$66,965.62 



BRniSH CoLUMBI.\ 

$ 

Drv farm demonstration stations and field crops.. 3,000.00 

Seed work 1,000.00 

Silo demonstration work 2,000.00 

Horticultural demonstrations and competitions... 2,000.00 

Fruit packing and pruning schools 2,000.00 

Poultry 1,000.00 

Dairj'ing and cow testing 8,000.00 

Bee-keeping "! 7,000.00 

Boys' and Girls' Clubs 1,000.00 

Agricultural Journal and Publications Branch .. 6,000.00 
Pathological and entomological investigations and 

research 4,000.00 

Miscellaneous 199.06 

Agricultural instruction in Public, High and Nor- 
mal schools, training of teachers, grants 20,000.00 

University' of British Columbia: Investigation and 

extension 12,000.00 



$ 69,199 06 



Women's Institutes. 

Canada is the birthplace of Women's Institutes. Twenty- 
three years ago at Stony Creek, Ontario, the first meet- 
ing was held from which has developed the Federation 
of Women's Institutes of Canada with a combined member- 
ship of 70.000 persons. From Ontario the Institute movement 
spread through the other provinces of Canada, and thence 
into United States. In 1915 it reached Great Britain by way 
of Wales, where a member from British Columbia started the 
first Women's Institute. 



— 332 — 

The spirit behind the movement is that of technical agri- 
cultural education interpreted in terms of practical social 
values. Institutes are organised locally among farmers' 
wives and daughters and their aim is to develop community 
spirit and to raise the standard of rural life and intelligence. 
The members meet in each others' homes and combine social 
entertainment with practical instruction in household eco- 
nomics and domestic art, cooking, nutrition, home nursing, 
sanitation and other topics. Matters related to social wel- 
fare, community welfare and education are discussed and the 
activities promoted as a result have a widely extended and 
highly beneficial influence. 

. In Canada the institutes receive financial support from the 
provincial governments and in all the provinces but Ontario 
and British Columbia these grants are sufficient to meet the 
cost of organizing and carrying on the institute work. In On- 
tario the government grant is employed solely in connection 
with extension propaganda including instruction in house- 
hold economics and related subjects. Demonstration lec- 
tures and classes in cooking, canning, preserving, sewing, hy- 
giene and other topics of special interest to women are held 
under the auspices of the Women's Branch Institutes which 
are 900 in number and have a total membership of 30,000. 

The organisation of Young Women's Clubs among the 
French speaking population includes a membership of ap- 
proximately 2,000. The clubs are designed to promote a 
knowledge of gardening, poultry, bee-keeping and other use- 
ful occupations among young women in rural communities. 
Lectures on home economics are included in the programme 
of instruction. 

The Quebec Homemakers' Clubs follow various courses 
of study and interest themselves in community needs includ- 
ing the providing of equipment for school lunches, donating 
prizes to school fairs and in contributing to the cost of school 
and community halls and their equipment. 

The membership of the Alberta Women's Institutes num- 
bers over 12.000. In 1920, lecturers and demonstrators were 
sent out to practically every institute in the province. Short 
courses in home nursing and first aid were given at fifty four 
centres, with a total attendance of 3,409. These courses were 
given by Public Health nutses. Sewing demonstration lec- 
ture courses were also given at twenty-two centres and short 
courses in cookery and food values at sixteen. One hundred 
and sixty-eight institutes were visited and addressed by Wo- 
men's Institute speakers. The total attendance at lectures 
and courses was 21.000 women. 

A recent campaign for the proper feeding of children was 
carried out by food exhibits at the Edmonton and Calgary 
fairs. Forty thousand bulletins dealing with child welfare, 
and with the canning of fruit and vegetables were distri- 
buted. 



— 333 — 

The better-school movement finds active support in the 
Women's Institutes. In some cases, playgrounds have been 
equipped and school lunch apparatus installed. One branch 
has completely furnished a domestic science kitchen while 
another has donated $ 100 worth of books to the local school. 

In 1919 a Dominion-wide organisation was undertaken 
and the Federation of Women's Institutes of Canada was 
formed in Winnipeg. This nationally organised society is a 
federation of the provincial rural organisations of women 
known as Women's Institutes, Homemakers' Clubs and Home 
Economics Societies, asisted by the « Agricultural Instruc- 
tion Act )) (1). Its objects are to unite the influence of the 
women of Canada in behalf of social progress and to encou- 
rage nation wide campaigns in the interest of the whole 
people, especially in relation to homemaking, child welfare, 
education and community betterment. It makes a special 
study of laws aff"ecting women and children. The organisation 
is strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian. 

In the United States the county organisation for extension 
work in 1918 included 6,391 clubs for rural women with a 
regular membership of 325,229; 9,028 clubs for girls, with a 
membership of 146,102; 1.563 clubs for rural negro women 
with a membership of 37,913; and 1,962 clubs for negro girls 
with a membership of 50,995. The work is organised on 
much the same basis in all the States and there is a woman in 
charge of the work in each. Home demonstration agents pro- 
vide the same service for women and girls on the farm that 
the county agent performs for the men and boys. 

The purpose of the work is to reach through organisation 
the largest possible number of women and girls and give 
them direct assistance in problems of production, conserva- 
tion and utilisation of food, and in the preservation of health, 
the prevention of disease, the introduction of labour-saving 
devices and home conveniences, the beautification of the 
home and its surroundings, co-operative and individual mar- 
keting of products and thrift and saving from the family 
income. The program includes gardening, canning, drying, 
brining ; production of butter and cheese for home use and 
for market ; production and marketing of eggs and poultry; 
purchase and home manufacture of labour-saving equip- 
ment; home management ; utilisation of home-produced and 
other foods for a wholesome diet; saving of wheat, meat, 
sugar, and fats; conservation of clothing; and development 
of community enterprises, such as community canneries, 
community drying plants, community demonstration kitchens 
for instruction, curb markets, and co-operative marketing of 
eggs and poultry, garden products, canned goods, butter, and 
cheese. 



(1) Page 325. 



— 334 — 

The work has three main objects . 1) Production, 2) Econo- 
my and thrift, and 3) health and happiness. Considerable at- 
tention is also given to recreation, social enjoyment at the club 
meetings, and the general improvement of rural conditions. 

Secondary agricultural education. 

A high school department of vocational agriculture is 
but a part of an organised nation-wide movement to promote 
better farming, better business and better living. 

Instruction in such a department means more than an 
attempt to turn back to the farm the tide that flows cityward 
or to induce children to stay in school, although these are 
natural outcomes of such instruction. The true purpose of 
agricultural education is to fit for agricultural pursuits those 
who may cast their lots with the farm. It is based on the recog- 
nition of the dignity of labour and the necessity for practical 
experience in the attainment of a well rounded educa- 
tion )) (1). In these words the Director of the Division of 
Agricultural and Industrial Education of the University of 
New York has expressed the motive from which the new 
impetus to secondary agricultural education in recent years 
has sprung. 

In the United States federal aid for the teaching of agricul- 
ture in secondary schools dates from the Smith-Hughes Act 
of 1917 (2). This act facilitates the introduction of a new 
system of education into the existing system and provides for 
federal appropriations which will ultimately aggregate 
$ 3,000,000 annually for co-operation with the individual states 
in the promotion of vocational education in agriculture, the 
trades and industries, and home economics, including the 
preparation of teachers. The administrative machinery 
devised to operate the new system centres in a Federal Board 
for Vocational Education of seven members including the Se- 
cretaries of Agriculture, Commerce and Labour and the 
United States Commissioner of Education. Of the remaining 
three members, it is required that one be a representative of 
manufacturing and commercial interests, one of agricultural 
interests and one of labour. 

Section 10 of Act the reads : « That any State may use the 
appropriation for agricultural purposes, or any part thereof 
allotted to it, under the provisions of this Act, for the salaries 
of teachers, supervisors, or directors of agricultural subjects, 
either for the salaries of teachers of such subjects in schools 
or classes or for the salaries of supervisors or directors of 
such subjects under a plan of supervision for the State to be 



(1) University of the State of New York Bulletin, Xo. 703, p. 4. 

(2) No. 1547, Sixty fourth Congress. 



— 335 — 

set up by the State board, with the approval of the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education. That in order to receive the 
benefits of such appropriation for the salaries of teachers, 
supervisors, or directors of agricultural subjects the State 
board of any State shall provide in its plan for agricultural 
education that such education shall be that whicii is under 
public supervision or control; that the controlling purpose of 
such education shall be to fit for useful employment; that 
such education shall be of less than college grade and be 
designed to meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of 
age who have entered upon or who are i)reparing to enter 
upon the work of the farm or of the farm home; that the State 
or local community, or both, shall provide the necessary plant 
and equipment determined upon by the State board, with the 
approval of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, as 
the minimum requirement for such education in schools and 
classes in the State; that the amount expended for the mainte- 
nance of such education in any school or class receiving the 
benefit of such appropriation shall be not less annually than 
the amount fixed by the State board, with the approval of the 
Federal board as the minimum for such schools or classes in 
the State; that such schools shall provide for directed or 
supervised practice in agriculture, either on a farm provided 
for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per 
year; that the teachers, supervisors, or directors of agricul- 
tural subjects shall have at least the minimum qualifications 
determined for the State by the State board, with the 
approval of the Federal Board for Vocational Education. » 

Four years after the passage of this act, definite results of 
its agricultural policy are now on record. In one or two 
states, perhaps, vocational education was to far established 
in 1917 that compliance with the terms of Smith-Hughes Act 
meant no definite change in plans already well under way; 
but in general this piece of legislation gave a new outlook to 
State Boards of Education, and the succeeding developments 
in vocational training for boys and girls over fourteen years 
of age and of less than college grade may be traced directly 
to its influence. Within the first years the plans of forty-eight 
States with 500 agi'icultural schools and classes have been 
approved by the Federal Board; in practically all of these, 
State supervisors of agriculture have been appointed; and in 
every State but one the State Board for vocational education 
has designated the land-grant college as a teacher-training 
institution in agriculture. 

Reports of organisation, etc., are not at hand from all the 
states concerned, but the line of progress may be judged 
from bulletins of the Board of Education of Massachusetts, a 
state well in the forefront in educational policy. These publi- 
cations include Bulletins No. 39 (Continuation Schools); No. 
71 (Administration of Industrial Agricultural and Household 
Arts Education); No. 72 (Administration of Agricultural 



— 336 — 

Education) ; No. 73 (Practical Arts Education) ; No. 100 (Hou- 
sehold Arts Education; No. 76 (Project Method); and Cir- 
culars Nos. 46 and 47 (Teachers' Training). 

Bulletin No. 106 is « The Plans of Massachusetts for the 
year 1919-20 ». It defines agricultural education as « that 
form of vocational education which fits for the occupations 
connected with the tillage of the soil, the care of domestic 
animals, forestry, and other wage-earning or productive work 
on the farm ». The kinds of schools organised for this pur- 
pose include : (a) independent agricultural schools; (b) sepa- 
rate agricultural departments in high schools offering as 
elective work, training in the principles and practice of 
agriculture. In both schools and departments as above, part- 
time and evening school privileges are often extended to 
specially qualified pupils who are employed in the business 
of farming during the day. 

The plant and equipment of a school must be up to stan- 
dard and must be sufficient in conjunction with co-operating 
farms to give instruction in all the operations of the branch 
or branches of agriculture taught. « The equipment must 
include moveable tables and chairs; apparatus for such labo- 
ratory work as milk testing and soil testing; conveniences 
for storing and propecting materials, such as grains, grasses, 
seeds, feeds and fertilizers; a good collection of books and 
bulletins; and a collection of good farm papers and perio- 
dicals (1). » 

All instructors are employed for the calendar year, with 
an allowance of two weeks' vacation at Christmas, one week 
at Easter and one other week at a time to be approved by the 
State Board. All courses of study are planned for at least 
two years,, and usually for four years. Details of these 
courses may be found in Bulletin No. 8 of the Massachusetts 
Board. The distribution of projects for the developing boy 
shows how that side of the work is organised. The distribu- 
tion of Major Propects through a four-year course in a County 
Council is as follows 2) : 

I. Plant Projects Elementary (for boys of 14 or over) : 

a) Kitchen Gardening and Ornamental Planting. 

b) Vegetables and Small Fruit for Family or Sale. 
General idea : Making home attractive. 

II. Animal Projects Elementary (for boys of 15 or over) : 
Animal husbandry, dealing with smaller animals, such as 

poultry, sheep and goats, swine and bees. 
General idea : Working for a profit. 

(1) Massachusetts Board of Education, Bulletin 106, page 10. 

(2) This distribution is modified to meet department needs, or needs of pupils 
in highly specialised courses. 



337 — 



III. Plant Projects Advanced (for boy of 16 or over). 

a) Fruit growing : orcharding and small fruit growing. 

b) Market gardening. 

General idea : Growing fruit and vegetables for sale. 



IV. Animal Projects Advanced (for boys of 17 or over) : 

Animal husbandry, iuQluding dairying and general farm 

management. 
General idea : Agriculture as a business. 

Note : In addition to the stated supervised projects for 
any given year, a pupil may carry out certain other unsupei 
vised projects on his own account. For example, kitchen gar- 
dening may be continued every year throughout the course; 
poultry-keeping may be continued in the third and fourth 
years; and fruit growing or market gardening, studied as a 
third year project, may be continued during the fourth year. 

All projects are cost-accounted and written records are 
kept of all. 



CAREER MOTIVE : BETTER FARMING 


Vocational education at a county agricultural school 


For All-day Pupils has two Parts. 


Part 1. — Vocational Education. 


Part 2. — General 


80 per cent of Pupil's Time. 


Education. 




20 per cent of Pupil's 




GENERAL SURVEY OF AGRICULTURE 


time. 


(1) 50 per cent in 


(2) 30 Per cent 


20 Per cent. Cultu- 


Project Studu and 


« Related Study », 


ral and Good Citi- 


Project Work, cen- 


consisting' of such 


zenship training in 


tring on: 


close correlation 
with the project stu- 


such subjects as: 


A. Projects of the 


dy and project work 




Pupils. 


of the following acti- 
vities or sulijects of 




a). At home, as a 


instruction as to 




rule. 


warrant the prefix 




b) At school rarely 


« farm » or « agri- 
cultural » : 




c) Pupil responsi- 






l)le but super- 






vised by his 






instructor. 







— 338 



CAREER MOTIVE : BETTER FARMING 



Vocational education at a county agricultural school 
For All-day Pupils has two Parts. 



Part 1. — Vocational Education. 
80 per cent of Pupil's Time. 



GENERAL SURVEY OF AGRICULTURE 



B. Projects 
School. 



of the 



Farm arithmetic. 



a) Illustrative of 
well - proved j 
methods, Farm biology, 
crops, etc. 



b) Trial, as to a- 
daptability of 
promising me- 
thods, crops, 
etc., to local 
conditions. 



c) School respons- 
ible, but uses 
projects for 
group instruc- 
tion of pupils 
in obsei'vation 
and practice 
work. 



C. Substitutes 
Projects. 



for 



a) Work on ap- 

proved farm, 
with agreed 
upon educa - 
tional duties, 
as cost - ac- 
counting one 
or more cows 
or one or 
more crops. 

b) Work on the 

school farm , 
with educatio- 
nal duties like 
the above. 

c) Employer chief- 

ly responsi- 
ble, but super- 
vised by in- 
structor. 



Farm physics. 

Farm chemistry. 

Farm entomology. 

Far m veterinary 
science. 



Fanm shop work. 
Farm shop work. 



F a r m typewriting 
and filing. 

Farm accounts. 

Farm journal read- 
ing. 

Agricultural econ- 
omics. 



Part 2. — General 

Education. 

20 per cent of Pupil's 

time. 



En'.a'lish, 



Citizenship. 



Government. 



Economics. 

Drawing , freehand 
and mechanical. 



Hygiene and physi- 
cal training. 



Music. 
Recreation. 



339 — 



II 



CAREER MOTIVE 



BETTER FARMING 



Vocational education in a hir/li school agricultural department 
For Day Pupils should have two parts. 



Part 1. — Vocational Education 
50 per cent of Pupil's Time. 

GENERAL SURVEY OF AGRICULTURE 

Project study and Project Work 
centring on: 



(1) Projects of the Pupils. 

A. At home, as a rule. 

B. Near home, occasionally. 

C. Pupil responsible, but super- 

vised by instructor. ■ 

(2) Projects of the Department. 
A. At the High School rarely. 



B. . Neighbourhood demonstrations, 
as of pruning, spraying, hot- 
bed making, or greenhouse 
work. 

C. Instructor responsible, but uses 
projects for group instruction 
in observation and practice 
work. 

(3) Substitutes for Projects. 

A. Work on approved farms, with 

agreed upon educational du- 
ties, as cost-accounting one 
or more cows or one or 
more crops. 

B. Emj)loyer chiefly responsible, 

but supervision by instructor. 

(4) Benmrhs. — The agricultural 
instructor must, as a rule, 
assume full responsbility for 
teaching the « related study » 
required for the proper unders- 
standing and execution of the 
projects of his pupils. He 
must generally teach his boys 
the vital correlation between 
their projects and such subjects 
and activities as arithmetic, 
biology, physics, chemistry, 
entomology, drawing. shop 
work, accounting, filing, farm 
journal reading and agricult- 
ural economics. 



Pai't 2. — General Education. 
50 per cent of Pupil's Time. 



Cultural and Good Citizen- 
ship Training, selected 
from one or more of the 
regular high school courses, 
and dealing with such 
subjects as: 



English, every year. 



Social science , including 
community civics and eco- 
nomics. 

Natural science, including 
elementary science, biol- 
ogy, physics and chemistry. 

Drawing, freehand and me- 
chanical. 



Shop work. 



Business, including tyj^ewrit- 
ing, business forms and fil- 
ing, bookkeeping, commerc- 
ial geography and com- 
mercial law. 



Physical training. 



Music. 



Recreation. 



— 340 — 

Diagrams I and II show the vocational education offered 
respectively in a county agricultural school and a High School 
Agricultural Department, 

In the establishment of schools of agriculture of second- 
ary grade, as distinct from colleges, a beginning has also been 
made in Canada, and in this field Alberta has been the 
pioneer with six schools already in operation, viz., Clares- 
holm, Olds, Vermilion, Raymond, Gleichen and Youngstown. 
The requirements for admission are such as to induce farm 
boj'^s and girls to register who are not yet prepared to under- 
take the work of an agricultural college but who are ambi- 
tious in their desire to benefit by a vocational education, and 
who realise the need for scientific knowledge in the develop- 
ment of practical agriculture. 

In Ontario the school at Kemptville is similar in scope and 
intention to those in Alberta. It is a vocational residential 
school with ample land for farming purposes attached, and 
the necessary building and othei^&quipment for a two years' 
course in agriculture and household science. This regular 
course aims to give practical farming instruction in all bran- 
ches of the subject, and includes in addition to the main sub- 
jects woodworking, principles of breeding, stock judging, 
keeping of records, soil management, the driving of gas engi- 
nes and farm tractors, forge work and horse shoeing, concrete 
work, harness repair, drainage, landscape gardening, fores- 
try, English, and public speaking ; also special training for 
teachers. The term is from October to April. A short winter 
course offers intensive study for a few weeks in general 
agriculture, farm power, or household economics, the last 
being the course for girls and women. 

The purposes of the farm connected with the school are to 
furnish feed or live stock; to supply first generation registred 
seed for the district; and to demonstrate the utility of short 
rotations of crops. A beginning in fruit-growing has also been 
made with a twelve-acre orchard. Pupils do not work the 
farms, but are obliged to take part in the care and manage- 
ment of the livestock. 

A second agricultural school in Ontario is located at 
Monteith in the north. Schools are established also in New 
Brunswick, at Woodstock and Sussex; and in Prince Edward 
Island, at Charlottetown. 



'Elementary agricultural education 

In order that in the promotion of agricultural education the 
child should not be overlooked, attention is being directed 
in l)oth Canada and the United States to the place of 
agriculture in elementary schools, and to the organisation of 



— 341 — 

boys' and girls' clubs in rural communities. The problem 
facing those responsible for educational policy is to provide 
adequate opportunities for those destined for country life 
and to this end the rural schools must be strengthened and 
courses of study and methods of teaching encouraged which 
will afford the knowledge, mental training and outlook which 
the child on the farm requires. 

Already very considerable progress can be claimed as all 
of the Canadian provinces and many of the states of America 
have introduced agricultural instruction in some form into 
the elementary schools, and the organisation and direction 
of boys' and girls' clubs by the Agricultural Representatives 
in Canada and the County Agents in the United States has 
been a most successful feature of their work. The special 
training of teachers for rural work is being accomplished 
through lectures demonstrations and practical activities plan- 
ned for the instruction of inspectors and teachers in Normal 
Schools, etc. Vocational schools and agricultural colleges 
offer further training for this kind of leadership, and in such 
practical projects as poultry-keeping, potato-growing, pig and 
calf rearing, canning, breadmaking and other similar acti- 
vities the Departments of Agriculture and Education meet on 
common ground. 

Methods of teaching agricultural subjects effectively have 
developed along lines somewhat different from those adapted 
to the usual school-room instruction, but the possibility of 
co-ordination has not been overlooked in rural school science, 
and even where inflexible curricula, planned for town and 
country alike, may tend to interfere, intelligent and progres- 
sive teachers in rural communities have learned to use agri- 
culture as the logical subject about which to orientate rea- 
ding, composition, arithmetic and nature study. Even if no 
further attempt is made in the elementary school to teach 
the arts and sciences of country life, this acknowledgment 
of their interest and practical value serves to open the minds 
of the pupils in a new way to the w^onders of their environ- 
ment and to the opportunities and privileges of men and 
women on the land. 

Moreover, the continued effort on the i^art of many agen- 
cies to promote the various ])hases of elementary agricul- 
ture in the connnon schools is beginning to show practical 
results. In the United States, the Federal Agent for Agricul- 
tural Education reports progress in a number of states as 
follows (1) : 

<( Minnesota. -- The work in agriculture in the rural 
schools has practically all been in the form of boys' and 
girls' club work. The majority of county superintendents 
have acted as county club leaders directing the work. The 



111 Agricultural Ktlucation 1910-1918 > . Bullr-tin, 1918. Xo. 41, l).'-|):u-tmpiit of 
the Interior, Kurcau of Education, pp. 8-11. 



— 342 — 

work has been taken up along 10 lines of home projects — 
corn, potato, pig, calf, garden, canning, poultry, cow — testing 
bread making, and sewing. Something like 5,000 boys' and 
girls' clubs were organised in the rural districts in 1918. Most 
of these come from the rural schools as a unit, with the 
teacher as the local leader and the county superintendent as 
county club leader. 

i(New Hampshire. — For the past five years efforts have 
been made and plans formulated for converting the old-time 
nature study in rural schools into elementary agriculture of 
a practical type. During the year 1918, that effort has cul- 
minated in enrolling 32,000 school children in home-project 
gardening. This has been directly under school management 
through the State department, local superintendents, and 
teachers. 

« California. — The California State Board of Education 
passed the following regulation relative to agricultural ins- 
truction in normal schools: « For students entering after 
June 30th, 1919, one unit shall be required in manual trai- 
ning or household arts or both, and one unit in the elements 
of agriculture, including practical work in gardening, flori- 
culture, and plant propagation. )> 

« Massachusetts. — As a result of the appointment of 
county club leaders in each one of the county farm bureaus 
in the State, a thorough canvas of the rural schools has been 
made in an effort to interest them in both home and school 
garden work and junior extension club work. From 75 to 85 
per cent of the rural schools have been reached during the 
past two years through these agents. In a few instances this 
has resulted in the establishment of some definite course in 
agriculture or home economics in these schools. 

« The extension division of the college of agriculture during 
1918 made an effort to arrange a course satisfactory to high- 
school men that would be accepted by the college for credit 
on admission. It is felt that this would lead to steps to 
establish the work in elementary schools to fit the work in 
the high schools. 

« Wyoming. — The only teacher-training institutions below 
college grade in the State are some high schools offering one 
year of normal training. These schools were established in 
the fall of 1917, and the only work in agriculture offered in 
such schools is a short general course in agriculture that is 
designed to prepare pupils to teach in the elementary schools. 

« Michigan. — Three new county normal training classes 
have been established in the State in the past year and a 
few for the purpose of training rural teachers, making in all 
53 such institutions. A law was passed in 1917 requiring 
all persons who are teaching in the eleinentary schools to 
have at least six weeks of professional training before a 



— 343 — 

teacher's license can be issued to them. In all institutions 
giving training for rural teachers a semester's course in ele- 
mentary agriculture and in the pedagog>' of such subjects is 
given. 

« Montana. — In 1918 a bill passed the legislature making 
agriculture a required subject in the elementary schools. A 
course of study has been prepared including agriculture. 
Home project work is a part of the course of study and the 
State superintendent of public instruction has appro\ed 
credit for project work to the extent of 50 per cent each 
year. 

« Kansas. — The teacher-training institutions below col- 
lefe grade offering work in agriculture are the high schools 
which are reimbursed from State funds for normal training 
work. These high schools are offering either one-half unit 
or a unit of agriculture as a part of the high-school work 
for those who are planning to teach. Previous to 1916-17 
agriculture was not a fixed requirement, now at least one- 
half unit is required in all normal-training high schools. 
About 90 per cent of them, however, give a full unit of that 
work. The State grants aid of approximately $ 200 for 
this work in approved high schools. The number of high 
schools giving the work now is 234, and the number giving 
the work before 1916-17 was 185. 

(( North Carolina. — At the last session of the general as- 
sembly a bill was passed providing for a commission to be 
appointed by the governor for the purpose of preparing lea- 
flets and bulletins containing courses of study, practical out- 
lines in agriculture, to be used by the teachers as supplements 
to the text. Two bulletins, one for the sixth and one for the 
seventh grade have been prepared. These bulletins are 
somewhat in the form of laboratory manuals following the 
project plan, and it was thought by State officials that they 
are going to prove a great help to the teachers in making their 
agricultural work more practical. 

New York. — An act of the New York State Legislature for 
1917 provides for the employment of directors of agriculture 
in cities, towns, and school districts not maintaining a school 
of agriculture, mechanic arts, and home inaking. The pur- 
poses of this act is to employ a person who shall devote his 
time to interesting young people in practical agriculture and 
to giving technical instruction accompanying their practical 
work; to encourage cities and villages to employ supervisors 
for school, home, and vacant-lot gardening. The commis- 
sioner of education will apportion to each city, town, or 
school district employing or joining in the emplojmient of a 
director of agriculture a sum equal to one-half the salary 
paid to such director, not exceeding each year the sum of 
$ 600 for each director employed. The purpose of this work 
is to encourage boys and girls to undertake agricultural en- 



— 344 — 

terprises adapted to their home conditions. The projects 
may include poultry, pig, and calf raising, growing a certain 
area of general garden or corn, potatoes, or other farm crops. 
A complete scheme is found in Bulletin 654 of the University 
of the State of New York. 

« Indiana. — Educational Bulletin No. 32 of the Vocational 
Series No. 17, entitled, « Supervised Home Project and Club 
Work )), contains what is considered the ideal organisation 
for club work in a county. It is described as follows: 

An attempt is being made in Montgomery County to perfect a more 
complete organization than has been possible heretofore in the State. 
With the financial assistance of the States Relations Service of the 
United States Department of Agriculture and the co-operation of all 
the agencies of the State and county, it is hoped that an organisation 
will be perfected that will serve as a model for other counties. 

The work in this county is being directed by the county superinten- 
dent of schools and the county agricultural agent, working through 
a committee representing the board of education and such allied county 
organisations as the community association, the county fair association, 
the home economics association, the chamber of commerce, and the 
live-stock breeders. The fullest co-operation is assured from the banks, 
grain elevators, and business men. The teachers and their officials 
and supervisors are interested and in sympathy with the movement. 

Each township will employ at least one teacher as a club super- 
visor. This local supervision whill begin February 1st, and while the 
schools are in session each township supervisor will devote time out- 
side of school hours to visiting schools, arousing interest and getting 
the enrollment. At the close of school, the time of the township super- 
visor will be spent in visiting club members and giving instruction. 

A county director of club work, giving full time to his task, is em- 
ployed for the full year. He is to work with the township supervi- 
sors and teachers, under the direction of the county superintendent 
and county agent. He will train supervisors, assist in supervising the 
instruction in agriculture, distribute literature, and correlate the work 
generally. 

Township and county exhibits, demonstration teams, club meetings^ 
and frequent conferences are planned. » 

In matters of education in the United States the adminis- 
trative authority is not federal, but belongs to the indivi- 
dual state. This accounts for diversity in lines of progress 
and standards of accomplishment. Even within the state, 
in some instances, one finds smaller administrative units 
with no centralized control and the result has been in the 
past a lack of adequate direction and supervision. Fortuna- 
tely of recent years these deficiences are being recognized 
more and more, with the result that state appropriations are 
now for the most part granted subject to certain requirements 
being met by the local school districts. Authority is delegated 
accordingly to state superintendents with their staffs of su- 
pervisors, often including supervisors of special subjects such 
as agriculture, household arts and sciences, and industrial 
training. 

Similarl}'^ the federal government has found that it can 
exert a beneficial influence upon the educational standards 



— 345 — 

of the various States particulary in matters of vocational trai- 
ning, and conditions its financial support of this work upon 
the creation of State Boards to co-operate with the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education. The Smith-Hugues Act (1) is 
an act ((.to provide for the promotion of vocational education; 
to provide for co-operation with the States in the promotion 
of such education in agriculture and the trades and indus- 
tries; to provide for co-operation with the States in the pre- 
paration of teachers of vocational suhjects; and to appro- 
priate money and reguhite its expencUture ». Expenditure 
under this Act is authorized according to an ascending scale, 
viz. * 500,000 in 1918; >= 750,000 in 1919; .$1,000,000 in 1920; 
and so on up to "t^ 3,000,000 in 1926 and annually thereafter. 
As the Act provides that appropriations for agricultural pur- 
poses shall he for the education of persons of less than col- 
lege grade hut over fourteen years of age, its intUicnce is 
directly upon schools of secondary grade, hut it has given 
a marked stimulus also to elementary schools in that their 
work in agriculture prepares for the more advanced and con- 
crete work of the High School, and also because the Act pro- 
vides for the training of teachers, supervisors and directors. 

Further, the Department of Agriculture of the United States 
government has found practicable means of exerting in- 
fluence upon agricultural education in elementary schools. 
This department through the States Relations Services issues 
professional papers planned specifically for the instruction 
of children. The series includes such bulletins as : School 
Credit for Home Practice in Agriculture (intended to assist 
teachers of rural schools w^ho desire to use home practice in 
agriculture as an educational feature, giving proper credit 
and rank on the school records); Lessons on Dairying for 
Rural Schools; Lessons on Tomatoes for Rural Schools; Les- 
sons on Cotton for the Rural Common Schools; Lessons on 
Poultry for Rural Schools; Lessons on Potatoes for Elemen- 
tary Rural Schools; Lessons on Corn for Rural Elementary 
Schools; Lessons on Pork Production for Elementary Rural 
Schools; Some Exercises in Farm Handicraft for Rural 
Schools; A First Year Course in Home Economics for Sou- 
thern Agricultural Schools. 

With iDulletins such as these before them teachers do not 
lack agricultural material for presentation to the boy or girl 
of elementary grade. 

Instructions for the use of Farmers' Bulletins by teachers 
are a^o issued by the same service including instructions re 
the eradication of ferns from pasture lands; the use of a soii 
survey ; the feeding of dairy cows ; the farm garden ; how to 
increase potato croj)s by spraying; backyard poultry keeping 
the city and suburban vegetable garden; home storage of 
fruits and vegetables; salting, fermentation and pickling of 

(1) Cr. pp. ;}()(•, and -.VM. 



— 346 — 

vegetables; foods; clean milk; making butter on the farm, 
etc. These publications show the teachers how the instruc- 
tions issued by the government for the use of farmers may be 
brought to the attention of school children and adapted to 
the course of study. 

In this progressive inovement for improved agricultural 
education, the influence of the Department of the Interior is 
traceable. « A Manual of Educational Legislation » publish- 
ed by the Bureau in 1919 includes a discussion of Rural 
School organisation (1). It reads, 

« The national industrial transition going on at the present 
time is forcing upon country communities, whether they will 
or not, a reorganisation of the present educational system. 
The Nation has long since passed from f)ioneering in agricul- 
tural life and must hereafter enter upon an era of scientitic 
international commercial farming. This requires for the 
country community a type of school education which will 
do more than give farin people the tools of an education; 
they must be taught to became real agriculturists. The type 
of school that can best provide this education is the modern 
consolidated farm community school, furnishing both ele- 
mentary and secondary education; or, where this is not prac- 
ticable, a modern one-teacher school. 

« There are, according to estimates made by the United 
States Bureau of Education, approximately 210.000 one-teach- 
er rural schools in the United States, and approximately 
10,500 consolidated schools. 

« By a consolidated school is meant a union of two or more 
schools of the same district, or in outlying districts, to form 
a well-organised graded school. Consolidation of rural 
schools has made the greatest headway in States where the 
country or township is the unit. Massachusetts, Indiana, 
Ohio, Utah, Louisiana and North Dakota are examples of 
such States. In States organised on the district basis consoli- 
dation has made slow progress, except States where subsidy 
has been offered, as in Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and Wash- 
ington 

« The most satisfactory type of consolidated school is plan- 
ned to give the rural community just the kind of education 
required by an agricultural population ; broadly cultural and 
yet practical, preparing them for happy, wholesome remuner- 
ative living on the land. Many of the early consolidated 
schools were planned as big graded schools, offering courses 
of study in no sense adapted to the needs of rural districts. 
The school should be organised with a view to preparing, for 
the new agricultural era, a permanent farming population of 
highest ideals. Some of the essentials to be included in a just 
consolidation law are these : 



(1) Pages 28 and 29. 



— 347 — 

(1) State aid to be given on conditions assuring the State department 
of education that the school whill he properly maintained, organised 
and taught. 

(2) State aid might be given as aid in (a) erecting the new building; 
(b) for annual maintenance provided (1) that no less than five acres 
of land be utilized for grounds and experiment plats, (2) that a home 
be erected on the premises for the principal and other teachers, (3> 
that the principal and instructor in agriculture, at least, be hired by 
the year to give all the time to the school and agricultural community, 
and (4) that the course of study be adapted to the needs of its particular 
aigricultural section. » 

Bulletins of this particular kind serve to create an intelli- 
gent public opinion. Moreover the Bureau of Education has 
completed a number of rural school surveys, and compiled 
and distributed publications which give to the public the 
benefit of their observations and conclusions on rural and 
agricultural education. 

In Canada the reports of the Departments of Education and 
of Agriculture in the various provinces show similar deve- 
lopments. In certain provinces, e. g. Ontario, special grants 
are paid to schools meeting specified requirements for the 
teaching of nature study, elementary agriculture and school 
gardening. 

Under the Agricultural Instruction Act, the federal govern- 
ment paid in 1920 to the various provinces, for purposes of 
agricultural education alone sums varying from $ 12.000 to 
$44,000 according to the undertakings of the individual gov- 
ernments. These amounts were then supplemented by fur- 
ther grants from the provincial treasuries and a serious ap- 
proach made to the problem of agricultural training for boys 
and girls. 

Under the auspices of the Departments of Agriculture, « the 
Junior Extension Movement » aims to vitalize and supplement 
the teaching of nature study and elementary agriculture in 
the rural schools and includes all forms of farm boys' and 
girls' club work as well as various field and other competi- 
tions. The membership activities include the growing of 
grain and root crops, gardening, the eradication of noxious 
weeds, dairying, pig, calf and poultry raising, garment ma- 
king, cooking, canning, woodworking, and essay writing. 

Every assistance is offered by the Departments of Agricul- 
ture in furnishing members with the best qualities of seeds. 
Registered pigs and settings of bred-to-lay eggs are also, under 
certain conditions, distributed. In Ontario alone in 1919 the 
Agricultural Representations distributed to 78,946 pupils in 
3,278 rural schools of the pro\dnce quantities of seeds as 
follow : 

Potatoes 1 .890 bushels 

Grain — oats, barley, wheat, peas and corn . . 432 » 

Roots, mangels, turnips 12,575 packages 

Vegetables, beets, carrots, onions, parsnips. 30,700 « 

Flowers, Asters, phlox, sweetpeas, cosmos. . . 21,900 » 



— 348 — 

These seeds were to be planted in small plots on the home 
place, and instrnctions accompanied each package accordin- 
gly- 

In order to increase the interest and give the boys and girls 

an opportunity for comparing the results of their work, School 
Fairs are held throughout the country. An effort is made to 
keep education as the outstanding feature of the exhibition 
with prizes as a means to this end. Classes are open for colts, 
calves, spring lambs, pigs and poultry, besides soil products, 
weed collections, manual training specimens, etc. 

Special contests also arouse keen public interest and in- 
clude schools parades, exercises and drills, stock judging, 
apple and weed naming, chicken plucking, writing, drawing, 
essaywriting, darning, singing, puJDlic speaking, driving and 
riding. 

In Ontario 357 rural school fairs were held in 1919. The 
pupils had 69,848 home plots and made entries to the number 
of 111,823. The attendance at these fairs numbered 92.600 
children and 107.590 adults. Similar reports can be given for 
other provinces. 

In Quebec, allotment from the Agricultural Instruction Fund 
is made : 

(1) For the ipromotion of scliool and home gardens, boys' and girls' 
clubs, school fairs. 

(2) For special lectures to pupils and parents on elementary agricul- 
tural education, including Normal School lectures and demonstra- 
tions. 

(3) For special course in elementary agriculture for school ins- 
pectors. 

In addition to the above, $ 10,000, is distributed annually to 
domestic science schools and to institutions giving special 
courses in domestic science. 

In Manitoba in 1919 there were 220 central clubs, 1,200 
branch clubs, and 26,500 members. At the club fairs there 
w^ere entered about 28,000 exhibits of actual school Avork. 
Among the various projects, vegetable canning stood third 
with nearly 5,000 exhibits. The showing of over 1,000 dairy 
exhibits suggests that this project is receiving a great deal of 
attention. 

In Saskatchewan the School Agriculture branch of the De- 
partment of Education embraces activities connected with the 
teaching of agriculture in the public and high schools, school- 
gardening, the bcautification of school grounds, the training 
of teachers in the Normal Schools in nature study and agri- 
culture, the school exhibition work of the province, the rural 
education movement, and boys' and girls' clubs. 

The annual report 1919 shows « that over 200 school exhi- 
bitions were held, 44 Rural Education Associations were for- 
med, making a total of 118 in operation at the close of the 
year, over 200 public addresses were given, judges were pro- 



— 349 — 

vided for 175 exhibitions, 20 conventions and teachers' insti- 
tutes were visited, 1,170 teachers in trainig were instructed 
in various phases of school agriculture, two short courses in 
agriculture were held at the summer school for teachers, 53 
school districts were provided with trees and a large number 
of schools were visited, in addition to the assistance given 
through correspondence and by the distribution of bulletins 
and circulars issued by the Department ». 

Similar reports from Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Sco- 
tia, New Brunswick and Prince P2dward Ishmd, show progress 
all along the line, and in summing up the results of the move- 
ment towards elementary agricultural education, the claim 
seems well founded that by the methods described « boys and 
girls learn to work, to observe, to discriminate, to co-operate, 
to describe what they do ; they learn business methods, they 
learn to weigh and balance things according to real values ; 
they are encouraged to read and discuss; they develop ini- 
tiative and judgment, they come to the age of eighteen or nine- 
teen able to do something, with a knowledge of how and the 
confidence that they can do it (1). » 



APPENDIX A 



Summary (2) of Statistics of Land-Grant Colleges. 



« The aggregate value of the permanent funds and equip- 
ment of the Land-Grant Colleges and Universities in 1910 is es- 
timated to be as follows : 

Land-grant fund of 1862, $13,361,616.86 ; other land-grant 
funds, s 3,012,781.84; other endowment funds, * 17,161,657.25; 
land-grant of 1862 still unsold, "t^ 9,185,818.22; farms and 
grounds owned bv the institutions, $ 15,838,518.42 ; buildings, 
$42,578,301.92; apparatus $4,368,706.21 ; machinery. $2,693, 
847.43 ; libraries, $ 4,378,389.04 ; live stock, $ 602,644.57 ; mis- 
cellaneous equipment, $4,330,706.83 ; total, $117,512,988.59. 
The income of these institutions in 1910, exclusive of the funds 
received from the United States for agricultural experiment 
stations ($1,271,200), was as follows : Interest on land-grant 
funds of 1862, * 812,462,28; interest on other land-grant funds, 
$143,044.29; United States appropriation under acts of 1890 
and 1907, $ 2,000,000 ; interest on endowment or regular appro- 
priation $357,788.45; State appropriation for current exjjen- 
ses, $7,178,109.19; State appropriation for increase of plant. 



(1) Report on the Agricultural Instruction Act, 1!)18-18, p. 15. 

(2) Quoted from the Annual Report of the Office of Experiment Stations, 1910. 



— 350 — 

$ 3,504,873.22 ; income from endowment, other than Federal 
or Slate grants, $759,806.77; tuition and incidental fees, 
$2,176,637.80; private benefactions, $1,791,864.72; miscella- 
neous, $2,847,995.11 ; total, $21,572,581.83. The value of the 
additions to the permanent endowment and equipment of 
these institutions in 1920 is estimated as follows : Permanent 
endowment, $2,290,541.49; buildings, $2,973,471.63; libraries, 
$319,853.67 ; apparatus, $396,878.58 ; machinery, $261,634.93 ; 
live stock, $ 134,959.30 ; miscellaneous, $ 753,493.13 ; total, 
$ 7,130,832.73. 

« The number of persons in the faculties of the colleges of 
agriculture and mechanic arts for white persons was as fol- 
low : For preparatory classes, including secondary schools 
of agriculture, 448 ; for collegiate and special classes in agri- 
culture, 822 ; in mechanic arts, 880 ; and in all other instruc- 
tion, 1,190; total, counting none twice, for interior instruction, 
3,057. There were also 98 instructors in agricultural-extension 
departments, 1,239 experiment-station officers, and 2,920 per- 
sons in the faculties of other colleges or departments, making 
a grand total, counting none twice, of 6,409 persons engaged 
in instruction and research in the land-grant institutions. 

« The number of persons in the faculties of the colleges of 
agriculture and mechanic arts for coloured persons was as 
follows : For preparatory classes, 124; for collegiate and spe- 
cial classes, 207 ; total, counting none twice, 290. In the other 
departments the faculties aggregated 122, making a grand to- 
tal of 412 persons in the faculties of the institution for 
coloured persons. 

« The students in 1910 in the colleges for white persons were 
as follows: (1) By classes-preparatoiy, 6,921; collegiate, 26,411; 
post-graduate, 615 ; one to two year and winter courses, 9,100 ; 
summer courses, 2,518 ; total, counting none twice, in interior 
courses, 45, 140. There were also enrolled in correspondence 
courses 30,075 ; in extension schools of five days or longer, 
not including farmers' institutes, 21,004 ; in all other depart- 
ments of the institutions, 32,505 ; total number of students, 
counting none twice, receiving instruction from these institu- 
tions, 128,140. (2) By courses : Four-year-agriculture, inclu- 
ding 168 in teachers' courses, 3,060 ; horticulture, 214 ; fores- 
try, 340 ; veterinary science, 178 ; household economy, 1,617; 
engineering, 17,534. Shorter than four years-agriculture, 
9,715 ; horticulture, 385 ; forestry, 156 ; dairying, 777 ; total, 
counting none twice, 10,733; veterinary science, 478; house- 
hold economy, 1,695 ; teachers' courses in agriculture, 1,456 
(one to three year, 192 ; summer schools of agriculture, 1,264) ; 
mechanic arts, 1,286 ; military tactics, 21,261. 

« The students in colleges and schools for coloured persons 
were as follows : (1) By classes-preparatory, 4,589 ; collegiate, 
1,382 ; short or special, 787 ; other departments, 633 ; total, 
7,110. (2) By courses-agriculture, 1,331 ; teachers' courses in 
agriculture, 241 (one to four year, 151 ; summer schools, 90) ; 



— 351 — 

industrial courses for boys, 2,523 ; industrial courses for girls, 
4,836 ; military tactics, 2,025. 

« The graduates in 1910 in the institutions for white persons 
were as follows : Agriculture, 707 ; mechanic arts, 2,045 ; all 
other courses, 4,055 ; total, 6,807. The total number since the 
organisation of these institutions is 87,328. The graduates in 
the institutions for contoured persons were 435, and the total 
number since the organisation of these institutions is 7,062. 
The total number of volumes in the libraries was 2,443,903, 
flnd the total number of pamphlets 636,667. The total number 
of acres of land granted to the States under the act of 1862 was 
10,570,842, of which 979,467 are still unsold. » 



352 



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APPENDIX C. 

Table III. 
Statistics of the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1910. 



356 — 





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_. 364 — 

Chili (1) 

The (iovernnieiit of Chili states that there exists at 
present in Chili in every elementary school a class in 
agriculture and a field for agricultural experiment. 
Instruction, ])oth theoretical and practical, is given in the 
various kinds of cultivation which are appropriate to the 
locality. In order to train teachers for this work, the Govern- 
ment of Chili has established annual courses of instruction 
in agriculture for teachers, given by professors of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture. 

Chili has for many years given special attention to the 
establishment of senior grade schools of agriculture for the 
education of agricultural engineers and directors of agricul- 
tural undertakings. 

The agricultural services in Chili form two groups, viz, the 
educational services which include the Higher Institute of 
Agriculture, and its affiliated institutions, the National 
School of Veterinary Surgery, experimental fields in the 
Normal Farm of Santiago, Chilian, Talca, Concepcion and 
Temuco ; and the services of Agricultural Extension inclu- 
ding the Experiment Station, the Service of County Agricul- 
tural Experts, Short Courses, the National Service of Vete- 
rinary Surgery, the Entomological Station, the General Ins- 
pectorate of Woods and Forests, Fishing and Hunting, and 
the Meteorological Institute. 

The Institute of Agriculture gives instruction in advanced 
agriculture and trains agricultural engineers. In 1913 it had 
64 pu])ils and in 1918, 210, of which 50 0/0 were Bachelors of 
Arts and 90 0/0 sons of farmers. By an Act of 1918 a sum of 
1,370,000 pesos was allotted for the erection of a large buil- 
ding for the Agronomic Institute, capable of accommodating 
400 pupils. This building was opened in November, 1920. 

Agricultural Extension : Special free courses in agricul- 
ture and its associated branches, poultry-farming, horticul- 
ture, viticulture and dairying are frequently organised by 
the government ; also itinerant extension courses which 
travel through the various sections of the country with com- 
plete material, technical staff and laboratories for demons- 
iration, etc. Special trains are equipped for this work, and 
go every year to the various parts of the country to give 
short courses and demonstrations on various agricultural 
subjects. 



(1) A survey wf Technical Agricultural Education in Chili has not l>ecn made 
hy the International Labour Olfice, but the following report is extracted from the 
r(?ply of tho government of Chili to Questionnaire II, 1921. 



365 



China (1) 

Technical agricultural education in China has heen very 
widely extended in recent years. The Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce lias established many experimental sta- 
tions on agriculture and atVorcstation, on cotton, tea, and 
sugar plantations, and on cattle breeding. They are all 
under the control of the Central Government. Different pro- 
vincial authorities have also established stations of their 
own. The result of any experiment made is always pub- 
blished for the ])enefit of farmers. 

An annual exhibition of farm products is held in every 
station and farmers are also encouraged to exhibit their own 
products for which prizes are given. 

There is a Bureau of Extension Work on Agriculture and 
Forestry in Pekin and also in eight other districts. Members 
of these bureaux often tour farming districts to give demons- 
tration lectures. 

There are fifty-four agricultural schools of high school 
standing, with more than six thousand students. The num- 
ber of graduates is about nine hundred every year. In addi- 
tion, there are two hundred and forty agricultural schools of 
grammar school standing, with nine thousand eight hun- 
dred students. The annual number of graduates is about 
one thousand one hundred. Middle Schools and Normal 
Schools maintained by the Government also give courses on 
Agriculture. All these graduates are either employed in 
fanning or in one of the agricultural institutions- 



Czecho-Slovakia 

The system of technical industrial education in Czecho- 
slovakia includes : 

A. High Schools. 

B. Higher Intermediate Schools 

C. Lower Intermediate Schools. 

D. Elementary Schools. 

E. Special schools for various branches of agriculture. 

F. Institutions for agricultural extension. 

The whole system of agricultural education is under the 
control of the first sectio'n of the Ministry of Agriculture, 
with the exception of the High Schools which are attached to 
the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Agriculture having 
in their case nierelv advisory functions. 



1) A survey of Technical Agricultural Education in China has not been made by 
the international Labour Otlic;-, but the following report is extracted from the reply 
of the governnment of China to Questionnaire II, 1921. 



366 — 



A. High Schools 

The Republic has three Agricultural High Schools viz. at 
Prague, Brno and Libverda The course of study in these 
schools covers a period of four years. The instruction given 
is both theoretical and practical. The curriculum includes : 

(1) The fundamental natural sciences (chemistry, phy- 

sics, etc.). 

(2) Special agricultural sciences (plant cultivation, 
cattle rearing, etc.). 

(3) Sciences connected with agriculture (agrarian poli- 

tics, etc.). 

All four schools have laboratories, experimental fields, and 
other necessary equipment. 

Pupils who pass the examination at the end of the course 
receive the diploma of « ingenieur agronome ». They poss- 
ess all the knowledge necessary to undertake scientific re- 
search, or the management of large forests of agricultural 
estates, or to enter the special Government Departments 
concerned. 

Candidates for admission must have passed the leaving 
examination of a Secondary School or of a Higher Interme- 
diate Agricultural School. 

During the winter session, 1920-21, the Agricultural High 
Schools^ were attended by 1,495 students. The number of 
teachers was 120, exclusive of Libverda. The grant allotted 
to Brno Agricultural Schools in the Budget for 1921 amounts 
to 4,069,110 Czech crowns. 

The grants allotted to the Prague and Libverda High 
Schools are included in the total grant allotted to the Czech 
and German Polytechnic High Schools in Prague, and are 
not given separately in the budget. 

B. Higher Intermediate Schools. 

The best-known of the Higher Intermediate Schools is the 
Tabor School of Agriculture. The course of study in this 
school covers a period of four years. Candidates for admis- 
sion must have completed the « Lower Secondary » or « High- 
er Elementary » course of instruction (1). 

Courses for teachers in elementary schools, and training 
colleges for teachers in elementary and intermediate agricul- 
tural schools are attached to this school. 



(1) Elementary education in Czecho-Slovakia is compulsory for children from 
6 to 14 years of age, the first five years being entitled the « Lower Elementary 
School )>, and the last three years « Higher Elementary School •>. The Secondary 
School provides an eight years' course of instruction, terminating by a leaving 
examination at the age of 18. The first four years comprise the « Lower Second- 
ai-j' Course », the next four the « Higher Elementary Course ». 



— 367 — 

Secondary School of Domestic Economy at Chrudin. Train- 
ing Colleges for women teachers in schools of domestic 
economy are attached to Ihis school, which was established 
in 1919. The course of study covers a period of three yertrs. 

In addition, Czecho-Slovakia possessed in 1919-20 14 other 
Higher Intermediate Schools, 10 of which were Czecho-Slo- 
vak, and 4 German. The object of these schools is to train 
pupils for the management of average-sized estates. The 
course of study covers four years. In 1919-20 these schools 
were attended bv 2,127 pupils, the number of teachers being 
187. 

C. Lower Intermediate Schools. 

Lower Intermediate Agricultural instruction is given in 
the farm schools. In 1919-20 there were 24 institutions of 
this kind. The course of study covered two years. The 
curriculum in these schools is both theoretical and practical, 
supplementing general education on the one hand, and pro- 
viding special vocational instruction on the other. Their 
object is to train farmers, agents, overseers, etc , possessing 
extensive expert knowledge. In 1919-20 these schools were 
attended by 1,207 pupils, and had 190 teachers. 



D. Elementary Schools 



a) The course of study in winter schools lasts six months. 
The object of these schools is to provide instruction in agri- 
culture for sons of agriculturists who cannot devote longer 
time to study. Li 1919-20 there were 77 establishments of 
this kind which were attended by 4,042 pupils. The number 
of teachers was 534. 

h) Popular agricultural schools were created by the Act 
of 29 January 1920. Their object is to provide continuation 
courses in agriculture for young people of both sexes of 14 
years of age, and over. Instruction is given free of charge 
for two or three years. The curriculum is not uniform. It 
includes elements of natural sciences and of the various 
agricultural sciences. The Re])ublic has up to the present 
founded 218 schools of this kind. The budget for 1919-20 
allotted 608,000 Czech-Slovak kronen, and the budget for 
1920-21 1,482,400 kr. for the maintenance of these schools. 
In 1919-20 the Ministry of Agriculture organised nine courses 
for teachers employed in these schools. Each course was at- 
tended by 25 students whoses expenses were refunded, and 
who received in addition a special grant. 

The creation of popular agricultural schools is not com- 
pulsory in all communes, but in villages in which courses 



— 368 — 

of popular instruction in agriculture are held, youiii? ))eople 
are obliged to attend them. 

e) The question of Schools of Domestic Econoimj had been 
neglected under the Austro-Hungarian regime, and the orga- 
nisation of these schools is quite new. The schools of do- 
mestic economy are either stationary or itinerant. The 
course of study covers a period of one year in the stationary 
schools, of which there were 15 in 1919-20. The teaching 
staff consisted of 105 teachers, and the courses were attended 
by 549 pupils. 

Temporary Stationary Schools of Domestic Economy are 
established in the winter schools, and instruction is given 
during the summer holidays. In 1919 there were 15 schools 
of this kind attended b}^ 514 pupils. 

In 1919 there were in addition temporary itinerant schools 
of household economics which provided a three months' 
course of instruction. 



E. Special Schools 

a) The Veterinary High School at Brno was founded in 
1818. The course of study covers four years. In 1920 this 
school was attended by 425 pupils, and had a teaching staff 
of 16. In 1921 the school received a grant of 6,476,489 Czech 
Kronen. 

b) Forestry courses are given in the agricultural High 
Schools at Brno and Prague mentioned above, and in five 
Higher Intermediate Schools. In 1919-20 the number of 
pupils attending these five schools was 403, and the number 
of teachers was 47. Elementary instruction in forestry is 
given in five special schools for foresters, in which the course 
of instruction lasts one year. In 1919-20 these schools were 
attended by 360 jiupils and had 41 teachers. 

c) The Higher Intermediate School for agricultural co-ope- 
ration was founded in Prague in 1919. It is a private insti- 
tution subsidised by the State. The course of study lasts 
one year. Its object is to provide special courses for non- 
manual workers and officials employed by agricultural co- 
operative societies. In 1920 the school was attended by 48 
pupils, and had a teaching staff of 18. 

d) In 1919 there were 11 schools of pomology, arboriculture, 
horticulture and viticulture, the total number of pupils in 
attendance being 351. An intermediate school of horticul- 
ture and market-gardening was founded in 1920 at Caslav. 

e) The Republic has in addition three schools for the study 
of the ciiltivation of meadow-land, three dairij schools, one 
brewery school, one hop-growing school, one poultry keeping 



— 369 — 

school, one school of pisciculture, and special courses in far- 
riery. 

F. Agricultural Extension. 

(1) Agricultural and special Inspectors. The agricultural 
and special Inspectors are officials of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture. Their functions consist on the one hand in exercis- 
ing state supervison in their respective districts, and on the 
other in supplying agriculturists with advice or information. 
In 1921 there six inspectors for viticulture, five for pomology, 
four for flax industry, one for the dairy industry, one for bee- 
keeping, one for market-gardening, and one for potato- 
growing. 

(2) Agricultural Advisory Experts. Agricultural Advisory 
Experts are attached to the Agricultural Councils in the pro- 
vince of Bohemia (1). The Province is divided into a certain 
number of regions, each consisting of several districts. The 
functions of the Agricultural Advisory Experts are to super- 
vise agricultural production, to compile agricultural stati- 
stics, and in particular to supply information to agriculturists 
in their districts. In addition, they give lectures on subjects 
relating to agriculture, and organise courses of agriculture. 
There are special advisory experts (attached to the Ministry 
of Agriculture) for the Province of Slovakia. 

(3) Itinerant Teachers. The chief duty of Itinerant Tea- 
chers is to organise special courses for the various branches 
of agriculture. 

These courses never exceed eight weeks in length. In tha 
estimates of the Ministry of Agriculture for 1921 a sum of 
621 Czech Kronen is set aside for the promotion of itinerant 
instruction. 

G. State grants. 

For the development of Agricultural education. According 
to the 1921 budget the State has made the following grants to 
the various institutions for agricultural education : 

Institutions. Czech Kronen. 

Brno Agricultural and Forestry High School. , 4.069.110 

)) Veterinary School 6.476.489 

Intermediate and Elementary Agricultural 

Schools and Special Schools 14.192,856 

Agricultural Extension 2.397.800 

Total 27.136.255 



(1) The Agricultural Councils are institutions corresponding to the Prussian 
Chambers of Agriculture. 



— 370 — 

Denmark. 

Facilities for agricultural education in Denmak may be 
classified under the headings (a) Higher agricultural educa- 
tion ; (b) Agricultural schools and other institutions or organ- 
isations for giving agricultural instruction of a less advanced 
or more purely practical nature, and (c) Schools for general 
education which include in their courses a certain amount of 
agricultural instruction. 

A. Higher agricultural education. 

The chief institution in Denmark for higher education in 
agriculture is the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural High 
School, Copenhagen. This is a state institution, established 
in 1856. It provides a course of instruction lastine" twenty 
months, after which the student who shows sufficient merit 
in the examination may be admitted to one of four « exten- 
sion » courses, which run concurrently and are also of twenty 
months duration. To obtain the full privileges of a « regu- 
lar » student at the Royal Agricultural School, the candidate 
for admission must pass a matriculation examination. There 
are sufficient scholarships to provide free instruction to about 
one-fourth of the students, and further allowances to one- 
half of these up to a total of Kr. 25-35 each per month. 

The general course comprises lectures and examinations 
in physics, meteorology, chemistry, soils, botany, zoolo.oy and 
agricultural zoology, anatomy, animal husbandry, mechanics, 
soil culture, cultivation of farm crops, dairying, agricultural 
bookkeeping, general agriculture and plant pathology. The 
course also provides ainply for practical work in agricultural 
chemistry and stock judging (11-12 hours weekly in the 
3rd term and 5-6 hours in the 4th term). 

The subjects of the « extension » courses are « Funda- 
mental Sciences » ; « Science of Agriculture » ; « Animal Hus- 
bandry »; and « Dairying », each course comprising the ne- 
cessary subsidiary subjects. 

The Royal Agricultural High School affords an opportunity 
of higher education for farmers, gardeners, foresters, sur- 
veyors, etc., while from those who have attended the exten- 
sion courses are recruited agricultural specialists and re- 
search workers, instructors, etc... 

B. Less advanced agricultural education. 

1 . — Private agricultural schools. 

There are in Denmark a considerable number of agricul- 
tural schools, usually privately owned and controlled, which 



(1) The par value of a Krone is Is. 1 l/2d. 



— 371 — 

give a course of instruction, mainh' theoretical in character, 
lasting generally from 5 to 6 months, and intended for young 
persons of 18 years of age and upwards who have already 
been employed for some years in agriculture. There is no 
entrance examination, but in many cases the students have 
previously taken, during one or two winters, a course of about 
six months at one of the Peoples' High Schools (Folkesho.i- 
skoler) described below. These schools are generallj'^ situ- 
ated in the country, often in the vicinity of one of the Peo- 
ples' High Schools which in many respects they resemble. 
Like them the}" arc residential shools with a highly devel- 
oped corporate life. 

If the school has been approved by the Government it is 
entitled to receive a subsidy (under the Acts of 12 April 1892 
and 17 January 1908) up to a maximum of about Kr. 3,000 C) 
a year, and poor students may receive a grant from the State 
of about Kr. 40-45 per month. 

Attached to the school there is generally a farm which is 
run on business lines, not as an experimental station, by the 
Principal of the school. 

With these schools must be included a number of schools 
for dairying, horticulture and domestic economy, and a few 
schools intended for small allotment holders (husmsend). 
There are also separate courses for dairying at some of the 
agricultural schools proper, which receive a separate subsidy 
for this work. 

The number of schools approved by the Government (in 
the financial year 1910-11) with the number of students atten- 
ding them is shown in the following Table : 





Number 

of 
schools 


Length 
of course 
in months 


Average number of 
hours devoted to 


Number 

of 
students 


Profes- 
sional 
sul)jects 


Natural 
sciences 


Agricultural schools pro- 
per 

Agricultural schools for 
small allotment hol- 
ders (husmsend) 

Dairy schools 


13 

3 
2 
3 


5-9 

5-6 
4-8 
5-12 


460 

323 
407 
414 


262 

184 
260 
345 


1.014 

271 

138 

63 


Horticultural schools . 



At some of these schools a number of the pupils continue 
three months longer for special studies of plants or for work 



(2) These figures relate to the pre-war period. See « Short Survey of Danish 
Agriculture », published by the Royal Danish Agricultural Societj', 1913. The 
amount of the subsidy depends on the expenditure on salaries, equipment etc. 



— 372 — 

suited to the summer months. The nature of the instruction 
given is shown by the following table indicating the division 
of time at one of these schools between the various subjects. 
At this particular school the course extends over 5 months. 



Subject 



Agriculture (including soils, plant cultiva- 
tion, rotation of crops, manuring, plant 
diseases, etc.) . 

Management of live stock (including poul- 
try) : 

Danish 

Arithmetic 

Bpok-keei^ing 

Drawing 

Chemistry 

Physics 

Botany 

Geology 

Bacteriology 

Agricultural history 

Natural Economy 

Surveying 

Dairy Work 

Machinery and Implements 

Physical culture 



Hours 



150 (Total) 


180 


)) 


60 


)) 


60 


)) 


30 


)) 


20 


» 


70 


)) 


70 


» 


10 


)) 


8 


)) 


15 


» 


15 


)) 


12 


)) 


20 


» 


12 


» 


18 


)) 


1 d 


ailv 



The Husmaend Schools or schools for small allotment hol- 
ders : — The school at Ringsted is stated to be typical of these. 
At this school there are three summer courses — in gardening, 
farming and housekeeping — and four winter courses. The 
school possesses ample experimental plots for cereal and 
fodder crops, illustration areas for general farming, for 
stock keeping and for fruit and vegetable growing, and large 
poultry premises. 

There are also, both in summer and winter, short courses 
lasting about 11 days in nine different subjects, viz, acrricul- 
ture, horticulture, care of animals, bee-keeping, fruit grow- 
ing, cooking, dressmaking, domestic service and care of chil- 
dren. 

The development of these various types of agricul- 
tural schools during the past 70 years is shown by the follow- 
ing figures : 



373 — 



Years 


NiinilxM- <if scliools 


Averago niinil)fr 


of ])upils a year 


Malt! 


Fi'inale 


1845-51 


4 


41 


1 


1852 61 


w - 



68 


2 


1862-71 


7 


138 


4 


1872-81 


10 


301 


7 


1882-91 


13 


431 


50 


1892-01 


14 


()83 


24 


1902-11 


19 


1361 


189 


1911-12 


20 


1312 


209 


1912-13 


20 


1381 


229 


1913-14 


20 


1477 


242 


1914-15 


20 


999 


336 


1915-16 


20 


1394 


326 


1916-17 


21 


1408 


410 


1917-18 


21 


1702 


344 



The fees at the agricultural schools arc often sraded in 
such a manner as to decrease for the latter months of the 
course. 



2. — Lectures, etc. 

For the assistance of practical farmers, lectures and 
demonstrations, whether as courses or singly, are arranged 
either directly by the Government or with the assistance of a 
Government subsidy. More than 100 agricultural « advis- 
ers )) are engaged in this work under the Government, the 
Royal Agricultural Society, the local agricultural societies 
and the Heath Cultivation Society. There are state « advis- 
ers » in the following branches : — agricultural chemistry (1) ; 
plant culture (2); animal husbandry (4); dairying (4)- agri- 
cultural machinery (2); horticulture (1); plant diseases (1) ; 
and agricultural and forest zoology (1); while 2 « advisers » 
watch the interests of Danish agriculture in foreis^n countries 
(England and Germany). There arc about 90 « advisers » in 
the service of various agricultural associations. The State 
contributes to their salaries. Both state and association « ad- 
visers » make annual reports to the Agricultural Depart- 
ment. At several places, moreover, there exist Agricultural 
Demonstration stations which are subsidised by the State 
and are not directly connected with the agricultural schools. 
These Demonstration Stations are used to illustrate methods 
in which scientific principles of agriculture are applied to 
land, crops and live stock. 

3. — The apprenticeship system of the Royal Agricultural 

Society. 

For practical training owners of large farms send their 
sons for three years to work on farms owned by persons 



— 374 — 

known to be experts in farming. An apprenticeship scheme, 
organised by the Royal Agricultural Society, provides for a 
system of supervision. Apprentices serve three years on 
farms in different parts of the country (one year on each), 
taking part in all the work of the farm, and an annual 
record of their activities is sent to the Society for inspection. 
The apprentices are subject to the « Servants' Act » and may 
receive a salary of Kr. 150-200 per annum. About 2,400 young 
men have been trained in this manner. 

The Society has also arranged specialised apprenticeships 
in draining, irrigation, cultivation of root crops and dairying 

C. — Agricultural instruction in schools for general 

EDUCATION. 

1. — People's High Schools. 

The chief class of school which falls to be considered here 
is the People's High School (Folkeshojskole), an institution 
which, as is well known, originated and has been most exten- 
sively developed in Denmark. These schools, which are resi- 
dential establishments open to both sexes, are private insti- 
tutions, but may receive a grant from the State under the 
Acts of 12 April 1892 and 17 January 1908, and there are State 
scholarships for the poorer students. They are organised 
and equipped in such a way as to reduce expenses within 
the smallest possible limits. TJie students often brinjff their 
own bedding and other articles necessary. The total fees 
averaged, before the war, about Kr. 30 per month. The so- 
cial life and spirit of comradeship developed by these institu- 
tions is said to be one of the main causes of the extensive and 
successful application of co-operative methods in Danish 
agriculture. 

Of these schools 3 had (in 1910-11) special courses in agri- 
culture, whilst 35, although having no special courses in agri- 
culture, gave more than 50 hours on the average in their 
5 months course to agricultural instruction. 

2. — Free elementary schools. 

The organisation of the State Elementary Schools in rural 
districts is intimately related to the agricultural environment 
of the pupils, and it is stated that by this means the love of the 
soil is fostered and the way prepared for the successful work 
of the agricultural schools (1). Attendance at school is com- 
pulsory to the age of 14, and great importance is attached 
to nature study. Hygiene and sanitation and farm account- 
ing are also taught in many schools. 

(1) Article on Denmark in « Comparative Education », edited by P. Sandiford, 
p. 452. 



— 375 — 

Night schools were maintained (in 1911) in 1150 rural com- 
munities for pupils who had completed the elementary school 
hut could not afford to attend the People's Hi^h Schools or 
Agricultural Schools. 



France 

A. Agricultural Colleges. 

(a) Senior Grade. 

For advanced agricultural education, France has a Nation- 
al Agricultural Institute at Paris, and three national schools 
of agriculture at Grignon, Montpellier, and Rennes. 

The National Agricultural Institute C) : This College was 
founded in Paris in 1876, and has a staff of specially selected 
professors. Its object is to train professors, directors of agri- 
cultural stations and of agricultural industries, agricultural 
specialists, administrators, officials to manage forests or 
breeding studs, and managers of agricultural industries 
(sugar refining, manufacture of fertilisers, etc.). 

The course lasts two years. Lectures are given in the 
morning until 12 o'clock, and the afternoon is devoted to 
practical work in the laboratories and stations attached. 
During the holiday period between the first and second year, 
the pupils spend two months on a farm chosen by the College. 
The Institute has six hectares of land at Choisy-le-Roi for 
experimental purposes, as well as a farm of nearly 300 hec- 
tares. At the end of the course successful students are 
granted the degree of agricultural specialists. The students 
do not live in residence. Before the war eighty regular 
students could be received every 3'^ear ; so that at any one 
time there were 160 regular students in attendance. This 
number has since been increased and was 285 in 1918-19. 
Other persons are also allowed to attend, the lectures. The 
fees are 500 francs per year for the regular pupils, and 
100 francs, on an average, per year and per course, for other 
persons. Pupils who wish to specialise could, formerly, 
when they had obtained their diploma, continue their studies 
in the water and forestry schools or in the stock-breeding 
schools. (Since the Decrees of 9 January, 1888, and 
20 July, 1892, these schools have been reserved entirely for 
pupils of the Institute who have received their diploma). 

The national schools of agriculture {'). The work in these 
schools is not as advanced as that of the agricultural institute. 
The national schools are intended for young men who wish to 
prepare themselves for the management of estates, either for 



(1) Plissonnier : La R6forme de I'Enseignement Agricole, Paris 1919, pp. 34-35. 

(2) Plissonnier, ibid., pages SG-S*?. 



— 376 — 

themselves or for other persons. The students are selected by 
one examination for all three schools, and cannot choose the 
school in which they will study. They are allocated to the 
schools according to their standing after examination, and 
one-third are sent to each. Students must be eighteen years of 
age on April 1 of the year in which they enter for the exami- 
nation. They are not required to have any diploma, but those 
who have a diploma receive a certain number of additional 
marks. The schools of Grignon and Montpellier have some 
students in residence and some who are not. The school at 
Rennes has no residence. In all three schools the period of 
study is two years. Students who are successful are granted 
the title of « agricultural engineer ». The education given in 
these schools is both theoretical and practical, and includes 
agriculture, horticulture, arboriculture, vine-growing, fores- 
try, agricultural engineering, general chemistry, agricultural 
chemistry, physics, meteorology, botany, geology, zoology, 
zootechnology, entomology, silk culture, bee-keeping, rural 
economy and legislation, book-keeping, etc. Theory and prac- 
tice are closely related, and the students make analyses, do 
microscopic research, handle agricultural machinery, etc. 

At Grignon a special study is made of cereal and fodder cul- 
tivation and industrial plants, and of the industries of Nor- 
thern France. The school possesses 136 hectares of arable 
land and natural meadow land. The facilities for practical 
instruction also include land for experiments, kitchen gardens, 
botanical gardens and flower gardens, a model dairy, a sheep- 
breeding farm, and a breeding and experimental pig farm. 

At Montpellier the instruction is concerned specially with 
agriculture in the south, including vine and olive-growing, 
sheep-breeding, silk-worm cultivation, wine manufacture, oil 
manufacture, etc. The school has an estate of 26 hectares, a 
botanical garden, and an orchard. 

The agricultural school at Rennes is concerned specially 
with agriculture in the west, including the dairy industry, the 
cider-making industry, natural meadow land irrigation, indus- 
trial plants, and fruit-growing. This school also has a farm 
of 30 hectares, gardens, etc. The total number of pupils 
admitted to all three schools in 1912 was 102, i. e. 34 pupils 
per school. As the course lasts two years, the total number of 
students at the three schools is approximately 200. Since the 
war the attendance has increased and is now about 490. 

Reforms introduced by the Act of August 2nd, 1918. The 
most important reforms introduced by the Act of 1918 as 
regards senior agricultural education were as follows : 

« Practical Sections » are to be set up in connection with the 
National Agricultural Institute and the National Schools of 
Agriculture. These sections will receive pupils who have 
obtained the diploma of the Institute or of the national 
schools, and who wish to specialise. Specialised instruction 
of this kind may also be given in the national schools of water 



— 377 — 

and forestry, and in the horse-breeding schools. The profes- 
sors of agriculture and the professors of agricultural schools 
are to be chosen in future exclusively from former pupils who 
have obtained the diploma of the Institute or of the national 
schools of agriculture, and have taken a course of specialised 
study in one of the above mentioned sections or schools. 

(b) Intermediate Grade. 

Before the Act of 2nd August 1918, the intermediate grade 
of technical agricultural education for men was represented 
by the practical schools of agriculture which were set up bv 
the Act of 30th July, 1875. 

According to Article 2 of the Act, the practical schools are 
now on farms worked by the owner or director at his own 
expense and risk. The State merely pays the expenses of the 
teaching and managing stafi\ The estates on which practical 
schools are to be set up are chosen by the Minister. These 
estates may be the property of the Director in charge, of the 
Department, or of the Municipality. In the two latter cases, 
the general councils or municipalities generally make 
arrangements with the directors of the schools. The latter 
undertake the management of the estates household for a 
comparatively small fee, as there is sufficient profit from the 
management of the farm itself. 

The purpose of these schools is the practical education of 
the sons of small land owners. The instruction given is both 
practical and theoretical ; but practical instruction plays a 
larger part than in the more advanced schools. The course 
of study includes those natural sciences which are the most 
important for agriculture. The interests of the district are 
also taken into account. The period of study is generally 
two years, and at the end of this time the schools grant their 
students certificates which give them certain advantages in 
passing the entrance examination if they wish to attend tha 
national schools of agriculture. 

The total number of schools of this kind in 1913 was 37. One 
of these belonged to the Department and was managed as a 
State undertaking. Five belonged to the State and were man- 
aged by State farmers. Fifteen belonged to departments, 
six belonged to communes or towns, and were carried on by 
farmers or managers in the name of the department, town, oi' 
commune. Ten belonged to private persons, and of these four 
were the property of the Director. The estates on which these 
schools are set up vary greatly in size. The largest estate is 
334 hectares, while the smallest is only 8 hectares. The aver- 
age size is 50 hectares. The number of pupils in each school 
varied in 1914 from 16 to 70. The total number of pupils in 
the 37 schools was 1281. The teaching staff included 37 direc- 
tors and 266 teachers, with an average staff in each school of 
a director and seven professors, viz., a professor of agricul- 
ture, a professor of natural science, a professor of chemistry 



— 378 — 

and physics, a veterinary surgeon, a teacher of practical agri- 
culture, a teacher of practical horticulture, and an assistant 
master. 

The fees varied considerably, the average being 500 francs. 

The most important reform contained in the Act of 1918 is 
perhaps the introduction of the principle that except in special 
circumstances schools may not be managed by a farmer, but 
must be carried on by the director at the expense of the State, 
the department, or the commune. The former system had 
certain defects, as the directors v^ere tempted to lay stress on 
the more profitable branches of agriculture instead of on those 
from which the student could acquire most technical know- 
ledge ; and it was not very often that the directors spent 
money on the technical outfit of the school. 

(c) Elementary Grade. 

1° Instruction Farms. The instruction farms set up by the 
Acts of 3rd October 1848 and 3rd July 1875 are organised for 
the instruction of the children of agricultural workers. The 
pupils, who are described as « apprentices », carry out all the 
work and receive an essentially practical education. They 
must not be under 15 years of age. 

The period of study on an instruction farm is two or three 
years. The pupils receive food, laundry and instruction free 
of charge. In return, the director receives the benefit v^f all 
the manual work which they do ; but as in most cases this 
work is not very productive, the State allows the director one 
franc a day per pupil. The salaries of the teaching staff are 
also paid by the State. 

In accordance with the Act of 1875, a committee of supervi- 
sion and improvement is attached to each school. The num- 
ber of instruction farms has decreased greatly. The number 
was 70 in 1848, 52 in 1870, 16 in 1894, and 10 in 1912. The cause 
of this decrease is, perhaps, that the instruction given is of too 
elementary a grade, and that there is absolutely no theore- 
tical instruction. 

2° Winter SchoolsAgricultural Extension. The organisation 
of extension courses during the winter left much to be desired 
until the passing of the Act 2nd August 1918, when they were 
placed upon a more satisfactory basis. <* 

The courses are of two kinds, regular and itinerant 
(« fixes » and « ambulantes »), and aim to provide technical 
agricultural instruction for those farmers' sons who are 
unable to take the full course in a regular school of agricul- 
ture. This agricultural extension work is directly in charge of 
a professor responsible, through an agricultural inspector, to 
the Minister of Agriculture. The courses in the regular 
winter schools consist of two winter terms of a period of from 
three to four months. Pupils must be at least sixteen years 
of age, and must have had at least two years' practical expe- 
rience on a farm. Courses can only be given on premises 



— 379 — 

which belong to, or are placed at the disposal of the State, 
and may be attached to other agricultural and educational 
establishments, subject to the Ministr}'^ of Agriculture. 

The staff is appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture and the 
State provides one-half of the funds for carrying on the school 
and for scholarships, to a maximum of : 

4,000 francs for the first two years and 3,500 francs for the 
following years for regular winter schools ; 
1,000 francs for itinerant winter schools. 

The itinerant winter school aims to provide general techni- 
cal instruction for farmers' sons who are able to give only one 
or two afternoons a week to study. The courses generally 
last from November to March, lectures being given two after- 
noons a week, usually Sunday and Thursday. Tuition is free. 
Instruction is generally given by one or two professors who 
are entitled to receive fees for each lesson or excursion. 

Previous to the war, nine winter schools had been esta- 
blished, with an average of twenty pupils for each school, 
while the number of itinerant schools was eleven, with an 
average of thirty-five pupils each. 

3. Agricultural sections in the higher elementary schools. 
According to the Decree of 21st January 1893 of the Minister 
of Public Instruction, an agricultural course may be introdu- 
ced into all higher elementary schools from the second or 
third year of study onwards, provided there is a sufficient 
number of pupils. 

The instruction given in these sections is of a very general 
character. The programme includes 35 lessons per year. Ten 
of these are devoted to strictly agricultural subjects (theoret- 
ical agriculture, agricultural chemistry, etc. ; ten are devoted 
to practical agricultural work ; and the others to general in- 
struction. 

These courses had not been very successful before the war. 
About tliirty were established, and the number of pupils 
attending them was not more than about 600. 



B. Agricultural Schools for Girls. 

(a) Senior Grade. 

Senior agricultural education for girls, strictly interpreted, 
did not exist before the Act of August 2nd 1918. On the 24th 
October 1920, the Chamber of Deputies passed a government 
bill dealing ^vith the organisation of technical agricultural 
education. The Education Commission of the Senate has 
already expressed a favourable opinion of the general purport 
of this bill which stipulates in its first section that « the ins- 
truction of girls shall be given in the National Schools of Agri- 
culture provided for girls «. So-called higher education had 



— 380 — 

been organised by the Decree of 14 May 1912, which set up a 
higher school of agriculture and household economics C) 
attached to the national school of agriculture at Grignon. 
The purpose of this school is to train teachers able to provide 
practical agricultural and household education ; and to pro- 
vide the daughters of farmers and landowners with an educ- 
ation suitable for agricultural pursuits, and with agricultural 
and household instruction. 

The senior school of rural household economics makes use 
of the premises and material of the national school at Grignon. 
It is open for the three months from July 15 to October 
15 every year, when the men students are on their holidays. 
It includes : 

(a) The higher normal section for the training of teachers 

and heads of schools of rural household economics ; 

(b) The section for the higher education of daughters of 
farmers who wish to receive instruction in rural hou- 
sehold economics. 

The period of study in the higher normal section is 1 y, 
years, including three terms : July 15 to October 15, study 
and practical training in the national school at Grignon; 
October 15 to July 15, students in training placed as assistants 
in schools of household economics ; July 15 to October 15, 
second period of study and practical training in the national 
school at Grignon. 

The instruction given in the two periods at the school at 
Grignon is both practical and theoretical, but principally prac- 
tical.The pupils must have already a sufficient general and 
scientific education. 

The instruction given includes domestic economy, hygiene, 
cooking, canning, cutting and dressmaking, book-keeping, 
dairy-work, cheese-making, gardening, fru;it-growing, zoo- 
technology and the care of animals, poultry keeping and bee 
keeping. 

The student in training is employed as a probationer, so that 
she may become familiar with practical teaching work, and 
apply the knowledge she has acquired at the higher school. 
She has also to undertake certain practical work, and is obli- 
ged to live in the schools. The fee for each period of three 
months is 200 francs. Admission is by examination. Cand- 
idates must be over 19 and must possess the elementary 
certificate. 

The second (b) section of the school receives daughters of 
farmers who wish education in rural household economics. 
The course includes two terms of three months. The instruc- 
tion given is technical and includes the elements of the physi^ 
cal and natural sciences in their application to housekeeping 



(1) Plissonier, ibid., pp. 305-308. 



— 381 — 

and agriculture, domestic economy, hygiene, fruit growing, 
cooking and canning, cutting and dress-making, book- 
keeping, dairy work, cheese-making, gardening, zootechno- 
logy and the care of animals, poultry keeping, and bee- 
keeping. 

The fee for each period of three months is 200 francs. Pupils 
are admitted without examination in the order in which they 
apply, as long as there are vacancies. Candidates must be at 
least 16 years of age when they enter the school. 

Forty pupils were enrolled in the first term, July 15 to Octo- 
ber 15, 1912. 

The teaching staff includes the head mistress, a professor of 
domestic economy, a professor of cutting and dressmaking, a 
professor of cookery, eight masters .or mistresses to teach 
dairy work, cheese making, etc., and two assistants. 

(b) Intermediate Grade. 

Secondarj^ Schools of rural household economics are 
organised in France, to provide farmers' daughters with an 
education which will enable them to help in the management 
of the farm. They correspond to the « practical schools of 
agriculture » for boys. The length of the course is one or 
two years. The schools are attached to farms, which are 
managed by the head. 

Before the war only three schools of this kind had been 
organised, viz., at Coetloger, Kerliver, and Monastier, with 
about twenty students in each. 

(c) Elementary Grade C). 

Itinerant schools offering agricultural extension to women 
can show larger results. By this means the courses in rural 
household economics are made available to farmers' daught- 
ers in different districts. 

These schools are under the autority of the Minister of 
Agriculture, and are managed by the Departmental Professor 
of Agriculture. The staff is appointed by the Prefect, and is 
selected entirely from a list provided by the Minister of Agri- 
culture. 

Each school is located for a certain time by order of the 
Prefect in a Commune to which it has been invited by the 
municipality or the Agricultural Association, with the guar- 
antee that there will be a minimum of 15 pupils over 
15 years of age. The Commune or Agricultural Association 
which invites the travelling school has to provide premises 
and material, and pay the expenses of heating and lighting. 

The programme of study is laid down by the Minister of 
Agriculture in consultation with a Committee of Supervision 



(1) Plissonier, ibid., p. 312. 



— 382 — 

and Improvement, whose membership and functions are regu- 
lated by Ministerial Decree. The total sum necessary for the 
administration of the school (salaries of staff, equipment, etc.), 
is paid by the State to a maximum of 4,000 francs. Any fur- 
ther expenses are borne by the Department. 

In 1912 the number of itinerant schools for agricultural 
extension among women and girls was 16. Since then the 
number has considerably increased, and is now about 25. In 
the school year 1911 to 1912 these schools had a total of 
1,134 pupils. There are usually three courses of three months 
each offered in a year. The minimum number of pupils was 
formerly 15, but was raised to 20 in 1912-1913. 

(d) Reforms introduced by the Act of 2 August, 1918. 

Since 1918 the standards of education in rural household 
economics have been raised. The Act of August 1918 provides 
that : 

(1) Higher education is to be given at the agricultural ins- 

titute, and in the national agricultural schools, one of 
which must include a special normal section for the 
training of future women teachers. 

(2) Intermediate education is to be given in schools of rural 

household economics organised on the same plan as the 
three schools already in existence at Coetloger, Kerliver 
and Monastier. 

The estates on which the schools are set up are to be 
managed as State undertakings. 

(3) Elementary education in rural household economics is 

to be given in short course schools, in itinerant schools, 
and in agricultural extension courses for women and 
girls who have left school. 

The purpose of the short courses is to provide instruction 
for girls who cannot spend two or more years in the regular 
schools of rural household economics. They correspond to 
the winter agricultural schools for boys. The period of study 
is only two or three months. 

The itinerant schools are located for a certain time in a 
Commune to which they have been invited with a guarantee 
that there will be a certain minimum number of pupils over 
15 years of age. 

The money required for the administration of each school 
and for the granting of scholarships is fixed by a decree of the 
Minister of Agriculture. 70 per cent of the expense is borne by 
the Ministry of Agriculture and the rest by the Department 
or Commune. The courses for pupils who have left school 
are intended for girls over 12. This instruction is given in the 
public rural schools or other premises placed at the disposal 
of the State by the Commune. 



- 3 S3 



C. Special Schools. 

(a) Veterinary Schools. 

There are two schools of this kind in France, at Alfort and 
Lyons. The Alfort School was founded in 1766. The number 
of pupils was 205 in 1913-1914, and 230 in 1918-1919. There 
were 10 professors and 9 supervisors of work. At Lyons the 
number of students was about 150 in 1913-1914, and about 100 
in 1918-1919, with a staff of nine professors. 

(b) School of Forestry C). 

The National School of Forestry at Nancy (formerly the 
Royal School of Forestry) was founded in 1824, and trans- 
ferred two years later to Nancy, where it has since remained. 
It has buildings in which classes are carried on, premises for 
the housing of the pupils, laboratories and studies for the pro- 
fessors, and accommodation for collections, in which there are 
a large number of specimens connected with forestry. At- 
tached to the school are 3,088 hectares of forest land, which is 
managed by the staff. Most of this land is situated in the 
neiglibourhood of Nancy. The four forests which belong to 
the school provide examples of various types of soil and 
systems of forestry. There is also a forest nursery on the 
estate of Bellefontaine, on the edge of the Forest of Haye, and 
an arboretum of 16 hectares in the forest of Amance, which 
contains a number of exoctic trees, which can be cultivated in 
most parts of France. 

The students may be divided into two classes — regular 
students who intend to enter the Administration of Water 
and Forests, and special pupils. The first have already obtai- 
ned the diploma of the National Agricultural Institute, and 
have to undergo a further entrance examination in inathe- 
matics and modern languages. Students from the « Ecole 
Polytechnique » may be admitted without examination. The 
number of regular pupils varies from 12 to 35 according to 
the requirements of the Forestry Department. In 1913 the 
number was 18. Regular pupils who enter the school 
contract a four years' engagement. The first and fourth year 
are spent in militarj'^ service, and the two intermediate j'ears 
in study. The school year is divided into two terms. All the 
lectures and laboratory work take place in the winter terms, 
from October to April. The summer term, from April to 
August, is spent entirely in practical work on the land. Two 
months of the two years are spent in visiting forests in other 



(1) Cf. Bulletin Mensuel des Renseigncments Agricoles, 1913, p. 1577. (Publication 
of the Agricultural Institute at Rome). 



— 384 — 

parts of France. The pupils also receive military instruc- 
tion, and are subject to somewhat strict discipline. After 
leaving Nancy, the pupils spend the next year as Infantry 
Sub-Lieutenants before beginning their administrative 
career. 

The second class of pupils consists principally of foreigners, 
who are allowed to enrol in all branches of instruction, inclu- 
ding forestry, natural science, applied mathematics, and law. 

The teaching staff consists of seven members selected from 
the Forestry Department, a Captain Instructor, and a lectur- 
er of the Faculte des Lettres, who gives instruction in English 
and German. There are also two forestry officials who 
manage the land attached to the school, where they have to 
carry on observations and experiments of various kinds. 

(c) National School of Horse Breeding at Pin (Orne). 

This school admits students selected from those who have 
obtained the diploma of the National Agricultural Institute, 
independent pupils, and foreign students. The period of 
study is two years. The school was founded in 1874. In 1913- 
1914 the enrolment was 10. The school was temporarily 
closed during the war. The teaching staff consists of a 
Director, an Assistant Director, and five Professors. 

The instruction includes the science of horsebreeding, 
book-keeping, hippology, agriculture, hygiene, and English. 
It also includes theoretical and practical instruction in riding 
as well as instruction in horse-breaking, and harnessing. 

(d) National School Agricultural Industry at Douai C). 

This school was situated at Douai before the war. As the 
town was partially destroyed during the war, the school is at 
present closed. 

The school at Douai had two objects : 

(1) It received young men who had left the higher elemen- 

tary schools, instruction farms, or practical agricultural 
or industrial schools, and who wished to acquire a tech- 
nical education, so that with the aid of practical work 
they might become skilled workers and foremen in 
sugar refineries, distilleries, breweries, etc. 

(2) It received young men who had had a thorough scien- 

tific education such as those who had received the 
diploma of the Agricultural Institute or the National 
Schools of Agriculture, and wished to complete their 
education by studying the management of agricultural 



(1) Plissonler, Ibid., p. 24. 



— 385 — 

industries in order to become industrial owners or 
managers. 

(e) Higher School of Agricultural Engineering. 

This school was set up by the decree of the 15th Septem- 
ber, 1919. Its objects are laid down as follows : 

(1) To provide for the recruiting of officials for the agricul- 

tural engineering service ; 

(2) To provide technical instruction for special pupils who 

wish to obtain the diploma of civil agricultural engi- 
neering which is given at the end of the course. 

The school therefore receives pupils in the service of the 
State and special pupils. The number of State pupils to be 
admitted each year is fixed by Ministerial Decree. Candi- 
dates must have obtained the Agricultural Engineering 
Diploma, and must show that on leaving the National Agricul- 
tural Institute they had attained, in their two years of study, 
a sufficient standard in general mathematics, in applied 
mathematics, electro-technical work, zoology, rural law, and 
administrative law. Foreigners can only be admitted as 
special students. The fee for special pupils of French or 
foreign nationality is 1200 francs per year. Special students 
must also pay a fee of 100 francs for each course to which they 
are admitted. The curriculum includes oral courses, lectures, 
and practical work which is carried on principally at the agri- 
cultural hydraulic station and agricultural engineering sta- 
tion. It comprises : 

Courses : Analysis and theoretical mechanics, applied me- 
chanics, hydraulics, topography, construction, canals, roads, 
bridges, rural and administrative law. 

Lectures : Drafting of plans, office work and book-keeping, 
practical work, testing of materials, estimation of the value of 
property, division of property, study of water reserves and 
mountain reservoirs, rural construction, cultivation by ina- 
chincry, dairying, industry, production of fermented liquors, 
wine, cider, and spirit, and various industries : starch making, 
sugar refining, storage of cereals, milling, etc., frozen goods 
industry, fruit industry, general comparative agriculture. 

The period of study is two years. At the end of the first and 
second years the students take vacation courses, and study 
plans relative to their work. 

(f) Dairy School. 

The Dairy School at Nancy is attached to the University of 
Nancy. It was founded in 1904. The period of study is one 
half-year. At the end of the course, students receive the cer- 
tificate of the Dairy School of the University of Nancy. 



— 38G — 

The programme of study includes the chemistry, microbio- 
logy, zootechnology and technology of the dairy industry, 
dairy work, butter making, cheese making, the dairying and 
allied industries, and plant machinery. 

(g) Higher National School of Colonial Agriculture at Nogent- 
sur-Marne. 

This school was founded in 1902. The regular pupils 
must hold the diploma of the National Agricultural Institute, 
the National Schools of Agriculture, the Horticultural School 
of Versailles, the School of Colonial Agriculture at Tunis, or 
the Central School of Arts and Manufactures, or a Bachelor's 
Degree in Physical or Natural Science. Special students, both 
French and foreign, are also admitted. The period of study 
is one year. At the end of the course the regular pupils 
receive the diploma of Colonial Agricultural Engineering, and 
the special students a certificate of higher agricultural instruc- 
tion. The number of pupils in 1913-14 was 20. The teaching 
staff consists of a Director and 11 professors. 

The subject of study is colonial agriculture, including the 
cultivation of food-plants, tobacco growing, applied colonial 
botany, colonial technology, the study of colonial raw mate- 
rials of animal and vegetable origin, colonial zootechnology, 
rural engineering applied to the colonies, colonial hygiene, 
rural economy applied to the colonies and colonial adminis- 
tration. 

(h) National School of Horticulture at Versailles. 

This school was set up by the Act of 16 th December 1873. 
The period of study is three years. The number of pupils in 
the present year is 79. 

D. Agricultural Extension. 

(a) Organisation of agricultural education in the Departments 
and Communes (1). 

The reorganisation of agricultural education is provided for 
by the Act of 21 August 1912, and regulated by the Order of 
16 June 1913, and the decree of 12 June 1913. 

Agricultural extension is included in the functions of the 
Directors of Agricultural Services in the Departments (who 
correspond to the county agents in the United States and the 
agricultural representatives in Canada), and is carried out by 
lectures and publications. The lectures are given by the 
Directors of Agricultural Services, and by professors of agri- 
culture. A ministerial decree drawn up at the proposal of 



(1) 01". Bulletin Mensuel des Renseignements Agrlcoles 1913, p. 1392. 



— 387 — 

the Director of Agricultural Services in the Department, after 
consultation with the Agricultural Inspector, fixes the number 
and programme of the lectures to be given during the year. 

The publications include notices containing instructions and 
practical agricultural advice, which are submitted to the Pre- 
fect for approval, and pamphlets and handbills distributed 
in the Communes by the Mayors, Presidents of Agricultural 
Associations and Unions in receipt of subsidies from the State 
or Department. 

The public educational establishments in which the Direc- 
tors of Agricultural Services are responsible for agricultural 
education in each Department are selected by Ministerial 
Decree. In public educational establishments which are not 
subject to the Ministrj'^ of Agriculture, agricultural education 
is given bj^ the Director of Agricultural Services, the Professor 
of Agriculture attached to the establishment, and other Pro- 
fessors of Agriculture under conditions regulated by the Mi- 
nister of Agriculture and the Minister responsible for the es- 
tablishment. 

The Director of Agricultural Services makes the necessary 
enquiries for the creation of Chairs of Agriculture and the 
administration of his district as regards the installation of in- 
struction farins, various schools of agriculture, schools of 
household economics, and other institutions for technical agri- 
cultural education. 

He is also entrusted with the management of experimental 
fields, and agricultural and vine growing demonstrations. He 
presents a report each year to the Prefect concerning the agri- 
cultural services of the Department. The Director is assisted 
by one or more professors of agriculture, who hold chairs cor- 
responding to districts determined by Ministerial Decree. He 
is also assisted by professors entrusted with the teaching of 
certain special branches, such as dairying, horticulture, bee 
keeping, silk cultivation, etc. 

The holder of the Chair of Agriculture in the same town as 
the Direction of Agricultural Services fulfils the functions and 
bears the title of Assistant Director of Agricultural Services. 

Professors of agriculture are entrusted, under the super- 
vision of the Director of Agricultural Services in their Depart- 
ment, with agricultural extension — (1) by lectures to far- 
mers (2), by regular courses in public educational establish- 
ments selected bj-^ Ministerial Decree. They answer all en- 
quiries in their districts and help in the execution of all duties 
assigned to them by the Director of Agricultural Services. 
They are consulted on all agricultural and educational ques- 
tions which concern their districts. Professors in practical 
schools of agriculture may also hold positions as professors 
of agriculture in the district in which their school is situated. 



— 388 — 

(b) Correspondence Courses : Agriculture Extension (1). 

In October 1913 the Federation of Agricultural Unions of 
the South East set up a system of agricultural education by 
correspondence. In the first year the number of pupils was 
207. On account of the war and the consequent necessity 
of concentrating on manual work, the number of pupils 
decreased, so that the Union had only 54 pupils in 1914-1915, 
and 34 in 1915-1916, From October to April the pupils receive 
a monthly bulletin, showing the programme of study for the 
four following weeks. The pupil may receive assistance from 
his parents or from a farmer or other person appointed by the 
union, under the title of « Union Adviser. ». These studies 
are of various kinds. 

(1) The pupils are given various subjects to study in books 

which they possess or which are supplied to them at 
low rates by the Federation of Unions. 

(2) They are given instructions for making agricultural 
experiments themselves, in order to test the value of 
fertilisers, whether crops are early or late, etc. 

{3) They are asked to try simple experiments regarding the 
depth at which seed should be sown, the germinative 
power of seed, the relations between the weight of pota- 
toes and their starch content, etc. 

(4) They are advised to make excursions under the direction 

of the Union Adviser. On these excursions they exam- 
ine the crops, livestock, plants, etc. 

(5) Among the experiments suggested are actual agricultural 

problems, c. g., the value of a certain volume of corn if 
its weight and price per metric quintal are known ; the 
value of a certain volume of manure if the composition 
and the price of each fertilising element are known ; 
the price of the fodder for a horse in relation to its 
weight, etc. 

Every month the pupils have to send in a report of their 
experiments and excursions. 

c) Women's Institutes. 

The organisation of these societies is so recent that it is 
impossible to report on their membership, or to estimate their 
results. Their purpose is to bring new ideas and methods to 
the farm women, and to add interest to their work. 

These institutes are not merely social clubs, but are educa- 
tional societies intended to continue the work of the itinerant 
schools of rural household economics for girls who have left 
school. All women, whether former pupils of these schools or 
not, can obtain through the institutes the technical domestic 
knowledge which they need. The societies meet periodically 



(1) Bull. Mens, de Rens. Agr., 1916, p. 1857. 





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— 389 — 

and have lectures, courses, exhibitions with prizes, etc. They 
distribute educational pamphlets, organize libraries and 
carry on other related activities. 

d) Chambers of Agriculture. 

Chambers of Agriculture have been provided for by the 
Act of the 25th October 1919. As these have not been organised, 
however, it is impossible to report on their work. 



II. State subsidies in the budget for the development of 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 

The State appropriations for technical agricultural edu- 
cation, in francs, are (1) : 

1913 1918 1919 

Agricultural Education 4,641,980 6,136,400 7,160,060 

Veterinary- » 1,302,850 785,250 1,935,865 

Forestry )> 142,100 205,540 561,675 

6,098,930 7,127,190 9,657,000 

Germany 

As the authority for agricultural education in Germany 
belongs to the individual Federal States, there is no centrali- 
sed system of agricultural education for the whole country 
but only for each of the States. Agricultural education has 
reached the highest stage of development in Prussia where 
all grades of instruction (including senior, intermediate, and 
lower) are represented. 

I. The organisation of agricultural 

education in PRUSSIA. 

A. Agricultural Schools for men ami boys : 

(a) Senior education. 

The Senior educational institutions in Prussia are : 
(1) High schools; (2) University Colleges. 



(II SldtisHqtie Aqricole Anniielle, 1919, piihlished by the Minister of Agricurture, 
Paris, 1920. 



— 390 — 

(1) In Prussia there are two agricultural high schools, in 
Berlin and in Bonn-Pappelsdorf. Both are State institutions. 
They are completely autonomous, are abundantly provided 
wich teaching facilities and possess extensive experimental 
stations, laboratories, etc... Their principal functions are on 
the one hand to train future agricultural teachers, agricul- 
tural chemists, higher agricultural administrative officials 
and other agricultural experts, and on the other hand to 
provide instruction for large land owners, tenant farmers 
and estate agents. They undertake also to foster agricultural 
science as such. 

Agricultural instruction in the high schools includes all 
natural sciences connected with agriculture (chemistry, phy- 
sics, botany, zoology, geology, mineralogy, etc.) and, in addi- 
tion, agricultural subjects classified as agriculture, breeding 
of animals and agricultural management. The curriculum 
further touches upon allied branches of natural science and 
economics, such as co-operation, systems of political eco- 
nomy, etc... 

Both high schools are non-residential. All who have reach- 
ed the so-called « One Year Volunteer » Standard (7th class 
in a school with 9 classes) are admitted. Students who are 
enrolled on presentation of the One Year Volunteer Certifi- 
cate lake a course of study which lasts for four half-years, 
the first year being devoted to natural science and the second 
year to special agricultural subjects. At the end of the fourth 
half-year the so-called agricultural diploma examination may 
be taken. Those students who before entering the high 
school have obtained a complete school Certificate (Eeife- 
zeugnis) may take the examination qualifying for a post as 
teacher in a high agricultural institution in addition to the 
diploma. The examination for the teachers' certificate in- 
cludes the same subjects as the examination for the diploma, 
i. e. the most important natural sciences and the aforesaid 
agricultural subjects. For the teachers' Certificate a more 
thorough knowledge of the subject is required. Since 1918 
the high schools have been authorised to confer the de^ee 
of Doctor in Agriculture. Students who desire to special- 
ise further beyond the aforesaid examinations are given an 
opportunity of specialising in particular branches of agricul- 
ture or allied sciences, but they are not allowed to take a spe- 
cial examination until one year has elapsed since they passed 
the Certificate examination. The most important branches 
in which examinations are held are the following: agricul- 
tural administration, brewery and distillery engineering, sur- 
veying, engineering work in sugar factories, stock breeding 
and seed culture (inspectors' diploma). 

The Berlin Agricultural High School in under the control 
of the Ministry for Agriculture, Domains and Forestry. It 
was founded in 1859 and reorganised in 1862. It has been 
known as the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschiile since 1881. It 



— 391 — 

consists of three sections: — agriculture, geodesy and technics 
of agriculture, and agricultural technology. It lias several 
laboratories and an agricultural museum with a permanent 
exhibition of agricultural machinery, implements, model 
buildings, zoological, mincralogical and other collections. 
In 1912 the teaching staff consisted of 18 regular staff profes- 
sors, 22 paid lecturers (Dosenten). 11 unpaid lecturers (Pri- 
vat-Dosenten) and a number of assistants. The fees were 
180 marks per half-year for Germans and 180 marks for fo- 
reigners. In the scholastic year 1913/1914, the number of stu- 
dents Avas 350. In 1910 the State grant to the school amounted 
to 452,851 marks. 

The Agricultural College in Bonn-Pappelsdorf is also 
under the control of the Ministry for Agriculture. Domains 
and Forestry. The institution was founded in 1847 and was 
reorganised in 1877. It consists of two sections, an agri- 
cultural section and a geophysical-technical section. It has 
the usual laboratories and scientific and agricultural equip- 
ment and an experimental farm with an area of 125 hectares. 
The curriculum and examinations of this institution are 
similar to those in the Berlin Agricultural High School. In 
1910 the teaching staff consisted of 11 regular staff profes- 
sors, 14 paid lecturers and a number of assistants. In 1913/ 
1914 the school was attended by 337 students. In 1910 it 
received a State subsidy amounting to 193,792 marks. 

(2) University Colleges. — Prussia possesses in all five uni- 
versity colleges for agriculture : Konigsberg (founded in 1876), 
Breslau (founded in 1881), Klol (founded in 1873), Halle 
(founded in 1863), Gottingen (founded in 1872). All these col- 
leges are under the control of the Ministry for Religious, Edu- 
cational and Medical Affairs. The resources of the agricul- 
tural colleges are on the whole less than those of the auto- 
nomous high schools. It is a point in favour of university 
colleges that arrangements are made to enable students to 
continue their general education by attending lectures in 
other faculties. The exact number of the teachin.a[ staff 
cannot be ascertained because the professors lecture in other 
faculties also. In 1913/1914 the total number of students in 
the five institutes was 812. The State grants allocated in 1910 
amounted in all to 565,702 marks. 

(b) Intermediate Grade instruction in agriculture is provi- 
ded in : 

(1) agricultural schools (Landwirtschaftsschulen); 

(2) agricultural institutes {Landwirtschaftliche Semi- 

nars) . 

(1) The object of the Agricultural Schools is to train prac- 
tical farmers for the management of medium-sized and large 
agricultural estates. In 1913/1914 there were 18 agricultural 



— 392 — 

schools which had been created in accordance with the regu- 
lations of 10 August 1875 issued by the Minister for Educa- 
tion and Agriculture. In many respects they are very similar 
to the so-called « Realschulen » with this difference, that 
only one foreign language is compulsory, less attention is 
devoted to general education and the time thus saved is given 
to specific agricultural training. The examination at the and 
of the course of study confers the right to serve in the army 
as a volunteer (Einjdhrigen-Dienst). Pupils may be admit- 
ted to the various forms by transfer from corresponding forms 
in other intermediate schools (Gymnasien) or by passing an 
entrance examination. In the seventh form all pupils must 
take a leaving examination. The schools are managed by the 
communal authorities under the supreme control of the Minis- 
ter of Religious, Educational and Medical Affairs and of Agri- 
culture, Lands and Forests. The curriculum covers a fairly 
wide range of scientific subjects. The students are expected 
to acquire a sufficient knowledge of the classification, ana- 
tomy and physiology of animals and plants, with special 
reference to the bearing of these subjects on agriculture. In 
the study of mineralogy special stress is laid on soils, and the 
lecturers on chemistry and physics deal with these subjects 
particulary from the agricultural point of view. In the three 
highest forms instruction is given in specific agricultural sub- 
jects, including growth of plants, stock rearing, and scientific 
management. In 1911 the teaching staff of the 18 schools 
consisted of 178 permanent teachers, and 48 assistant tea- 
chers. In the same year the schools were attended b}'^ 3.868 
students, of w^hom 1,389 came from country districts. Fees 
as a rule amunted to 100 to 200 marks a year. In 1910 the 
total cost of the schools was 1,590,082 marks, including fees, 
644,512 marks; State grant, 655,135 marks; and/ subsidies 
from the communal unions 

(2) Agricultural Institutes. — Prussia has two agricultural 
institutes founded in 1909 and 1911 respectively. The object 
of these institutes is to give prospective farmers and mana- 
gers of large and medium sized undertakings, an opportunity 
of acquiring in as short a time as possible, the necessary theo- 
retical training required for their work*. The institutes are 
managed by the various agricultural chambers. Classes are 
open to farmers who are not less than 20 years of age. who 
have had not less than five years practical experience in agri- 
culture, and who are able to produce proof of education equi- 
valent to that required for the volunteer certificate (Einjah- 
rigen-Zeugnis). The course of study covers at least 35 weeks 
with an average of at least 34 1/2 hours of instruction per 
week. Instruction is purely theoretical, but is intended as 



* Cf Grunds&ize fiir die Einrichiiing und den Betrieb Semindre iind Landwirte 
(Principles of oganisation and management for institutes and farmers). Minister for 
Agriculture, Lands and Forests, 1 July, 1911, p. 83. 



— 393 — 

far as possible to take the form of demonstrations. The cur- 
riculum includes the essential sciences, chemistry, physics, 
botany, zoolog}% specific agricultural subjects, general agi'i- 
culture, cultivation of plants, engineering, management, agrar- 
ian policy, agricultural administration and auxiliary sub- 
jects, veterinary science, building, land surveying, piscicul- 
ture, horticulture and market gardening. In 1911 the tea- 
ching staff consisted of 6 permanently appointed teachers. 
In the same year the two schools were attended by 39 pupils. 
The total cost of the instil utes amounted to 27,204 marks, and 
the State gi'ant to 10,000 marks. 

(c) Elementary agricultural instruction is provided in : 

(1) Elementary agricultural schools (Ackerbauschulen). 

(2) \\'inter schools. 

(3) Rural continuation schools, 

(1) The Ackerbauschulen are intended to give young far- 
mers who do not desire to obtain the volunteer certificate, 
and who wish to acquire special agricultural training, the 
opportunity to take a course of study of from 1 1/2 to 2 years, 
in the theory and practice of agriculture. The pupils as 
a rule are obliged to board in the school. Until 1876 the 
schools were under the direct control of the State and were 
subsidised, but since the « Endowment Act » of 8 July, 1875 
elementary agricultural education has been under the control 
of the provincial unions (Provinzialverbande) which finance 
the schools and for this purpose receive a fixed sum annually 
from the State. As a rule, however, the provinces do not 
manage the schools directly, but hand them over to the cham- 
bers of agriculture or to other voluntary organisations, or to 
the district and communal authorities. During the last 50 
years these Ackerbanscluilenhaxe not only made no progress, 
but have actually decreased in number. In 1875 there were 
26 schools of this kind whereas in 1914 therewere only 17. 

(2) The object of the Winter Schools is to give the sons of 
small farmers, who as a rule are actively engaged in farm 
work in the summer, an opportunity of obtaining during 
the winter the necessary special instruction in agriculture. 
The courses last usually five or six months in two consecutive 
winters. As a rule pupils are compelled to board in the schools. 
The Ackerbauschulen and Winter Schools have in recent 
years developed very considerably and have increased enorm- 
ously in number. In 1875 there were only 12 in existence, 
whereas in 1912 there were 212. 

The curriculum of the elementary agricultural and winter 
schools includes the study of soils, cultivation of plants, etc., 
manures, rearing of stock, general management, the necessary 
natural sciences, legislation and administration, agricultural 
bookkeeping and some branches of general education such as 



— 394 — 

German, arithmetic, etc. The schools are usually under the 
control of special boards of governors. Fees are not the same 
in all schools, but are never very high e, g. : In East Prussia 
24 to 30 marks per half year. In 1911/1912 the teaching staff 
of the 212 winter schools and the 17 elementary agricultural 
schools consisted of 404 teachers and 1390 assistant teachers. 
In the same year the agricultural schools were attended by 
1,144 pupils and the winter schools by 9,384 pupils, i. e. in all 
10,528 pupils. The total cost of the elementary agricultural 
and winter schools amounted to 2,214,666 marks in 1911/ 
1912. This sum was covered as follows : 

Fees 560,970 marks. 

Subsidies from provinces (including 



the State grant) 516,953 



)) 



District and communal grant 419,457 

Subsidies from itinerant organisa- 
tions 70,580 

State grants for travelling instruc- 
^ tors, etc 639,726 

(3). Continuation Schools : Agricultural extension. Rural 
continuation schools are usually established where there is a 
local demand. Instruction is limited to a fixed number of 
lessons per week. As a rule no fees are charged. Their 
purpose is to jDrovide elementary theoretical and practical 
agricultural instruction for as large a number of pupils as 
possible. Attendance at continuation schools is not yet gene- 
rally compulsory, nor are there any general regulations con- 
cerning the curriculum, the minimum number of lessons per 
year, distribution of instruction over the various seasons of 
the year, etc., etc. Candidates for admission must have com- 
pleted their elementary education. In 1911 the total number 
of continuation schools was 5,349, of which 230 had been 
founded by district authorities, 3,904 by communal authori- 
ties, 43 by agricultural associations and 1,172 by other bodies. 
The cost of these schools was defrayed in 1.5 cases by the 
district authorities alone, in 21 cases by the communal author- 
ities, in 1 case by agricultural associations alone, in 1,187 
cases by the State alone, in 3,973 cases jointly by the State and 
other authorities, and in 149 cases by private bodies, etc. 
Three schools were self-supporting. The cost of these 
schools amounted to 866,401 marks of which .584,328 was 
provide^ by the State and the remainder by subsidies from 
the communal unions, agricultural associations, etc., and fees. 
The total number of pupils was 86,689. In 1,963 schools there 
were fe_\ver than 10 pupils, in 2,143 schools the numbers va- 
ried between 11 and 20, in 1,263 schools there were over 20 pu- 
pils. The total number of teachers was 7,554. In 5,298 
schools classes were hold only in winter, while in 51 schools 
classes were held in winter and in summer. The develop- 



— 395 — 

ment of agricultural education in Prussia is shown by the 
following figures : 

1897 1911 
Total number of rural conti- 
nuation schools 969 5,349 

Total number of Pupils 14,059 86,689 

Total cost 100,804 865,401 mts 

State subsidy 33,233 696,023 

d) Training of the Agricultural Teaching Staff. 

(1) The Training of Teachers for Rural Continuation 
Schools. Teachers of this Grade are chiefly draw from the 
ranks of elementary schools teachers, who have taken Spe- 
cial Courses in order to acquire the necessary technical know- 
ledge. The courses are not intended to teach agricultural 
science, but rather to show where and how the teacher can 
connect instruction in continuation classes with the practical 
agricultural interests of the pupils. Formerly these courses 
lasted about ten weeks and included about 320 hours of ins- 
truction. The curriculum consisted of natural science sub- 
jects, elements of agriculture, cattle-breeding, and farm ma- 
nagement. Since the Ministerial Decree of 7 April 1909, short 
courses are organised for not more than 5 weeks as a rule, i. e., 
about 150 hours of instruction. In general not more than 
40 pupils are admitted to a course. In 1911 21 courses were 
held in all. The number of lessons given was 2,298, and the 
number or pupils enrolled 851. The teaching staff numbered. 
196. The total cost of the courses was 143,633 marks of 
which 105,327 marks was provided by the State and the re- 
mainder by the Communal Unions (provinces, districts, com- 
munes). 

(2) Training Courses for Teachers of Agriculture. The Mi- 
nisterial Decree of 29 February 1908 provides that teachers in 
elementary agricultural educational institutions must, in ad- 
dition to their theoretical course of study, receive practical 
training in agricultural teachers' training courses. 

The courses are given in suitable agricultural schools and 
their object is to give pedagogical training to intending agri- 
cultural teachers. The courses cover a period of one 3'^ear. 
As a rule, not more than six students are admitted to each 
course. In the year 1911-1912 three of these courses were 
held, and about thirty students were enrolled. 

B. Agricultural Schools for Women and Girls. 

a) Senior Grade. 

(1) Agricultural High Schools and Universitij Colleges. 
Prussian agricultural high schools and university college? 



— 39fi — 

admit women students on the same terms as men. The seven 
institutions enumerated in A. (a) (1) and (2) are therefore 
all open to women without restriction (p. 389), 

(2) The Training Colleges for Women Teachers {Lehrerin- 
nen-Seminare) must also be included amongst the higher 
agricultural educational establishments for women. The 
systematic training of teachers of household economics for 
rural districts date from 1909, Candidates for admission to a 
training college for women teachers must produce a health 
certificate and either a leaving certificate from a Lyceum 
(Girls' High School) ; or a certificate issued on completion of 
a nine-years' course of education in a Girls' School. The 
course of instruction in the training colleges covers a period 
of two years, of which one year at least is devoted to the 
so-called preparatory classes, while six months is spent in 
the household economics department and six months in the 
agricultural department. The curriculum includes cooking, 
general housework, natural sciences, household arithmetic 
and book-keeping, theory of teaching, hygiene, stock-rearing, 
horticulture, fruit-growing and market-gardening. At the 
end of the course the students take an examination for « Tea- 
chers of Household Economics and Agricultural Subjects », 
the syllabus for which was drawn up in 1909. At the end of 
1912,38 candidates had passed the examination for the teach- 
ing profession. 

b) Intermediate Grade, 

(1) Social Schools of Rural Household Economics. The first 
of these schools was founded in 1897. Their object is to oive 
girls with an average education the knowledge of household 
economics required by teachers in welfare work institutions, 
etc. In 1911 there were only five of these schools in existence 
with a permanent staff" numbering 34 in all; all five schools 
are residential. Courses of instruction usually last a year. 
In 1911 the number of pupils enrolled was about 230, The 
minimum age for admission was 18 and the inclusive fee 
for tuition and board was about 700 marks per half-year. 
The total cost of the schools amounted to 264,366 marks, of 
which 240.821 marks was covered by receipts from fees, etc. 
The State grant was 17,830 marks. 

(2) Rural welfare schools (Landpflegeschulen). The rural 
welfare schools represent a special aspect of the struggle 
against the rural exodus. The object of the schools is to 
train as large a number as possible of educated women who 
will be able to give information and advice in rec^ard to the 
home problems of agricultural workers and small-holders. 
The curriculum includes general housework and dietetics, 
hygiene, care of children, horticulture, fruit-growing and 
market gardening, dairy-work, the care of livestock and 



— 397 — 

household book-keeping. The course of study covers 44 weeks. 
At tlie end of the course the pupils take an examination, the 
syllabus for which was drawn up in 1912 by the Minister of 
Agriculture. In 1912 the only school of the' kind was Ober- 
schonefeld, where six teachers were employed. The minimum 
age for admission to the schools was 20. Inclusive fees for 
tuition and l)oard amount to 800 marks a year; in 1912-13 the 
school was attended by 10 pupils. 

c) Elementary Education. 

(1) Schools of Household Economics and Agriculture. — 
These schools were first founded in Prussia in 1893. They 
are managed in some cases by special boards of management, 
in other cases by committees of the Chambers of Agriculture. 
The object of the schools is to train girls in rural home-mak- 
ing. Instruction is both theoretical and practical. In al- 
most all cases residence is compulsory. Inclusive fees for 
board and tuition never exceed 650 marks a year. In 1911 
there were in all 54 schools of this kind in Prussia, with a total 
staff of 201 permanent teachers and 123 assistant teachers. 
The total number of pupils enrolled was 2,140, of whom 1,055 
came from country districts. The total cost of the schools 
amounted to 804,515 marks, of which 694,607 marks was pro- 
vided by receipts from fees, etc., 26,891 marks by the state 
grant, and almost the whole of the balance by grants from 
provincial associations. 

(2) Itinerant Schools of rurcd Household Economics. — The 
first so-called itinerant courses in Germany were organised 
in Baden. In Prussia the organisation of such courses dates 
from about 1895. They cover a period of 8 weeks and are 
held in the wintermonths only. As a rule they are oroanised 
by the communal unions. In 1911 there were 168 itinerant 
schools in Prussia of which 110 were organised by the dis- 
trict authorities. In most of the schools the fees charged 
were very low. The total number of courses organised by 
the 168 schools was 564. The teaching staff consisted of 174 
permanent teachers and 205 assistant teachers. The number 
of pupils enrolled was 9,530 of whom 5,115 came country 
districts and 1,482 from working-class families. The total 
cost of the schools amounted to 396,944 marks, of which 
146,180 marks was covered by school fees 68,666 marks by 
the States grant, and the remainder by the grants, 

(3) Conlinnation Courses : Agricultural Extension — Per- 
manent Continuation Courses in rural Household Economics 
are held in Prussia with the object of making instruction 
in household economics more generally available to all 
classes of women. These continuation courses vary in lenght 
and consist mainly of cookery classes. In 1911, 19 courses 
of the kind were held and were attended by 747 pupils. The 



— 398 — 

total cost of the course was 43,776 marks, of which 31,537 
marks was derived from fees; while the remainder was 
supplied by the communal unions. 

C. Special Schools. 

a) Senior Grade. 

(1) Veterinary High Schools. — Advanced veterinary ins- 
truction is provided in Prussia in the Veterinary High 
Schools of Berlin and Hannover. Most Universities have in 
addition a veterinary department, but are not entitled to 
issue diplomas in veterinary science. The Berlin institution 
Was founded in 1790, the Hannover institution in 1778. Can- 
didates for admission must hold a leaving certificate of an 
educational institution with nine forms. The course of study 
comprises seven terms (Semester), at the end of that period 
students may take the prescribed examinations. The Berlin 
school is attended by about 400 students annuallv and the 
Hannover school by about 300. In 1908 the State grants were 
186,274 marks and 129,086 marks in Berlin and Hannover res- 
pectively. The schools are under the control of the Ministry 
of Agriculture, Lands and Forests. In Bertlin the teaching 
staff consists of ten regular staff professors, and sixteen lec- 
turers (Dozenten); in Hanover, of nine professors and twelve 
lecturers. (Assistants are not included in either case). The 
fee is about 100 marks per term (semester). 

(2) Schools of Forestry. — There are schools of forestry in 
Prussia at Eberswald and Miinden, founded in 1830 and 
1868 respectively. They are under the control of the Ministry 
of Agriculture. Candidates for admission must possess the 
school leaving certificate of a school with nine classes. Since 
1908 the duration of the course has been six terms (semesters) 
Both schools are state institutions. In 1907 the state sfrant 
was 129,417 marks to Eberswald and 102,421 marks to Miin- 
den. The teaching staff consisted of eleven professors and 
three lecturers in Eberswald and eight professors and five 
lecturers in Miinden, assistants not included. In 1908 the 
schools were attended by 61 and 83 students respectively. 
The curriculum includes forest cultivation, forest planning, 
forest valuation, construction of forest roads, protection of 
forests, forestry management, history of forestry, forestry 
policy, and the necessary natural sciences and general scien- 
ces such as political economy, the elements of jurisprudence, 
etc. Attached to both schools are forests of about 1000 hec- 
tares in area. The fees are about 150 marks a year. 

(3) Schools of Gardening. — At the present time there are 
three schools of gardening in Prussia — the school of gar- 
dening at Berlin-Dahlem, the school of fruit-growing and 



— 399 — 

horticulture at Proskau, and the school of vine-growing, 
fruit-growing and horticulture at Geisenheim-am-Rhein. 

The object of these Schools is to provide practical and 
tlieorctical training for young gardeners and farmers in all 
branches of horticulture including the utilisation of garden 
produce, to provide special courses in particular subjects 
for persons interested in horticulture, fruit gi'owing and 
market gardening and to investigate and elucidate al' ques- 
tions connected with horticulture, fruit-growing and market 
gardening both in scientific institutions and in practice (mo- 
del gardens, etc.) (1). 

The schools were founded on the following dates : Dahlem 
in 1823; Proskau in 1868; Geiscnheim in 1872. In all three 
schools the course of study covers a period of two years. 
Candidates for admission to Dahlem must have had several 
j-^ears' practical experience in gardening and must have a 
certificate equivalent to the Armj' Volunteer Certificate 
{Einjdhrigen-Zeiignis) ; in Proskau and Geisenhein candida- 
tes are required merely to have passed through 5 forms in a 
Gymnasium. Only Geisenheim and Proskau are State insti- 
tutions, but all three institutions receive very considerable 
grants from the State. In Berlin-Dahlem the teaching staff 
consists of 8 fully qualified teachers and 11 assistants, in 
Proskau, of 6 fully qualified and 7 assistant teachers; in 
Geisenheim of 10 fully qualified and 5 assistant teachers. 
The curriculum includes Horticulture and the Natural 
Sciences related thereto, specialisation being as a rule pos- 
sible in landscape gardening, fruit growing and horticultural 
plant growing. Fees are about 300 marks a year. In 1911 the 
number of students enrolled was 100 in Berlin-Dahlem, 81 in 
Proskau and 82 in Geisenheim, The current expenditure of 
the three institutions amounted to 481,484 marks, which w^as 
covered as follows : Fees, etc., 147,331 marks; state grants, 
329,963 marks; other grants, 4,190 marks. 

b) Intermediate Grade. 

In Prussia there are no special agricultural institutions of 
intermediate grade. 

c) Elementary Grade. 

(1) Schools for Study of the Cultivation of Meadow Land. 
The object of these schools is to provide theoretical and prac- 
tical training in land improvement, especially irrigation and 
drainage, and in the cultivation of meadow land. In 1911 
Prussia had five schools of this type. They are not all organ- 



(1) Oldenburg. Deis landwiilschaftliche Unterrichtswesen im Konigreich Preiissen. 
(Agricultural Education in Prussia). Berlin, 1903, page 199. 



— 400 — 

ised on the same lines. The course of study covers a period 
varying from 2 1/2 to 5 years. The curriculum includes gen- 
eral plant growing, soils, theory of the cultivation of mead- 
ow land, theory of irrigation, surveying and levelling, laying 
out, the elements of building and pond construction, in addi- 
tion to general educational subjects such as the German 
language, Arithmetic, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences. 
The fees amount to about 10 marks a year. The total number 
of pupils in 1911 was 567. The total expenditure amounted 
to 108,596 marks, of which 40,943 marks was covered by fees 
etc., 22,742 marks by th e State grant, and the remainder by 
grants from communal and agricultural associations. 

(2) Schools of Horticulture and Fruit and Vine Growing. 
(Elementary Schools of Gardening). The object of the spe- 
cial schools of gardening and fruit and vine-growing is to 
give instruction to young gardeners, vine-growers and farm- 
ers. The schools of vine-growing train future managers 
of vineyards. The majority of the instructors are members 
of Chambers of Agriculture or of provincial unions. Cand- 
idates for entrance must have had a good elementary edu- 
cation and the necessary practical experience. The course of 
study varies in length according to the requirements of the 
students who may or may not require practical as well as 
theoretical instruction. 

There are also a certain number of so-called winter schools 
of gardening, in which young gardeners receive the necessary 
instruction in courses covering one or two winters. In 1912 
there were in all 12 institutions which provided a combined 
theoretical and practical course of instruction, the course 
covering a period of one year. The majority of these schools 
were founded in the last two decades of the 19th century. 
Some of the schools had hostels attached. Fees amounted 
to about 50 marks a year. Board cost from 20D-600 marks. 
There were four schools which provided exclusively theoret- 
ical istruction in the winter months. All the schools pos- 
sessed experimental stations and were provided with the 
necessary teaching facilities. In 1912 the total number of 
pupils attending these schools was 344. The total expenditure 
amounted to 357,783 marks, of which 132,942 marks was 
covered by school fees, 41,378 marks by the State grant, and 
the balance by grants from communal and other associa- 
tions. 

(3) Dairy Schools. The schools and experimental stations 
for dairy work are at one and the same time educational 
institutions, experimental stations, and enquiry offices for 
technical questions. As educational institutions their object 
is to provide the necessary theoretical and practical training 
for 3'oung people of both sexes who desire to take up dairy 
farming, in order to qualify themselves for posts as man- 
agers of large dairies, or as assistants. The course of training 



— 401 — 

for fully qualified dairy workers covers from one to two 
years. In addition to this complete course, there are short 
courses in special branches of dairy work. The schools are 
in continual touch with actual dairy establishment, on the 
basis of agreements concluded with well e(fuii)))ed co-onera- 
tive dairies or dairy farms on large estates. The majority 
of the schools are founded and managed by the Chambers of 
Agriculture; a considerable number, however, by co-operative 
dairies, trade associations, and the like. In the majority of 
the schools it is possible to take examinations qualifying 
respectively for posts as assistants or as managers of dairy 
establishments. In 1912 there were 11 dairy schools in Prus- 
sia for young men, and 4 for young women. The schools 
were not organised on uniform lines. Some had a boarding 
house attached. Candidates for admission were rerjuired 
to have had a good elementary school education, and in most 
cases there was a minimum age limit fixed, varying from 16 
to 20 years. The average fee was 50 marks a year. The staff 
numbered 61 in the schools for young men, and 8 in the 
schools for young women. In 1911 the number of pupils 
attending the former was 357, and the number attendinsf the 
latter 46. The total cost of the schools amounted to 424,267 
marks. Incomes from fees, etc., amounted to 250,303 marks, 
the State grant to 101,882 marks, the balance being covered 
by other grants. 

(4) Schools of Bee Keeping. The object of these schools is to 
give bee keepers an opportunity of obtaining theoretical and 
practical training in all branches of scientific bee keeping. 
The majority of these schools were established through the 
initiative of the central bee keeping associations. In 1912 
there were three schools of the kind, with a total staff of five 
teachers. In 1911-1912 the total number of pupils in the 
three institutions w^as 55. The courses varied in length in the 
three institutions, the longest being six months. No fees 
were charged. The total cost of the schools amounted to 
6,589 marks; the State grant was 1,650 marks. 

(5) Schools of Farriery. The Charlottenburg Institute in 
Berlin provides courses of instruction for farriers. These 
courses have been held since 1892. Three courses, each last- 
ing four months, are held every year. The cost is almost 
entirely borne by the State. In addition to this Institute, 
there are in Prussia a large number of so-called schools of 
farriery. Their object is to give farriers an opportunity to 
become proficient in farriery and the care of horses' hoofs, 
and to enable them to take the examination required by the 
Act of 18 June 1884. In 1912 there were in all 69 schools of 
the kind in Prussia, of which 20 were founded bv chambers 
of agriculture, 10 by agricultural associations, 35 by Commu- 
nal Unions, while 4 were private institutions. The total num- 
ber of pupils in the 69 schools was 1002. In most cases no fees 

20 



— 402 — 

were charged. The cost of the schools was in general de- 
frayed by State and Communal grants, and by examination 
fees. The total cost amounted to 132,163 marks. The in- 
come derived from examination fees, etc., was 54,708 marks, 
while the State grant amounted to 22,376 marks. 

(6) Schools of Poultry-Keeping. The majority of the schools 
of poultry-keeping were founded by the chambers of asfri- 
culture. Courses of varying length are held for persons of 
both sexes and are intended to provide theoretical and prac- 
tical training in the breeding and care of poultry. In 1912 
there were in all seven schools, almost all of which had 
been founded since 1900. The schools had a staff of 12 teach- 
ers, and were attended by 224 pupils. The courses varied 
in length from a fewdays to six months. The fees were 
from 10 to 60 marks according to the length of the course. 
The total cost amounted to 86,985 marks. The income from 
fees, etc., was 44,676 marks; the State grant, 33,672 marks; 
and the grant from the chambers of agriculture 8,637 marks. 



D. Agricultural Extension. 

a) Short Courses in Agriculture. 

(1) Higher Courses of Instruction in Agriculture. The ob- 
ject of these courses, which are intended generally for edu- 
cated farmers, is to give information regarding the latest 
scientific inventions and discoveries in agriculture. In 1911 
thirty courses of the kind were organised, most of which 
lasted for a few days. The lectures were almost all given 
by professors on the staff of the technical high schools. The 
programme covered the whole field of scientific agriculture. 
In 1911 the courses were attended by 3,912 persons. The cost 
of the courses amounted to 15,692 marks, most of the money 
being raised by fees, etc. The State subsidy was only 772 
marks. 

(2) Agricultural courses for small farmers were in most 
cases organised by the Chambers of Agriculture and the Agri- 
cultural Associations, and in some cases, by the Communal 
Associations. 



— 403 — 

The following table shows the number of such 
courses organised in 1911 : 



Subject 



Book-keeping 

Cultivation of lield crops, 
meadow land, etc 

Cattle breeding, etc 

Dairy work 

Milk testing 

Horse breeding 

Poultry keeping 

Bee keeping 

Pisciculture 

Horticulture and market gar- 
dening 

Fruit growing 

Vine growing 

Plant protection 

Methods for the prevention 
of phylloxera 

Subsidiary agricultural oc- 
cupations 

Flax growing 

Agricultural implements and 
machinery 

Forestry 

Meteorology 

Other courses 

Total 



Total 


Total 


Number 


Number 


Number 
of 

courses 


Number 

of 
students 


of courses 
lasting 

not more 

than 

5 days 


of courses 

lasting 

over 

5 days 


118 


2.144 


79 


39 


76 


2.713 


47 


29 


81 


2.438 


54 


27 


41 


1.070 


33 


8 


15 


268 


., 


15 


32 


371 


7 


25 


21 


694 


12 


9 


37 


538 


17 


20 


18 


441 


7 


5 


35 


1.081 


30 


5 


662 


13.939 


78 


184 


110 


3.845 


103 


7 


23 


478 


23 


" 


4 


155 


2 


2 


3 


55 


)) 


3 


6 
11 


262 
152 


6 
2 


» 


9 


3 


43 


3 


» 


1 
33 


15 
1.318 


25 


1 


8 




1.324 


32.029 


828 


396 





The total cost of these courses amounted to 119,702 marks, 
of which 20,130 marks were covered by fees, etc. The State 
grant amounted to 51,068 marks. 

(3) Army Courses in Agriculture. Courses of instruction in 
agriculture in the Prussian army were first organised in 1908, 
with the object of preparing soldiers from country districts 
for their future civilian occupation. The courses are usually 
given in the form of popular lectures. In the choice of sub- 
jects it is intended that, as far as possible, the agricultural 
conditions of the recruiting areas should be taken into consid- 
eration. As a rule, the courses last for some weeks, and 
consist of from 1 to 1 1/2 hours instruction daily. The total 
number of hours of instruction in each course should be about 
20. Attendance is voluntary. In 1912 the total number of 
courses held was 194, while the total number of hours of in- 
struction was 3,285. In the same year the courses were att- 



— 404 — 

ended by 7,851 students, of whom 3,960 were farmers' sons 
or owners of agricultural property, and 2,292 agricultural 
workers. The cost of the courses for 1912 amounted to about 
16,000 marks. 

b) Itinerant teachers. 

Itinerant teachers play an exceedingly important part in 
agricultural extension as advisers on agricultural questions. 
These teachers lecture to large audiences, but the most im- 
ortant part of their work consists in informal talks with 
small farmers. Their objeci is to instruct farmers in scien- 
tific methods, give them information as to new technical 
inventions and discoveries and promote the introduction of 
these inventions in practical agriculture. The directors 
of the winter schools are engaged in this w^ork during the sum- 
mer months. The confidence felt in the directors of the 
winter schools by their former pupils makes it easier for 
them to fulfil the mission with which they are charged. How- 
ever, it has been found in practice that the permanent teach- 
ers employed in the winter schools are not sufficient in 
number to perform satisfactorily this advisory work. Ac- 
cordingly, special itinerant teachers have been appointed, 
almost all of whom are employed by the Chambers of Agri- 
culture. Some deal with all branches of agricultural work, 
w^hile others confine themselves to a particular branch. Some 
are specially conversant with the cultivation of field crops, 
some with cattle breeding, some with dairy work, etc. In 
1912 five-sixths of the total number of itinerant teachers 
looked upon this work as their principal occupation, while 
for one-sixth it was a subsidiary occupation only. In 1910 
there were in all 179 itinerant teachers in Prussia ; in the same 
year the total number of specialists teaching in agricultural 
winter schools, who also engaged in itinerant teaching, 
amounted to 332, so tha^^ in all there were 511 teachers em- 
ployed in the work. Of the above mentioned 179 full time 
itinerant teachers, 26 were appointed for agriculture in gen- 
eral, 42 for fruit growing and horticulture, 52 for stock breed- 
ing, 12 for dairy work, 10 for poultry keeping, 9 for seed 
culture and the remainder for moosrland cultivation, flax 
growing, meadow land cultivation, vine growing, farriery, pis- 
ciculture, co-operative use of live stock, co-operation, book- 
keeping and general political economy. The total cost of the 
179 full time itinerant teachers amounted to 792,311 marks, 
of which 442,314 marks was paid by the State. 

(c) The Work of the Chambers of Agriculture. 

In Prussia the Chambers of Agriculture play a very im- 
portant part in spreading a knowledge of agricultural science 
amongst practical farmers. As already mentioned above. 



— 405 — 

a very large number of agricultural educational institutions 
in Prussia have been founded by tlie Chambers of Agricul- 
ture. Although no complete reports of their work in connec- 
tion with agricultural extension are available, it is generally 
acknowledged Ihtit they are of very great value to practical 
farmers, particularly as advisoi*}' bodies. 

The majority of the Chambers have special sections for the 
various branches of agriculture eg. forestry, land improve- 
ment manures; and these sections supply farmers with 
advice and assistance. A large nuni])er of pul)lications are 
issued by the Chambers of Agriculture, appearing partlv in 
periodical fomi, and partly in pamphlet form. They dissem- 
inate widely information concerning current scientific agri- 
cultural questions. 

(d) The Kaiser Wilhelm Agricultural Institute. 

Although in accordance with the Peace of Versailles this 
institute no longer belongs to Prussia, it is necessary to men- 
tion the work of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 
Bromberg, in order to obtain a complete picture of the Prus- 
sian Agricultural Education system. This institution was 
opened in 1906. Its object was to conduct special scientific 
investigations in the field of agriculture and to report on the 
results obtained. The Institute consisted of four sections — 
Agricultural Chemistry, Bacteriology and Seed Culture, Land 
Improvement, Animal Hygiene and Plant Diseases. 

The institution was of great importance in supplying farm- 
ers with advice, and in giving practical instruction to stu- 
dents with the requisite theoretical training. It organised 
also a large number of scientific courses. In 1910 the cost 
of maintenance was 271,950 marks; the State grant amounted 
to 245,656 marks; the balance was covered by receipts from 
fees, etc. 



II. — Table showing the state grants for agricultural 

EDUCATION IN 1910. 

state Grant 

Name of Institution. {in Marks) 

Agricultural High Schools in Berlin and Poppels- 

dorf, and the Bromberg Institute 892,300 

University Colleges for Agriculture 563,172 

Agricultural Schools (Landwirtschaftliche Schulen 655.135 

Agricultural Institutes (Seminare) 10,000 

Elementary Agricultural Schools 755,811 

Schools or Rural Household Economics 88,147 

Rural Continuation Schools 588,497 

Training Schools for Agricultural Teachers 6.500 



— 406 — 

Veterinary High Schools 491,430 

Schools of Forestry 245.756 

Schools of Horticulture 340,704 

Elementary instruction — special subjects 223,201 

Various educational courses 53,980 

Itinerant teachers 442,314 

Miscellaneous publications 60,031 

Experimental Stations and various other scientific 

agricultural purposes 444.407 

Total 5,861,385 



In the same year provincial grants amounted to Mks 775,605 



III — Agricultural educational institutions in other 

GERMAN STATES. 

In general technical agricultural education in the other fe- 
deral States of Germany is organised on lines similar to 
Prussia. The types of schools which are found in Prussia 
are found also in the other States. Wurtemburs and Ba- 
varia each have an agricultural high school; Saxony, Meck- 
lenburg, Hesse and Saxe-Weimar have agricultural colleges 
attached to their Universities; and in Bavaria, in addition to 
the above-mentoned high schools, there is an agricultural sec- 
tion in the Munich Polytechnic. Bavaria, Saxony, and Baden 
each has a veterinary high school. 

That is Germany has in all: 9 University Colleges for Agri- 
culture. 4 Agricultural High Schools, 1 Polytechnic Institute, 
5 Veterinary High Schools, 3 High Schools for Gardening and 
2 High Schools for Forestry. 

Intermediate agricultural instruction is most highlv deve- 
loped in Saxony, where there are nine intermediate schools 
of agriculture, while the other States, excluding Prussia, have 
only eight institutions of this kind. No other State possesses 
agricultural institutes (Seminare) of the type which exist in 
Prussia. 

Prussia has seventeen elementary schools of agriculture 
(Ackerbauschulen), Bavaria has five, Wurtemburg four, and 
the other States together have eight. 

The system of winter schools is particularly well developed, 
in Bavaria which has 45 Schools, Baden has 16, Oldenburg 11, 
and all the other states together excluding Prussia 50. Prus- 
sia alone has 212 schools of this type, so that before the war 
there were in all 334 of these schools in Germany. 

The other states have relatively few elementary schools for 
special branches of agriculture. Before the war Prussia had 
fourteen elementary schools of horticulture. Batavia had 



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— 407 — 

seven, Saxony three, Wurlemberg four, and the other states 
together six. 

Only sixteen schools of farriery existed in addition to the 
71 Prussian schools. 

Bavaria, Wurtemburg, and Mecklenburg each had a Dairy 
School. 

Before the war, Germany had 253 schools of Household 
Economics, of which 212 were in Prussia and 18 in Bavaria. 
There were no continuation courses except in Bavaria. 

The only state except Prussia whicli had itinerant courses 
in aOTiculture was Bavaria. 



Sources. 

Das landwirtschaftliche Unterrichtswesen im Konigreich 
Preussen, by Dr. phil. G. Oldenburg, Berlin 1910. 
Publisher : Paul Parey. 
Das landwirtschaftliche und zweckverwandte Unterrichtswe- 
sen im Konigreich Preussen, bv Dr. phil. G. Oldenburg. 
Berlin 1910. 

Publisher : Paul Parey. 
Der Ausbau des landwirtschaftlichen Unterrichts — und Bera- 
ungswesens in Preussen, by Dr. G. Oldenburg. Berlin 1920. 
Publisher : Paul Parey. 
Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbiicher. (Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaft- 
liche Landwirtschaft.) Edited by Dr. H. Thiel. Berlin 1910. 
1910. 

Publisher : Paul Parey. 
Landwirtschaftlicher Wanderunterricht im Konigreich Preus- 
temberg (Denkschrift). Issued by the Central Agricultural 
sen. 

Publisher : Georg Verza. Landsberg a.L. 
Die Landwirtschaft und die Landwirtschaftspfle.ae in Wiirt- 
temberg. (Denkschrift). Issued bv the Central Agricultural 
Office. Stuttgart 1908. (Part. 1. and 2.). 
Lehrplane fiir gemischte landliche Fortbildungsschulen, fiir 
allgemeine Fortbildungsschulen und fiir Arbeiterklassen 
grosserer Fortbildungsschulen, by Fritz Rosenkranz and 
C. Wittich. 

Publisher : Schulbuchhandlung F. G. L. Gressler, Langen- 
salza, 1910. 
Bulletin Mensuel des Renseignements Agricoles et des Ma- 
ladies des Plantes. 1911-1920. 

Published by the International Institute of Agriculture. 
Rome. 
Annuairc International de Legislation Agricole. 

Published by : The International Institute of Agriculture. 
Rome. 



— 408 — 



Great Britain 



England and Wales. 

Agricultural education in England and Wales is treated 
in this report under the heads : (1) Higher agricultural edu- 
cation : (2) Other specialised agricultural education : (3) 
Instruction in agriculture or rural subjects in schools for 
general education. 

With the exception of the last branch, which is not voca- 
tional training, agricultural education is under the general 
supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture, which exercises 
its authority, not through any power of direct control, but 
through the right to make grants from State funds. Both the 
higher institutions, most of which are attached to self govern- 
ing universities, and the other institutions for agricultural 
education, which are generally under the control of local 
authorities (County Councils), are to a large extent 
dependent upon these grants. 

The Ministry of Agriculture encourages and co-ordinates 
the work of the higher institutions, gives advice and assis- 
tance to the county authorities, fulfils directly a function of 
considerable educational importance by publishing pam- 
phlets and memoranda containing valuable information on 
all branches of agricultural activity and has also undertaken 
experimental work of its own, e.g. the farminp" of waste 
land(l). 

In the development of agricultural activity in general, and 
in agricultural education in particular, the necessity in which 
the country found itself during the war of increasing its food 
production, has acted as a great incentive. There has been 
a strong movement in favour of promoting scientific methods 
in agriculture. One result of this is seen in the greatly 
increased public expenditure on agricultural education. The 
Minister of Agriculture in a speech at Leicester on 16 Octo- 
ber 1920, stated that the amount then being spent on agricul- 
tural education out of public funds was eight times as great 
as before the war. At the outbreak of war, the aggregate 
annual expenditure under this head in the whole of the 
United Kingdom from public revenue was about £ 310,000 (2). 

The most recent special grant is the sum of one million 
pounds $850,000 for England and Wales, and $150,000 for 
Scotlaiul), provided by the Corn Production Acts (Repeal) 
Act 1921, for the purposes of the promotion of agricultural 
education and co-operation. 



(1) Journal ol" the Ministry of Education : May 1920, p. 122. 

(2) Report of the Agricultural Policv Sub-Conimittee ol" the Reconstruction Com- 
mittee, 1918; p. 5(1. 



— 409 — 

I. Hicin.H ACRicrr/rrjiAi. kducaiion 

A. Research Institutes. 

Funds have been allocated from the Development Fund for 
the purposes of aiding research in certain definite groups 
of subjects, the object aimed at beincf the concentration at 
one institution, or at institutions working in combination, 
of the scientific work in each group. Many of these institutes 
are at universities. The subjects which they respectively 
investigate are the following : Agricultural zoology, with 
special reference to helmintholog\'; fruit growing, including 
the practical treatment of ])lant diseases; animal nutrition; 
plant breeding; plant i)hysiology; economics of agriculture; 
dairying; plant nutrition and soil problems; j)lant pathology; 
animal pathologj^ 

Grants are also made in aid of research which is being 
conducted at certain other institutions in the following sub- 
jects : Plant breeding; animal breeding (poultry and rabl)its) ; 
bee investigations; fruit growing; glasshouse culture; pot 
culture and field experiments. 

A sum of money has also been allotted to provide assistance 
in respect of special investigations for which provision is not 
otherwise made. A number of such investigations are in 
progress at various institutions throughout the countrv. 

B. Universities or Agricultural Colleges providing a Course 
of Instruction extending in general over a period of 1-3 gears. 

(1) University Colleges : The universities which provide 
special agricultural courses are Bristol, Cambridge, Durham 
(at Armstrong College, Newcastle), Leeds, London, Oxford, 
Reading and Wales (at Aberystwyth and Bangor University 
Colleges). 

The courses leading to a degree last at least three years. 
There are also in several cases courses of shorter duration 
(diploma courses of one or two years) chiefly in single sub- 
jects, such as dairying, horticulture, poultry keeping, etc. 

The university courses in agriculture are open to women. 

(2) Agricultural Colleges. These are institutions devoted 
exclusively to agricultural education, which, though unable 
to gr«nt degrees, resemble in many respects the university 
agricultural faculties. They usually otter a choice of courses 
varj'ing in length from 1-3 years, to suit the needs of pupils 
w^ho cannot all devote an extended period to their agricultural 
education. At the end of the course, pupils usually take an 
examination either for a certificate granted by the college or 
for the National Diploma of Agriculture. 

Many of these colleges are open to women, and one, the 
college oft horticulture at Swanlcy, to women only. 



— 410 — 

Advisory Work of University Colleges and Agricultural 

Colleges. 

The « county organisers » (see below) deal in the first place 
with enquiries from farmers for information and advice. 
Questions of special difficulty, however, or such as demand 
special research, may be referred by the organisers to a 
higher institution appointed for this purpose. The counties 
are grouped into areas in each of which one university or 
agricultural college is selected for this advisory work (for 
which it receives a special grant). 



II. Other specialised agricultural education 

A. Work of the Local Authorities (County Agricultural 
Committees, etc.). 

The most important branch of agricultural education un- 
der this head is the work undertaken by the County Councils 
through their agricultural committees. The increasing im- 
portance attached to this work was marked by the inclusion 
in the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Act, 1920, of a 
provision making the appointment of such committees obli- 
gatory. 

(1) « Advisory » and other work of the « Agricultural Or- 
ganiser ». Most of the counties employ a paid official with 
special qualifications in agriculture, called an « agricultural 
organiser ». In 1918 out of about 60 administrative counties 
in England and Wales, 42 had appointed such officials. The 
organiser acts in an advisory capacity to any farmers who 
may wish to consult him, and is in constant touch with the 
Minister of Agriculture. In addition he is larselv respon- 
sible for the organisation of lectures and courses in agricul- 
tural and rural subjects, and generally takes an important 
part in this instruction himself. 

(2) Farm Schools and Winter Schools. One of the purposes 
for which the Treasury was empowered by the Development 
Act of 1909 to make advances, upon the recommendation of 
the Development Commissioners, was the provision of « farm 
institutes ». These farm institutes or farm schools provide ins- 
truction on a lower plane than the agricultural colleges, to 
young persons of either sex of 16 and upwards, in the various 
subjects of rural economy. There is usually a provision for 
adequate practical work on a farm attached to the institute. 
The institute is not meant, however, to provide a complete 
training in manual operations, but to awaken the student's 
intelligence, and supply him with information otherwise inac- 
cessible to him (1). 

(1) Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture : September 1921, p. 492# 



— 411 — 

About 10 counties have already set up a farm institute and 
schemes are in preparation in certain others. 

The course of instruction usually extends over two terms 
of about 12 weeks each, in the winter months, with in some 
cases, a third term in summer months for those who desire 
longer training. The institution covers such subjects as farm 
crops, live stock, agricultural and veterinary science, sur- 
veying, horticulture, etc. The institutes may be residential 
or not. Students from other counties are admitted, if there 
are vacancies, at somewhat higher fees. At the East Anglian 
Institute of Agriculture, Chelmsford, Essex, which is non- 
residential, the fees are for residents in the county; 2/6 per 
week; for students from contributing counties, £12 for 20 
weeks; for other students £1 per week. At the Somerset 
Farm Institute, which is residential, the fee for board, lod- 
ging and instruction is, for students from the countv, £1 per 
w^eek, and £1.10/ - ptr week for those from outside (1). 

There are special courses for female students in such sub- 
jects as cookery and laundry work, horticulture, poultry and 
bee keeping, cheese making, fruit preserving and canning, 
etc. These courses are usually held in the summer. There 
are two or three schools for women only. 

Scholarships are awarded at each institute to residents in 
the county it serves and in some counties scholarships are 
provided to enable the most promising students of the insti- 
tute to continue agricultural education at a higher institution. 

Winter schools. 

Part time schools, or courses providing a comprehensive 
scheme of instruction but limited to perhaps one day of the 
week for a number of weeks, usually in the winter months, 
are held by a number of Counties. As an example, mention 
may be made of the courses established in Derbyshire in 1921. 
Students met on one day a week for twelve weeks and paid a 
fee of £1. The sujects of istruction and the time devoted to 
each were as follows : 

Agriculture 6 lessons of 1 1/2 hours each 

Beekeeping 2 » ^) 1 1/2 « 

Dairy work 6 » (5 of 2 hours each, 

1 of 5 hours). 

Domestic Science 4 » > 2 >> 

Horticulture 4 > 1 1/2 » 

Poultry keeping 3 > » 

Veterinary Science 8 » » 1 1/2 » 

(3) Itinerant Courses. An important method of instruction 
consists in the itinerant work of the county organiser, or other 

1) Jd\n-nal of the Ministry of AgricultuiT : March 1920 : p. 11G;5. World Agri- 
culture : October l'J20 : p. 41. 



— 412 — 

person appointed by the County Council for the purpose. 
In any centre where there is reason to suppose that instruc- 
tion in any subject may prove welcome, a short series of 
lectures or classes may be organised. Instruction in poultry 
keeping is largely given by means of such migratory schools. 
Most County Councils now employ a poultry instructor, 
though in some cases the agricultural organiser acts in this 
capacity. Classes in poultry keeping combining theoretical 
and practical teaching usually last three to four weeks, after 
which the instructor moves on to a fresh centre. In this 
subject the instructor is often a woman. 

Co-operative cheese schools have been established with 
increasing frequency since 1916. A preliminary condition 
to the formation of a cheese school is that the milk producers 
of the district undertake to supply a fixed minimum quantity 
of milk per day, to accept payment for their milk on a strictly 
co-operative basis, calculated on the returns from the sale 
of cheese, and to appoint, under the direction of the head 
of the school, some approved person as manager. The school 
is generally continued for about two months. It is stated 
that these schools have shown very favourable financial 
results and have been able to pay out a very good price to 
the suppliers of milk. As a result of the work of such 
schools, 32 co-operative cheese making societies have been 
formed (1). 

Counties also employ whole or part time instruction in far- 
riery, veterinary science, woodwork, etc. 

(4) Evening Classes. Evening schools in agricultural dis- 
tricts, according to the report of the Agricultural Policy Sub- 
Committee, are not, generally speaking, a great success. This 
is ascribed to the scarcity of suitable teachers (owing to the 
poor prospects for teachers in rural schools, and their conse- 
quent unwillingness to accept training for these schools), 
the reluctance of most boys on leaving the day school to at- 
tend school at all until two or three sessions have passed, the 
indifference of parents and employers, and the tired con- 
dition of students after day's work in the open air. 

Evening schools in the towns usually include in the courses 
offered, a number of classes in subjects of rural economy, e.g. 
poultry keeping, bee keeping, gardening, in addition to dom- 
estic econom}^ wood work, nature study, drawing, etc. 

(5) Experimental WorA- hy the County Councils. Some 
county authorities carry out experiments on their own ac- 
count in questions of